• decades
  • Description of the Condition Social Health Insurance Schemes Over the past decades many LMIC have found it increasingly difficult to sustain sufficient financing for health care particularly for the poor and as such international policy makers have been active in recommending a range of suitable measures including conditional cash transferscost sharing arrangements and a variety of health insurance schemes including social health insurance (Lagarde 2009, Ekman 2004). (docplayer.net)
  • High visibility issues include greater use of the Internet, such as massive open online courses, competency-based education, sexual assault, cutbacks in state and local spending, rapidly rising tuition and increasing student loan debt According to the National Student Clearinghouse, US college enrollment has declined for five consecutive years and is projected to continue declining for the next two decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • Selection criteria Randomised trials comparing health checks with no health checks in adult populations unselected for disease or risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • The course will build on classic and state-of-the-art papers which focus in depth on various topics such as selection of appropriate measure of excess risk and intermediate endpoints (theory and practice). (bu.edu)
  • A study of 59 countries found lack of health insurance as one of the main factors engendering health expenditure at a level that can be thought of as catastrophic, up to nearly 40% of all household expenditure, and recommended the provision of some form of financial risk protection (Xu 2003). (docplayer.net)
  • The need for large one time or even large life time health expenditure can be prevented if health insurance successfully spreads risk across time and people. (docplayer.net)
  • Financial risk is often defined as the unpredictable variability or volatility of returns, and this would include both potential better-than-expected and worse-than-expected returns. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • These effects include widespread spasms of the muscle in the airways (bronchospasm), disturbance of cell energy production via the Krebs cycle, as well as disturbance of numerous vital homeostatic chemical reactions in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two out of four trials found small beneficial effects on self reported health, which could be due to bias. (bmj.com)
  • Objectives To evaluate the effects of a government insurance program covering tertiary care for people below the poverty line in Karnataka, India, on out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Specific concerns include mixing of genetically modified and non-genetically modified products in the food supply, effects of GMOs on the environment, the rigor of the regulatory process, and consolidation of control of the food supply in companies that make and sell GMOs. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Because of the county-specific nature of the framework and the bidding process leading to these differences, the same insurance company might offer the same benefits under the same brandname in adjacent counties at different prices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific perceptions include a view of genetic engineering as meddling with naturally evolved biological processes, and one that science has limitations on its comprehension of potential negative ramifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • The criminal offense may not involve actual driving of the vehicle, but rather may broadly include being physically in control of a car while intoxicated even if the person charged is not driving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods are presented for the assessment and control of confounding, misclassification bias, and selection bias. (bu.edu)
  • research
  • We thank our research nurses L. Yrj nheikki, M. Soukkanen, and M. Aalto and all the health care workers who participated in recruiting study subjects at the Tampere University Hospital, health care centers, private practices, and the National Social Insurance Institution of Finland. (mold-survivor.com)
  • Research from the field of behavioral economics has shown that individuals tend to be subject to predictable biases that may lead to decision errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some clinical trials produce positive results, multiple systematic reviews have indicated that this is because of chance, flawed research methods, and reporting bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • errors
  • Many of these errors are classified as random (noise) or systematic (bias), but other types of errors (e.g., blunder, such as when an analyst reports incorrect units) can also be important. (wikipedia.org)
  • General
  • 1 2 In the UK, the publicly funded NHS Health Check programme was introduced in 2009, and in Denmark an organised health check programme for the general public has been suggested, but now seems abandoned. (bmj.com)
  • Environmental groups such as Friends of the Earth,[non-primary source needed] include genetic engineering in general as an environmental and political concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • social insurance
  • 2 3 To meet the need for tertiary care while providing financial security to people with low incomes, several states in India have rolled out social insurance programs that provide free tertiary care to households below the poverty line. (bmj.com)
  • credit
  • Over time, microfinance has emerged as a larger movement whose object is "a world in which as everyone, especially the poor and socially marginalized people and households have access to a wide range of affordable, high quality financial products and services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, payment services, and fund transfers. (wikipedia.org)
  • random
  • Measures of evaluation include the severity of the penalty for early losses, the average number of games played (and played by the winner), the probability that the best team wins, the average quality of the winner, and the standard deviations of the latter two quantities under random seeding. (appliedprobability.org)
  • An unbiased Markov random walk with catastrophes, in continuous time, was introduced by Switkes (2004), who ascertained the transient and equilibrium behaviour of the walk, and proposed several open problems for this and related processes. (appliedprobability.org)
  • improve
  • These interventions are often justified by the fact that well-designed choice architectures can compensate for irrational decision-making biases to improve consumer welfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge
  • It thus tries to assure that a clinician's opinion, which may be limited by knowledge gaps or biases, is supplemented with all available knowledge from the scientific literature so that best practice can be determined and applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • The Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which formalized the demonstration programs into Part C of Medicare, introduced the term Medicare+Choice as a pseudo-brand for this option and the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 renamed +Choice "Medicare Advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • bill
  • The text of the bill below is as of Feb 12, 2007 (Introduced). (govtrack.us)
  • H.R. 3250, a bill to reward Congressional Gold Medal to the Sioux, Comanche, and Choctaw Code Talkers of the first and second world wars, introduced November 7, 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • H.R. 3920, a bill to monitor the population of black-tailed prairie dogs, introduced March 7, 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • H.R. 5603, a bill to remove any tax-exempt statuses of any organization designated by the federal government to be a terrorist group, introduced October 16, 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • presence
  • According to the fifth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), DID symptoms include "the presence of two or more distinct personality states" accompanied by the inability to recall personal information, beyond what is expected through normal forgetfulness. (wikipedia.org)
  • focus
  • A focus on social health insurance schemes has been gaining strength. (docplayer.net)
  • This began an enduring concern over the purity and later "naturalness" of food that evolved from a single focus on sanitation to include others on added ingredients such as preservatives, flavors and sweeteners, residues such as pesticides, the rise of organic food as a category and, finally, concerns over GM food. (wikipedia.org)
  • private
  • A Medicare Advantage beneficiary must first sign up for both Part A and Part B of Medicare but all three of these Parts, A, B and C, are administered by private insurance companies (usually the same insurance company). (wikipedia.org)
  • greater
  • This is because the greater the number of choices, the greater the likelihood that the choice set will include the optimal choice for any given consumer. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Examples of choice set structuring include: the number of alternatives, decision aids, defaults, and choice over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • While many behavioral scientists stress that there is no neutral choice architecture and that consumers maintain autonomy and freedom of choice despite manipulations of choice architecture, critics of libertarian paternalism often argue that choice architectures designed to overcome irrational decision biases may impose costs on rational agents, for example by limiting choice or undermining respect for individual human agency and moral autonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • plans
  • Other managed Medicare plans include COST plans (which are not capitated), dual-eligible (Medicare/Medicaid) plans, and PACE plans (which try to keep seniors that need custodial care in their homes). (wikipedia.org)
  • A rebate cannot contribute to "profit" ("profit" is in quotes because most Medicare Advantage plans are administered by non-profit insurance companies). (wikipedia.org)
  • variable
  • Insurance: A situation where the probability of a variable (such as burning down of a building) is known but when a mode of occurrence or the actual value of the occurrence (whether the fire will occur at a particular property) is not. (wikipedia.org)
  • below
  • Intervention A government insurance program (Vajpayee Arogyashree scheme) that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in about half of villages in Karnataka from February 2010 to August 2012. (bmj.com)