• receptor
  • A G protein-coupled receptor at work: the rhodopsin model," Trends in Biochemical Sciences , vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 540-552, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • A. V. Smrcka, "G protein βγ subunits: central mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling," Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences , vol. 65, no. 14, pp. 2191-2214, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • G. Munch, C. Dees, M. Hekman, and D. Palm, "Multisite contacts involved in coupling of the β -adrenergic receptor with the stimulatory guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory protein: structural and functional studies by β -receptor-site-specific synthetic peptides," European Journal of Biochemistry , vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 357-364, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • B. Konig and M. Gratzel, "Site of dopamine D 1 receptor binding to G s protein mapped with synthetic peptides," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta , vol. 1223, no. 2, pp. 261-266, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • T. Voss, E. Wallner, A. P. Czernilofsky, and M. Freissmuth, "Amphipathic α -helical structure does not predict the ability of receptor-derived synthetic peptides to interact with guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 268, no. 7, pp. 4637-4642, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • M. Kubota and K. Wakamatsu, "Peptide fragment of the m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activates G q but not G i2 ," Journal of Peptide Science , vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 998-1002, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we describe that in control condition (CC), i.e. following 2 hours of natural sleep in the morning, the α(2)-adrenergic receptor (α(2)-AR) agonist, clonidine, had no effect on hcrt/orx neurons, whereas following 2 hours of SD (SDC), it hyperpolarized the neurons by activating G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This process constitutes the fundamental event of signal transduction through a membrane, in which a signal in the extracellular compartment is "sensed" by a receptor and is converted in the intracellular compartment to a different chemical form, i.e. that of a phosphorylated tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • HMG box-containing protein 1, repressive glucocorticoid receptor, cAMP-responsive binding protein and Homeo domain factor Pbx-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-peptide has been shown to bind to the surface of a number of cell types such as neuronal, endothelial, fibroblast and renal tubular, at nanomolar concentrations to a receptor that is likely G-protein-coupled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) also called CAP (catabolite gene activator protein) forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal sensing) in a receptor give rise to a signaling cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of a signaling molecule with a receptor causes a change in the conformation of the receptor, known as receptor activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Like cowden syndrome, patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease often have mutations in enzymes involved in the Akt/PKB signaling pathway , which plays a role in cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, this gene is down-regulated during transformation of normal myoblasts to rhabdomyosarcoma cells and the encoded protein may function as a link between presenilin-2 and an intracellular signaling pathway. (cancerindex.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the SMAD pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation through transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB). (cancerindex.org)
  • The Hippo signaling pathway is rapidly gaining recognition as an important player in organ size control and tumorgenesis. (worldcat.org)
  • With the multitude of signaling events mediated by the Hippo pathway and the vastly different functions that it plays, it is evident that these tumor suppressors are unique governors of cellular homeostasis. (worldcat.org)
  • This timely volume gathers wide-ranging and burgeoning information on the Hippo pathway and its role in cancer into an accessible format of a single book.With the multitude of signaling events mediated by the Hippo pathway and the vastly different functions that it plays, it is evident that these tumor suppressors are unique governors of cellular homeostasis. (worldcat.org)
  • Thus, conventional and novel PKCs are activated through the same signal transduction pathway as phospholipase C. On the other hand, atypical (a)PKCs (including protein kinase Mζ and ι / λ isoforms) require neither Ca2+ nor diacylglycerol for activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal signal peptide is recognized by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and results in the targeting of the protein to the secretory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that N-terminal acetylation can prevent a protein from following a secretory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the insulin synthesis pathway, first preproinsulin is translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells of the pancreas with an A-chain, a C-peptide, a B-chain, and a signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proinsulin C-peptide was first described in 1967 in connection with the discovery of the insulin biosynthesis pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • cAMP is a derivative of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms, conveying the cAMP-dependent pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each component (or node) of a signaling pathway is classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • Experimentation has proposed that the MAPK module MEKK1-MKK4/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6 may be responsible for flg22 signal transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists are not certain if MAPK cascades are responsible for the signaling, so further investigation is needed for this. (wikipedia.org)
  • MEKK1 interact with WRKY53, which is responsible for mekk1 genes set, and alter the activity of WRKY53 that is a short portion of MAPK signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiency
