• mucosa
  • and the xanthophyll beta-cryptoxanthin (all of which contain beta-ionone rings), but no other carotenoids, function as provitamin A in herbivores and omnivore animals, which possess the enzyme beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase which cleaves beta-carotene in the intestinal mucosa and converts it to retinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • jejunum
  • The jejunum has many large circular folds in its submucosa called plicae circulares which increase the surface area for nutrient absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of human jejunum TEM image of mouse jejunum (14,000-fold magnification) Dog jejunum (magnified 100-fold) The lining of the jejunum is specialized for the absorption, by enterocytes, of small nutrient particles which have been previously digested by enzymes in the duodenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the pH gradient present across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal jejunum, where PCFT is highly expressed, that drives intestinal folate absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • This study focused on the intestinal absorption of rhein in disassembly of the TWCQT extracts through the Caco-2 cell monolayer model to explicate the possible detoxification mechanism of herb-herb compatibility in TWCQT. (hindawi.com)
  • The molecular basis for HFM was established in 2006 with the identification of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) as the mechanism of intestinal absorption of folates and the detection of loss-of-function mutations in this transporter in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of HFM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile
  • Hyodeoxycholic acid, also known as 3α,6α-Dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid or HDCA, is a secondary bile acid, one of the metabolic byproducts of intestinal bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated carbon is also used for bowel preparation by reducing intestinal gas content before abdominal radiography to visualize bile and pancreatic and renal stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport
  • 1. The intestinal transport of oligopeptides containing either lysine or arginine has been compared with that of the corresponding free amino acids in six homozygous cystinuric patients and in six normal adult subjects by use of the oral tolerance test technique. (clinsci.org)
  • Extensive clinical studies established that HFM is due to (i) impaired intestinal absorption of folates and (ii) impaired transport of folates across the blood-choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • evaluate
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. (dovepress.com)
  • flux
  • Cotransport was the first ever proposal of flux coupling in biology and was the most important event concerning carbohydrate absorption in the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • diffusion
  • The results showed that the intestinal absorption of rhein occurred through active diffusion, and rhein might be composed of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrates. (hindawi.com)
  • Reid invented a recording osmometer, and at Dundee investigated secretion and absorption and the processes of diffusion, osmosis and filtration in the passage of materials across surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • In the perfused rat intestinal model, permeability coefficients based on CTS disappearance from the luminal perfusate ( P lumen ) were 6.7- to 10.3-fold higher than permeability coefficients based on drug appearance in venous blood ( P blood ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • properties
  • However, the intestinal absorption properties of major ingredients of most herbal medicines are unknown, probably because of lack of sensitive analytical methods, difficulties in choice of the marker ingredients, and other confounding factors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • difference
  • 2. No difference was found in the absorption of lysine from l-lysylglycine and an equivalent mixture of free lysine and glycine. (clinsci.org)
  • No difference was found for the former peptide, but in the latter absorption rates of arginine were higher after the amino acid mixture. (clinsci.org)
  • rates
  • 5. Absorption rates of the dipeptides l-lysylglycine and l-arginyl-l-aspartate from an isolated loop of rat gut are compared with those of an equivalent free amino acid mixture. (clinsci.org)
  • cell
  • The consistent results observed in TWCQT further implied that processed liquorice in TWCQT could suppress the absorption of rhein across the Caco-2 cell monolayer. (hindawi.com)
  • active
  • It has therefore been concluded that the active ingredients of processed liquorice may play a critical role in reducing the intestinal absorption of rhein to alleviate the toxicity of rhubarb in TWCQT. (hindawi.com)