• ingots
  • Freckle defects usually appear on the surface of castings and industrial ingots during the directional solidification process and most of them are located near the interface between the shell mold and superalloys. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In metals like iron, steel, aluminium, and magnesium, whose hydrogen solubilities increase with increasing temperature, liberation of excess hydrogen during cooling from the melt, (in ingots and castings) produces hydrogen gas porosity. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • However, because of the factors of alloy chemistry, casting conditions including solidification parameters, and casting geometry, freckles, hot cracking, low angle grain boundaries, and other solidification defects were found in directional solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) superalloy castings. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Freckles are macroscopic channel segregation defects which usually appear as a long trail of equiaxed grains with a composition shift consistent with alloy segregation in a wide variety of industrial castings, such as vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electro-slag remelting (ESR) superalloy billets, nickel-based superalloys, or specialty steel, that occur during solidification. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • They are presently one of the main defects encountered in the advanced casting technology of superalloys [ 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since the 1960s, when they were linked to the failure of several military engines, freckles are considered to be unacceptable defects in industrial aerospace castings. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hydrogen damage may be of four types: solid solution hardening, creation of internal defects, hydride embrittlement, and hydrogen embrittlement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen picked up during melting and casting segregates at internal voids and discontinuities and produces these defects during forging. (wikipedia.org)
  • coolant
  • These are differentiated due to the coolant entry method (internal or external) and chip removal method (internal or external). (wikipedia.org)
  • These should not be confused with core plugs, whose purpose is to allow removal of sand used in the casting process of engine blocks (core plugs will be pushed out if the coolant freezes, though, assuming that they adjoin the coolant passages, which is not always the case). (wikipedia.org)
  • cylinders
  • Its cast iron block features water jackets between the cylinders for optimal cooling. (dpccars.com)
  • citation needed] The compression process helps remove water from the gas, making it dry, which is good for reducing corrosion in diving cylinders and freezing of diving regulators, but contributes towards dehydration, a factor in decompression sickness, in divers who breathe the gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • coat
  • Petroleum-based oils cannot be absorbed and metabolized by the body and will coat the internal surfaces of the lungs, causing a condition known as lipoid pneumonia and leading to asphyxiation and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • compressors
  • citation needed] Smaller compressors are often splash lubricated - the oil is splashed around in the crankcase by the impact of the crankshaft and connecting rods - but larger compressors are likely to have pressurized lubrication using an oil pump which supplies the oil to critical areas through pipes and passages in the castings. (wikipedia.org)
  • alloy
  • The most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al-Si, where the high levels of silicon (4.0-13%) contribute to give good casting characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminium alloy surfaces will develop a white, protective layer of aluminium oxide if left unprotected by anodizing and/or correct painting procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Did these alloy bits have a wrought or a cast microstructure? (experts.com)
  • What was the identity of the alloy of Sample B and did its microstructure indicate it came from a wrought or a cast product? (experts.com)
  • Alloy X7080-T7, with higher resistance to stress corrosion than 7079-T6, is being developed for thick parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • iron
  • Traditional cast iron garden gate often hit foreign objects, collision or overlap caused by the fracture phenomenon. (okorder.com)
  • Cast Iron is used mainly for outdoor finishings and settings, such as those used for bench legs and solid iron tables. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main disadvantage to this is that it, being a relatively pure form of Iron is subject to corrosion at the hands of the moisture and air. (wikipedia.org)
  • erosion
  • In the troubled years immediately before World War I, arms manufacturing increased significantly in the UK, but practical problems were encountered due to erosion (excessive wear) of the internal surfaces of gun barrels. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • The lead can be cast in blocks, cast shapes with slots for straps, or shaped as pellets often named "shot" and carried in bags. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steel
  • All the steel components in this programme are supplied with environmentally friendly and extremely corrosion-resistant Cr(VI)-free surfaces. (hannovermesse.de)
  • A forged-steel crankshaft with induction-hardened bearing surfaces is so strong it can withstand firing pressures of nearly 1,600 psi (110 bar) - the equivalent of five family sedans standing on each piston, every two revolutions. (dpccars.com)
  • water
  • Specially designed for use in water systems of internal combustion equipment. (vizagchemical.com)
  • Filters remove: Water, using silica gel, activated alumina or a molecular sieve Oil, using activated carbon or a molecular sieve Carbon monoxide, using a catalyst (Hopcalite) Oil, which must be used to lubricate the compressor's internal parts, can be harmful if it contaminates the breathing gas and is inhaled as a mist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protection
  • Electroless nickel (EN) deposits are typically classified as functional coatings and historically have found use in applications that require protection from either corrosion or wear and in some cases, both. (wikipedia.org)
  • stress
  • Brittle delayed failure of normally ductile materials when hydrogen is present within is called hydrogen stress cracking or internal hydrogen embrittlement. (wikipedia.org)
  • wear
  • B) Enhance oral function - a well polished surface aids in gliding movement of the feed over occlusal surfaces and between embrasure spaces (smooth restoration contacts minimise wear rates on opposing and adjacent teeth. (slideshare.net)
  • surface
  • This causes the workpiece to become more susceptible to corrosion and crack propagation at the stressed surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tendency to walk is also preempted in various other ways, which include: Establishing a centering mark or feature before drilling, such as by: Casting, molding, or forging a mark into the workpiece Center punching Spot drilling (i.e., center drilling) Spot facing, which is machining a certain area on a casting or forging to establish an accurately located face on an otherwise rough surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance if a casting has a hole or a crack within it, my device allows the presence of the flaw to be detected and its position located, even though the flaw lies entirely within the casting and no portion of it extends out to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially
  • Especially in the fields of press manufacture, die casting machines and mobile operations equipment, this product programme satisfies ever-increasing design requirements. (hannovermesse.de)
  • materials
  • In most common UT applications, very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz, and occasionally up to 50 MHz, are transmitted into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • A common example is ultrasonic thickness measurement, which tests the thickness of the test object, for example, to monitor pipework corrosion. (wikipedia.org)