• induces
  • The change in phenotype induces a decrease in the growth rate and leads the K562 cells to the terminal path of becoming mature erythroids, monocytes, and mature macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • TPA induces KSHV reactivation in PEL cell cultures via stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • K562 cells can spontaneously develop characteristics similar to early-stage erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes and are easily killed by natural killer cells as they lack the MHC complex required to inhibit NK activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the levels of these components are thrown off, they can either no longer inhibit apoptosis of the cancer cells, a role fulfilled by BCR/ABL, or they cause apoptosis to be induced, in the same vein as Bax and cytochrome C. These components are key in the mitochondria, and due to this, it has been supported that apoptosis uses the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Paraptosis-like phenotype has also been described in human colorectal cancer cells following overactivation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src suggesting potential involvement of Src-signalling in paraptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracts
  • after 48 h action of Sinopodophyllum emodi ethanol extracts in each treatment group on K562 cells, they produced very significant effects on cell cycle distribution. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The K562 cells were seeded in culture flasks at 5 × 10 4 cells/mL, and cultured at 37°C under 5% CO 2 for 14 h, then the medium was changed and different concentrations of Sinopodophyllum emodi ethanol extracts (concentration relative to the Sinopodophyllum emodi crude drug of 25, 50 and 100 g/L) were added, and the cells were drug treated for 48 h. (alliedacademies.org)
  • mediates
  • It is responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells and often mediates the development of resistance to anticancer drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • By fluorescence-activated cell sorting it was demonstrated that K562 cells took up the membrane-impermeant nuclear stain propidium iodide (PI) when exposed to non-lethal doses of perforin. (biochemj.org)
  • Analogies with non-lethal effects and recovery processes occurring in nucleated cells exposed to the membrane-attack complex of complement are drawn. (biochemj.org)
  • In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies which contain nuclear and or cytoplasmic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to apoptosis, staining techniques can be used to identify paraptotic cells by highlighting the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the plasma membrane cytoplasmic (inner) leaflet to the cell surface or outer leaflet. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • There are many different cellular components involved in the cycle of apoptosis such as, BCR/ABL, Bcl-2, Bax protein, and cytochrome C. The tumor suppressor gene p53 is also important in the cell cycle regulation of K562 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference in the rates of release of different forms of the protein could be explained by the re-endocytosis of the iron-rich protein, a process detected by the accelerated release of transferrin when the cells were washed in medium at pH 5.5 containing an iron-chelator or treated with a protease-containing medium to digest transferrin accessible at the cell surface. (biochemj.org)
  • While certain templates of programmed cell death have been known to rely on de novo protein synthesis, paraptotic cell death induced by IGFIR-IC in 293T cells is deterred by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, thus demonstrating a dependence on transcription and translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in comparison to apoptosis, in which the proapoptotic protein Bax induced caspase activation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • MicroRNA-223 is overexpressed in the T-lymphocytes cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients suggesting that its expression in this cell type could contribute to the etiology of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like apoptosis and other types of programmed cell death, the cell is involved in causing its own death, and gene expression is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • Paraptosis is a form of type III programmed cell death with a unique combination of certain apoptotic and necrotic characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • The group used human insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) to stimulate cell death in 293T cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, observing distinct differences from other forms of cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • A Comparison of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation by Rat Peritoneal Macrophages and Mast Cells Using the Highly Sensitive Real-Time Chemiluminescent Probe Pholasin: Inhibition of Antigen-Induced Mast Cell Degranulation by Macrophage-Derived Hydrogen Peroxide" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • The effect of iron on the exocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells was studied by first allowing the cells to endocytose apotransferrin or diferric transferrin. (biochemj.org)
  • VDAC2 in particular has demonstrated a protective effect in cells undergoing mitochondrial apoptosis, and may even confer protection during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some cancer cells also express large amounts of P-gp, further amplifying that effect and rendering these cancers multidrug resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • E2F1
  • Overexpression of E2F1 has been shown to be an oncogenic event that predisposes cells to transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, research found that caspase inhibitors (zVAD.fmk, p53, BAF), x-chromosome-linked inhibitor (xiap), and Bcl-xL( from the Bcl-2 family) did not prevent cell death in 293T cells when induced by IGFIR-IC. (wikipedia.org)
  • comparable
  • Instead, paraptosis displays a somewhat primitive cell death path, comparable to necrosis, including characteristic cytoplasmic vacuole formation and late mitochondrial swelling and clumping. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • TPA is also being studied as a drug in the treatment of hematologic cancer[citation needed] TPA has a specific use in cancer diagnostics as a B-cell specific mitogen in cytogenetic testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • Although a large burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to lead to cell damage, a moderate release of ROS from the mitochondria, which occurs during nonlethal short episodes of ischemia, can play a significant triggering role in the signal transduction pathways of ischemic preconditioning leading to reduction of cell damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in which it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • The most defining difference observed (as of April 2014) between paraptosis and autophagic cell death (cell death type 2) is paraptosis' lack of the characteristic autophagic vacuoles seen in autophagic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • aspirating their media before fixation would result in the loss of too many cells. (bio.net)
  • structural
  • Almost immediately, major structural rearrangements such as rounded cells, cytoplasmic reorganization, and vacuolation of cells undergoing paraptosis can be seen through light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)