• amino acid
  • Amino acids link to one another by peptide bonds which form through a dehydration reaction that joins the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amine group of the next in a head-to-tail manner to form a polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the start codon of the genetic code codes for the amino acid methionine, most protein sequences start with a methionine (or, in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, the modified version N-formylmethionine, fMet). (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal amino acid of a protein is an important determinant of its half-life (likelihood of being degraded). (wikipedia.org)
  • PPIA is an 18 kDa, 165-amino acid long cytosolic protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • Experimentation has proposed that the MAPK module MEKK1-MKK4/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6 may be responsible for flg22 signal transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • MEKK1 interact with WRKY53, which is responsible for mekk1 genes set, and alter the activity of WRKY53 that is a short portion of MAPK signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • Protein malnutrition, such as that seen in kwashiorkor, results in a lack of precursor apoproteins within the cell, therefore unused lipids which would normally participate in lipoprotein synthesis begin to accumulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • SH2 domains typically bind a phosphorylated tyrosine residue in the context of a longer peptide motif within a target protein, and SH2 domains represent the largest class of known pTyr-recognition domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The results of such studies are the following: In most cases the mutation in the NF II gene causes shortened peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelin 2, also known as ET-2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EDN2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome 8 open reading frame 46 (C8orf46) is a protein coding gene, which in humans is located along the forward strand of chromosome 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport and golgi organization 2 homolog (TANGO2) also known as chromosome 22 open reading frame 25 (C22orf25) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TANGO2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • When cAMP binds, the domain dissociates and exposes the now-active GEF domain, allowing Epac to activate small Ras-like GTPase proteins, such as Rap1. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • In the insulin synthesis pathway, first preproinsulin is translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells of the pancreas with an A-chain, a C-peptide, a B-chain, and a signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proinsulin C-peptide was first described in 1967 in connection with the discovery of the insulin biosynthesis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each component (or node) of a signaling pathway is classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that was named after its first member, TGF-β1, originally described in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • As a member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family, this protein catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds, which allows it to regulate many biological processes, including intracellular signaling, transcription, inflammation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:protein phosphotransferase (non-specific). (wikipedia.org)
  • These were formerly included in EC number "2.7.1.37", which was a general EC number for any enzyme that phosphorylates proteins while converting ATP to ADP (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The breakdown of large amounts of ethanol in alcoholic drinks produces large amounts of chemical energy, in the form of NADH, signalling to the cell to inhibit the breakdown of fatty acids (which also produces energy) and simultaneously increase the synthesis of fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiency
  • Discoveries at OMRF led to Xigris, the first FDA-approved drug for the treatment of severe sepsis, and Ceprotin, a therapy for people suffering from a rare and life-threatening blood disorder known as protein C deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • PPIA may also activate Akt and NF-κB signaling, resulting in the upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, and thus preventing apoptosis in ECs in response to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • In particular, PPIA is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell, where it partakes in intracellular signaling, protein transport, and transcription regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • During the past decade, however, C-peptide has been found to be a bioactive peptide in its own right, with effects on microvascular blood flow and tissue health. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • Measuring C-peptide can help to determine how much of their own natural insulin a person is producing as C-peptide is secreted in equimolar amounts to insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • The risk factors associated with steatosis are varied, and include diabetes mellitus, protein malnutrition, hypertension cell toxins, obesity, anoxia and sleep apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • In diabetes and other diseases a measurement of C-peptide blood serum levels can be used to distinguish between certain diseases with similar clinical features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, the sole interest in C-peptide was as a marker of insulin secretion and has, as such, been of great value in furthering the understanding of the pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo studies in animal models of type 1 diabetes have established that C-peptide administration results in significant improvements in nerve and kidney function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, in animals with early signs of diabetes-induced neuropathy, C peptide treatment in replacement dosage results in improved peripheral nerve function, as evidenced by increased nerve conduction velocity, increased nerve Na+,K+ ATPase activity, and significant amelioration of nerve structural changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ii Patients with diabetes may have their C-peptide levels measured as a means of distinguishing type 1 diabetes from type 2 diabetes or Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). (wikipedia.org)
  • A very low C-peptide confirms Type 1 diabetes and insulin dependence and is associated with high glucose variability, hyperglycaemia and increased complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Errors in signaling interactions and cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • C-peptide levels are measured instead of insulin levels because C-peptide can assess a person's own insulin secretion even if they receive insulin injections, and because the liver metabolizes a large and variable amount of insulin secreted into the portal vein but does not metabolise C-peptide, meaning blood C-peptide may be a better measure of portal insulin secretion than insulin itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • This domain is found among distantly related species from the six kingdoms: Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia and is known to be involved in Golgi organization and protein secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • These signals are transmitted along cell membranes via protein or lipid components integral to the membrane and are capable of affecting either the emitting cell or cells immediately adjacent. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • The nature of such stimuli can vary widely, ranging from extracellular cues, such as the presence of EGF, to intracellular events, such as the DNA damage resulting from replicative telomere attrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Loss of function mutations occurring in chromosome 22q, where Merlin proteins are coded, can promote tumorigenesis, or the creation of new tumorous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • Phosphoproteomics is a branch of proteomics that identifies, catalogs, and characterizes proteins containing a phosphate group as a post-translational modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylation
  • Modifications include the removal of initiator methionine (iMet) by aminopeptidases, attachment of small chemical groups such as acetyl, propionyl and methyl, and the addition of membrane anchors, such as palmitoyl and myristoyl groups N-terminal acetylation N-terminal acetylation is a form of protein modification that can occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • MPK3 and MPK6 are very similar proteins and have a function as regulators in abscission, stomatal development, signaling various abiotic stresses, and defense responses to certain pathogens. (wikipedia.org)