• organisms
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also describe a complex set of genes encoding enzymes that can break down proteins and other molecules, perhaps reflecting the range of organisms with which B. xylophilus interacts during its life cycle. (plos.org)
  • In eukaryotic organisms, there is a paradox observed, namely that the number of genes that make up the genome does not correlate with genome size. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the LUCA of all organisms living on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This should not be confused with the more general way in which "GMO" is used to classify genetically altered organisms, as typically GMOs are organisms whose genetic makeup has been altered without the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of selective breeding, in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various advancements in genetics allowed humans to directly alter the DNA and therefore genes of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotes
  • The non-coding portions of the gene, known as introns, which are largely not present in prokaryotes, are removed by RNA splicing before translation of the protein can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • transposons
  • There are at least two classes of TEs: Class I TEs or retrotransposons generally function via reverse transcription, while Class II TEs or DNA transposons encode the protein transposase, which they require for insertion and excision, and some of these TEs also encode other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • This review considers strategies for interfering with Plasmodium development in the mosquito, together with issues related to the transfer of laboratory-acquired knowledge to the field, such as minimization of transgene fitness load to the mosquito, driving genes through populations, avoiding the selection of resistant strains, and how to produce and release populations of males only. (biologists.org)
  • These resistant strains may or may not possess the mecA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • These methods have resulted in novel perspectives on genetic relationships that previously have only been estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. (frontiersin.org)
  • May we not feel that in the virus, in their merging with the cellular genome and their re-emerging from them, we observe processes which, in the course of evolution, have created the succesful genetic patterns that underlie all living things? (panspermia.org)
  • Transient Hypermutagenesis Accelerates the Evolution of Legume Endosymbionts following Horizontal Gene Transfer" [ html ], doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001942, 12(9): e1001942, PLoS Biol , 2 Sep 2014. (panspermia.org)
  • In the last 2 decades, PCR- and sequence-based techniques, particularly whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have significantly furthered our knowledge of the genetic diversity, evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenicity of this once enigmatic pathogen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. (plos.org)
  • processes
  • Cosmic Ancestry holds that these processes cannot write useful new genes. (panspermia.org)
  • We will discuss well-known processes which can install new genes into the genome of a given species. (panspermia.org)
  • We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. (plos.org)
  • cell's
  • When one of them infects a new cell, it inserts the stolen DNA into the new cell, where the stolen piece becomes integrated into the new cell's DNA. (panspermia.org)
  • sequence
  • Molecular techniques such as PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) also offer the advantage of being both culture independent and gene expression independent since they are based solely on the specific detection of a given nucleotide sequence ( 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Conclusions: We present the full genome sequence of Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423, providing a complete genetic background of this strain. (deepdyve.com)
  • Recently, the development of large insert libraries in species such as maize, rice, barley and diploid wheat has allowed the study of large stretches of DNA sequence and has provided insight into gene organization in grasses. (jove.com)
  • different species
  • Using this gene to highlight beak diversity, along with whole genome sequencing of 120 individuals from the different islands, the researchers concluded that individual finches of different species had more similar beak shapes and sizes with birds inhabiting the same islands, and thus feeding from the same sources of food, than with birds of the same species that lived on different islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. (plos.org)
  • regulatory
  • A number of the regulatory genes are differentially expressed in parasitised H. asinina, but in only a few cases do expression patterns in infected animals match those occurring in animals where reproduction is normally repressed. (jove.com)
  • recombinant
  • In 1972 Paul Berg created the first recombinant DNA molecule when he combined DNA from a monkey virus with that of the lambda virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • pseudogenes
  • in which Mycobacterium leprae was discovered to have a significantly higher percentage of pseudogenes to functional genes (~40%) than its free-living ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. leprae has lost many once-functional genes over time due to the formation of pseudogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters
  • Clustering analysis allowed us to detect some key gene clusters involved in the main life cycle steps (acidogenesis, solvantogenesis and sporulation) and differentially regulated among the fermentation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Variation
  • 2.2.3 Variation due to larger-scale DNA alterations. (nhbs.com)
  • Recently, experiments have indicated that HGT might be more responsible for more genetic variation than simple accumulation of mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism). (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • For example, after conversion of retroviral RNA into DNA inside a host cell, the newly produced retroviral DNA is integrated into the genome of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alters Gene Expression in the Brain of the Host Mollusc Haliotis Asinina FEBS Letters. (jove.com)
  • This is known to occur by altering the expression of a range of host neuropeptide genes. (jove.com)
  • M. leprae lives and replicates inside of a host and due to this arrangement it does not have a need for many of the genes it once carried which allowed it to live and prosper outside the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the intended host with a very small syringe. (wikipedia.org)