• thick asce
  • As the thick ascending limb is impermeable to water, the interstitium becomes concentrated with ions, increasing the osmolarity. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • Loop diuretics such as Furosemide can be used to treat hypertension by inhibiting the NKCC2 transporter in the thick ascending limb and increase excretion of sodium and chloride ions in urine. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • Proper function of all of these transporters is necessary for normal ion reabsorption along the thick ascending limb, and loss of any component can result in functional inactivation of the system as a whole and lead to the presentation of Bartter syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively-permeable
  • The epithelial sodium channel (short: ENaC, also: amiloride-sensitive sodium channel) is a membrane-bound ion channel that is selectively permeable to Na+ ions and that is assembled as a heterotrimer composed of three homologous subunits α or δ, β, and γ, These subunits are encoded by four genes: SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, and SCNN1D. (wikipedia.org)
  • ducts
  • The major function of ENaC in these ducts is the re-uptake of Na⁺ ions that are excreted in sweat. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron
  • Cl− ions will enter the neuron causing hyperpolarization and inhibition of signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • During brain development however, GABAA activation will allow Cl− ions to leave the neuron causing the neuron to depolarize. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes initial depolarisation of the osmoreceptor and activates voltage-gated sodium channel, which through a complex conformational change, allows more sodium ions to enter the neuron, leading to further depolarisation and an action potential to be generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The stoichiometry of these subunits is still to be verified, but ENaC is very likely to be a heterotrimeric protein like the recently analyzed acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1), which belongs to the same family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calcium ions binds to the synaptotagmin 1 sub-unit of the SNARE protein attached to the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) containing vesicle membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Embedded into the cell membrane are stretch inactivated cation channels (SICs), which when the cell shrinks in size, open and allow positively charged ions, such as Na+ and K+ ions to enter the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water
  • NKCC1/2 will promote the influx of Na+, K+, and Cl− ions into the cell thereby causing the flow of water into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cotransporter will promote the efflux of K+ and Cl− ions and cause the flow of water out of the cell to combat swelling. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The luminal surface of the epithelial cells of this segment of the nephron is covered with densely packed microvilli forming a border readily visible under the light microscope giving the brush border cell its name. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow
  • The macula densa's position enables it to rapidly alter afferent arteriolar resistance in response to changes in the flow rate through the distal nephron. (wikipedia.org)
  • channel
  • GABA activates the GABAA receptor which is a Cl− ion channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that it may be a ligand-gated ion channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies show that the ENaC channel is permeable to Na+ and Li+ ions, but has very little permeability to K+, Cs+ or Rb+ ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structure of ASIC1 and site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that ENaC has a central ion channel located along the central symmetry axis in between the three subunits. (wikipedia.org)