• gp130
  • Once bound to IL-6, the resulting sIL-6R/IL-6 complex acts as an agonist that is capable of activating cells through membrane-bound gp130. (rupress.org)
  • Since expression of gp130 is essentially ubiquitous, the sIL-6R/IL-6 complex has the potential to stimulate cell types that are not inherently responsive to IL-6 alone. (rupress.org)
  • The gp130 functions as an affinity converter because the resulting affinity of IL-6 for the ternary complex is approximately 10 −11 m , instead of 10 −9 m for IL-6R. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CLCF1 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the IL-6 receptor common subunit glycoprotein 130 (gp130), leukemia inhibitory factor receptor beta, and the transcription factor STAT3. (wikipedia.org)
  • monoclonal
  • This article is the first review of clinical studies in the 1990s with anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in the treatment of patients with cancer and related lymphoproliferative disorders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • inflammatory
  • IL-6 has extensive anti-inflammatory functions in its role as a myokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ambivalent aspects of interleukin-6 in cerebral ischemia: inflammatory versus neurotrophic aspects. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, the information suggests that IL-6 plays a double role in cerebral ischemia, as an inflammatory mediator during the acute phase and as a neurotrophic mediator between the subacute and prolonged phases. (nih.gov)
  • Our current findings demonstrate a novel relationship between these two mediators, since CRP may affect IL-6-mediated inflammatory events by enabling formation of the sIL-6R/IL-6 complex. (rupress.org)
  • Since the inflammatory potential of IL-6 is modulated through binding the sIL-6R, identifying physiological mediators of sIL-6R generation is of central importance to understanding the significance of this soluble receptor in disease. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, CRP has the potential to influence the inflammatory properties of IL-6 through facilitating formation of the sIL-6R/IL-6 complex. (rupress.org)
  • This interaction of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities suggests that IL-6 may play a role in regulating the physiological response to disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-IL-6 therapies should therefore take into consideration the (beneficial) anti-inflammatory effects of myokines generally, including the now-established multiple benefits of muscle-derived Interleukin 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Recent work has shown that both upstream and downstream signalling pathways for IL-6 differ markedly between myocytes and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that unlike IL-6 signalling in macrophages, which is dependent upon activation of the NFκB signalling pathway, intramuscular IL-6 expression is regulated by a network of signalling cascades, including the Ca2+/NFAT and glycogen/p38 MAPK pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic factors involved in the molecular pathways regulating tumor development have been adduced to explain these differences, and it has been suggested that the IL-6 gene is a susceptibility factor underlying ethnic differences in breast cancer survival. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • It has repeatedly shown that oncogenic mutations as well as the bone marrow matrix (BMM) stimulate IL-6-independent signalling pathways that protect MM cells from apoptosis.Hyperdiploid MM tumors contain multiple trisomies involving chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15 , 19 , and 21, but rarely have IgH translocations, although CCND-1 / CCND-2 / CCND-3 dysregulation appears to occur as an early event. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • VEGF
  • However, the relationship between IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human osteosarcoma is mostly unknown. (mendeley.com)
  • Here we found that the IL-6 and VEGF expression was correlated with tumor stage and significantly higher than that in normal bone. (mendeley.com)
  • The apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)/p38/AP-1 pathway was activated after IL-6 treatment, and IL-6-induced VEGF expression was abolished by the specific inhibitor and siRNA of ASK1, p38, and AP-1 cascades. (mendeley.com)
  • Importantly, knockdown IL-6 reduced VEGF expression and abolished osteosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis. (mendeley.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that IL-6 occurs through ASK1 and p38, which in turn activates AP-1, resulting in the activations of VEGF expression and contributing the angiogenesis of human osteosarcoma cells. (mendeley.com)
  • Siltuximab interferes with IL-6 mediated growth of B-lymphocytes and plasma cells, secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and autoimmune phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase II trials in ovarian cancer resulted in 39% of patients showed disease stabilization via IL-6-regulated downregulation of CCL2, CXCL12 and VEGF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activator
  • In addition, IL-6 is an activator or an inhibitor of T-cell responses, depending on the target and the system used in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Siltuximab
  • Live vaccines should not be administered to patients receiving siltuximab since IL-6 inhibition may interfere with normal immune response to new antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second, siltuximab (Sylvant), is directed against IL-6 itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The major IL-6 downstream signaling pathway is JAK-STAT, and Stat3 activation occurs mainly in neurons during postischemic reperfusion. (nih.gov)
  • human
  • A vast number of epidemiological, genetic, rodent, and human in vivo and in vitro studies have investigated the putative role of action/lack of action of IL-6 in the pathogeneses underlying obesity, insulin resistance, β-cell destruction, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When psychologically stressed, the human body produces stress hormones like cortisol, which are able to trigger interleukin-6 release into the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural and functional studies on the human hepatic interleukin-6 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded viral interleukin-6 is secreted and modified differently than human interleukin-6: evidence for a unique autocrine signaling mechanism. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • expression
  • The expression of IL-6 is most prominently identified in neurons in the peri-ischemic regions, and LIF expression shows a similar pattern. (nih.gov)
  • tumor
  • Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered as a key growth factor for myeloma cells, only a few subpopulations of tumor cells, such as CD45(+) immature cells, proliferate in response to IL-6. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • role
  • In this review, we briefly review the biology of IL-6 and critically evaluate the role(s) of the IL-6 system in the pathogeneses of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (but not in obesity without type 2 diabetes) and suggest directions for future investigations of IL-6 in pathogenetic processes leading to the two diseases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IL-6 also plays a role in fighting infection, as IL-6 has been shown in mice to be required for resistance against bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dubiński A, Zdrojewicz Z. [The role of interleukin-6 in development and progression of atherosclerosis]. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This article discusses the role of IL-6 in the etiology and pathogenesis of cancer and reviews clinical trials of targeted cancer therapy using mAbs to IL-6. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cells
  • IL-6 has in addition to its immunoregulatory actions been proposed to affect glucose homeostasis and metabolism directly and indirectly by action on skeletal muscle cells, adipocytes, hepatocytes, pancreatic β-cells, and neuroendocrine cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by the failure of the β-cells to compensate for peripheral insulin resistance ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • levels
  • A new study by researchers at the University of Cambridge has revealed the existence of a link between coronary heart disease and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). (medindia.net)
  • IL-6 is also produced by adipocytes and is thought to be a reason why obese individuals have higher endogeneous levels of CRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of IL-6 may be associated with a higher risk of embolism of the myxoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • The exercise-induced increase of plasma IL-6 occurs in an exponential manner and the peak IL-6 level is reached at the end of the exercise or shortly thereafter. (wikipedia.org)
  • estrogen
  • Inhibitors of IL-6 (including estrogen) are used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)