• Vitro
  • In vitro, we have previously shown that deleterious effects of prolonged exposure of isolated islets to FAs were dependent on the presence of elevated glucose concentration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • During the progress of the research while analyzing the data a novel methodology for predicting in vivo islet graft function from a simple in vitro evaluation emerged. (uwo.ca)
  • Taken together these studies highlight data which demonstrate the efficacy of a rapid, simple, inexpensive in vitro test which predicts subsequent in vivo islet function, as exemplified and validated in a variety of transplant studies. (uwo.ca)
  • In 1967, Lacy's group described a novel collagenase-based method (later modified by Dr. Camillo Ricordi, then working with Dr. Lacy) to isolate islets, paving the way for future in vitro and in vivo islet experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor islets
  • To this aim, gene transfer to isolated donor islets ex vivo is one method that has shown promise. (hindawi.com)
  • These genes, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist protein (IRAP), were transferred to isolated NOD donor islets ex vivo then transplanted to NOD scid recipients and evaluated in vivo after diabetogenic T-cell challenge. (hindawi.com)
  • vivo
  • Because whether this is caused by insufficient vascularization or graft rejection is unknown, angiogenesis and microvascularization of islet grafts were studied in vivo by means of intravital microscopy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vivo, chronic hyperlipidemia has been proposed as the major deleterious factor in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats ( 2 ), via a mechanism involving increased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in islets ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diabetes
  • It is a major reference book, the first of its kind, for islet researchers, and diabetes researchers. (springer.com)
  • Anybody, including the experts, and the beginners, interested in the study of islet physiology, and diabetes, will find this book extremely useful. (springer.com)
  • The initial aim of this graduate work was to study existing pre-transplant assays of islet function and to critically examine which if any are of value in predicting post-transplant reversal of diabetes. (uwo.ca)
  • IAPP aggregates and induces the depletion of islet beta-cells in type 2 diabetes and in islets transplanted into type 1 diabetic subjects. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the period from 1999 to 2004, 471 patients with type 1 diabetes have received islet transplants at 43 institutions worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies showed that transplanted islets could reverse diabetes in both rodents and non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first successful trial of human islet allotransplantation resulting in long-term reversal of diabetes was performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of pancreatic macrophages were later shown to play an important role in type 2 diabetes as well, by contributing to islet inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the possible supportive role within the islet, these specialized macrophages are also required for the initiation of the adaptive immune response during type 1 diabetes (T1D) in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Subsequent studies using NOD recipient mice as a model for IDDM showed that recurrent autoimmune disease was seen in foetal islet isografts but rapid rejection of allografts and foetal pig xenografts also occurred. (bl.uk)
  • Once activated, T-cells stimulate the adaptive immune system, which leads to the destruction of pancreatic islets due to an autoimmune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • grafts
  • Although the results of these cotransfections gave little evidence of a synergistic relationship, they were useful to show that gene combinations can be used to more efficiently protect islet grafts from diabetogenic T cells. (hindawi.com)
  • allograft
  • In addition herein, we describe the processes involved in translating these initial results performed in athymic mice, to clinically more relevant large animal studies through the development and subsequent testing of the methodology in porcine islet auto- and allograft transplant models. (uwo.ca)
  • glucose oxidation
  • High-fat feeding did not affect triglyceride (TG) content or the rate of glucose oxidation in islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indeed, several other potential mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in glucose oxidation ( 7 ) and, more recently, modulation of expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 in islets ( 13 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To elucidate the mechanisms whereby high-fat diet impairs β-cell function in GK rats, we ascertained whether accumulation of TG, changes in glucose oxidation, or modulation of UCP-2 levels in islets are involved. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of islet glucose oxidation appears to be mediated by nitric oxide since both NMMA and cycloheximide prevent IL-1 beta-induced inhibition of glucose oxidation. (biochemj.org)
  • Isolation
  • Such an assay would also prove to be a valuable tool in the experimental evaluation of innovative islet isolation strategies and technologies. (uwo.ca)
  • In all cases this OCR/II index proved to have a significantly greater predictive capacity of the ability of a given islet isolation to restore glucose control compared to other pre-transplant assays currently in use. (uwo.ca)
  • amyloid
  • In this review, we discuss two lesser known but common localized amyloid fibril-forming proteins: the polypeptide hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and the lactadherin-derived peptide medin. (diva-portal.org)
  • secretory
  • A partially purified secretory granule fraction, isolated from rat islets of Langerhans by differential centrifugation, was used for investigating the stability of the beta granules during incubation in various conditions. (rupress.org)
  • endocrine
  • Islet resident macrophages are uniquely found within the endocrine tissue (islet), while nearby in the nearby acinar tissue, macrophages express a different repertoire of CD (cluster of differentiation) markers and come from a different developmental origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Foetal islets are functionally immature but retain their capacity for proliferation if harvested and cultured in an appropriate manner. (bl.uk)
  • induces
  • Iron-nitrosyl complex-formation by islets confirms that IL-1 beta induces the generation of nitric oxide by islets, and provides evidence indicating that nitric oxide mediates destruction of iron-sulphur clusters of iron-containing enzymes. (biochemj.org)
  • protein
  • It was, however, accompanied by a twofold increase in uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 levels in GK rat islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • cGMP formation and nitrite production induced by IL-1 beta pretreatment of islets are also blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. (biochemj.org)
  • By using e.p.r. spectroscopy, IL-1 beta is shown to induce the formation of a g = 2.04 iron-nitrosyl feature in islets which is prevented by cycloheximide, demonstrating the requirement of protein synthesis for IL-1 beta-induced nitric oxide formation. (biochemj.org)
  • The encoded protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • PMCA isoform- and subtype-specific mRNA expression was investigated in rodent pancreatic α- and β-cell lines, and in human and rat islets of Langerhans using reverse-transcription PCR with primers flanking the calmodulin-binding region of rat PMCA. (biochemj.org)
  • The expression pattern of PMCA 1 and 2 was conserved in different species and islet-cell types since both rat and human islets of Langerhans and all cell lines tested contained the 1b and 2b forms. (biochemj.org)
  • destruction
  • Consistent with the destruction of iron-sulphur centres is the finding that pretreatment of islets with IL-1 beta results in an approx. (biochemj.org)
  • function
  • The content of this thesis describes the evolution of this methodology from validating pre-existing rodent transplant models, to the discovery of this unique technique for predicting (porcine) islet function post-transplant. (uwo.ca)
  • tissue
  • Isolated islets are then separated from the exocrine tissue and debris in a process called purification. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • This book contains critical background information, and recent advances made in essentially all areas of islet research. (springer.com)