  • Discoveries at OMRF led to Xigris, the first FDA-approved drug for the treatment of severe sepsis, and Ceprotin, a therapy for people suffering from a rare and life-threatening blood disorder known as protein C deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • The protein of C8orf46 does contain a domain of unknown function (DUF4648) and is a part of the SH3 domain family, which is known to bind to proline-rich ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • The homeodomain transcription factor Six1 and its modulator, the protein phosphatase Eya1, cooperate to promote cell differentiation and survival during mouse organ development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family, this protein catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds, which allows it to regulate many biological processes, including intracellular signaling, transcription, inflammation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, PPIA is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell, where it partakes in intracellular signaling, protein transport, and transcription regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • S. R. Sprang, Z. Chen, and X. Du, "Structural basis of effector regulation and signal termination in heterotrimeric G α proteins," Advances in Protein Chemistry , vol. 74, pp. 1-65, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Messenger RNA
  • This correlates the translation direction to the text direction (because when a protein is translated from messenger RNA, it is created from N-terminus to C-terminus - amino acids are added to the carbonyl end). (wikipedia.org)
  • When a protein is translated from messenger RNA, it is created from N-terminus to C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Here, we report that the DNA and p53-binding protein ATDC/TRIM29, which is highly expressed in PDAC, plays a critical role in DNA damage signaling and radioresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • Eya1 is required for lineage-specific differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells, but not for their survival, thereby uncoupling the differentiation-promoting and anti-apoptotic effects of Eya proteins seen in other tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, these proteins are synthesized at the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotic cells, the proteins are exported across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In SILAC, cells are cultured separately in the presence of different isotopically labeled amino acids for several cell divisions allowing cellular proteins to incorporate the label. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equimolar amounts of C-peptide and insulin are then stored in secretory granules of the pancreatic beta cells and both are eventually released to the portal circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-peptide also has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects as well as aid repair of smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring into cells the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • W. J. Phillips and R. A. Cerione, "A C-terminal peptide of bovine rhodopsin binds to the transducin α -subunit and facilitates its activation," Biochemical Journal , vol. 299, no. 2, pp. 351-357, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • In the absence of ligand, the encoded protein binds to the promoter region of TGFB-responsive genes and recruits a nuclear repressor complex. (cancerindex.org)
  • Its active site is a hydrophobic pocket that binds peptides containing proline. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, cAMP binds to and regulates the function of ion channels such as the HCN channels and a few other cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins such as Epac1 and RAPGEF2. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cAMP binds, the domain dissociates and exposes the now-active GEF domain, allowing Epac to activate small Ras-like GTPase proteins, such as Rap1. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The connecting peptide, or C-peptide, is a short 31-amino-acid polypeptide that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • After proinsulin is packaged into vesicles in the Golgi apparatus (beta-granules), the C-peptide is removed, leaving the A-chain B-chain, bound together by disulfide bonds, that constitute the insulin molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal can be amplified (a concept known as signal gain), so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acid
  • Amino acids link to one another by peptide bonds which form through a dehydration reaction that joins the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amine group of the next in a head-to-tail manner to form a polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the start codon of the genetic code codes for the amino acid methionine, most protein sequences start with a methionine (or, in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, the modified version N-formylmethionine, fMet). (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal amino acid of a protein is an important determinant of its half-life (likelihood of being degraded). (wikipedia.org)
  • PPIA is an 18 kDa, 165-amino acid long cytosolic protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • Mutated p53 proteins are typically more stable than wild-type, and can inhibit the activity of the wild-type protein in suppressing cell proliferation and in inducing cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the mechanisms by which Gadd45 proteins inhibit cell cycle control are not fully understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The breakdown of large amounts of ethanol in alcoholic drinks produces large amounts of chemical energy, in the form of NADH, signalling to the cell to inhibit the breakdown of fatty acids (which also produces energy) and simultaneously increase the synthesis of fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulators
  • MPK3 and MPK6 are very similar proteins and have a function as regulators in abscission, stomatal development, signaling various abiotic stresses, and defense responses to certain pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that was named after its first member, TGF-β1, originally described in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PPIA may also activate Akt and NF-κB signaling, resulting in the upregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, and thus preventing apoptosis in ECs in response to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • GPCR
  • This structure allows pepducin lipopeptides to anchor in the cell membrane lipid bilayer and target the GPCR/G protein interface via a unique intracellular allosteric mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • Modifications include the removal of initiator methionine (iMet) by aminopeptidases, attachment of small chemical groups such as acetyl, propionyl and methyl, and the addition of membrane anchors, such as palmitoyl and myristoyl groups N-terminal acetylation N-terminal acetylation is a form of protein modification that can occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)