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  • Gene
  • The human IL-3 gene is located on chromosome 5, only 9 kilobases from the GM-CSF gene, and its function is quite similar to GM-CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Il3 gene expression was highly upregulated at the second tick-feeding site, and adoptive transfer of interleukin-3 (IL-3)-sufficient but not IL-3-deficient CD4 + T cells conferred the basophil infiltration on T-cell-deficient mice, indicating that the CD4 + T-cell-derived IL-3 is essential for the basophil recruitment. (frontiersin.org)
  • erythropoietin
  • Lineage-negative, Ly-6A/E+, c-kit+ bone marrow cells from male mice were cultured in suspension in the presence of stem cell factor, IL-6, IL-11, and erythropoietin with or without IL-3 or IL-1. (pnas.org)
  • human
  • Isolation and characterization of an expressible cDNA encoding human IL-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results suggest that these cytokines may have a modulatory role on the self-renewal of stem cells and further indicate that the use of IL-3 and IL-1 for in vitro expansion of human stem cells needs to be cautiously evaluated. (pnas.org)
  • Ticks are blood-feeding ectoparasites that transmit a variety of pathogenic organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths, many of which can cause various infectious disorders in human and animal hosts ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Tick-borne diseases include viral encephalitis, sever fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Lyme disease, monocytic human ehrlichiosis, Rocky mountain spotted fever, and babesiosis ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Twenty chemotherapy-naive patients with ovarian carcinoma received 1, 5, 10, or 15 µg/kg/day (five patients per dose step) of recombinant human interleukin 3 (rhIL-3) over 7 days after carboplatin/cyclophosphamide in Cycles 1 and 3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Receptor binding kinetics of human IL-3 variants with altered proliferative activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Use of combinatorial mutagenesis to select for multiply substituted human interleukin-3 variants with improved pharmacologic properties. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • We conclude that one component of the survival mechanisms elicited by IL-3 involves the subcellular redistribution of glucose transporters, thus ensuring the supply of a key metabolic substrate. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • cytokines
  • Because of their known myelopoietic activities, both interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-1 are often used in combination with other cytokines for in vitro (ex vivo) expansion of stem cells. (pnas.org)
  • Many of the IL-3 activities depend upon co-stimulation with other cytokines. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • cells
  • In contrast to these factors, which primarily act on mature cells, interleukin-3 (IL-3) acts on relatively immature hematopoietic/lymphoid cells. (springer.com)
  • Kinetic studies revealed an exponential increase in total nucleated cells and about 10-fold enhancement of nucleated cells by IL-3 during the initial 10 days. (pnas.org)
  • Addition of IL-3 hastened the development but significantly suppressed the peak production of colony-forming cells. (pnas.org)
  • The cells expanded from enriched cells in the absence of IL-3 and IL-1 revealed engraftment at 2, 4, 5, and 6 months, whereas addition of IL-3 or IL-1 to the cultures significantly reduced the reconstituting ability. (pnas.org)
  • Produced by T cells, mast cells and eosinophils, IL-3 enhances thrombopoieses, phagocytosis, and antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • To investigate the role of the pleckstrin homology domain of Gab-2 in this process, epitope-tagged wild type Gab-2 (WTGab-2), Gab-2 lacking its PH domain (DeltaPHGab-2) and the Gab-2 PH domain alone (PHGab-2) were inducibly expressed in IL-3-dependent BaF/3 cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Notably, IL-3 + resident CD4 + memory T cells were detected even before the second infestation in previously uninfested skin distant from the first tick-feeding site. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together, IL-3 produced locally by skin CD4 + memory T cells appears to play a crucial role in basophil recruitment to the second tick-feeding site. (frontiersin.org)
  • NF-IL3A appears to play an important role in the expression of IL-3 by T cells. (asm.org)
  • In these cells, hexose uptake decreased markedly upon withdrawal of IL-3, whereas its readdition led to rapid (t 10 min) stimulation of transport, associated with an 4-fold increase in Vmax but no change in Km. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Recently, microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) have been shown to proliferate in the presence of IL-3 both in vivo and in culture. (mysciencework.com)
  • This is the first report identifying rat microglial cells themselves as a source of IL-3. (mysciencework.com)
  • IL-3 polypeptide was detected in both conditioned media (CM) and in microglial cells by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. (mysciencework.com)
  • mRNAIL-3 was present in single microglial cells as revealed by in situ hybridization. (mysciencework.com)
  • It is concluded that IL-3 expression in ensuring the recruitment of enhanced numbers of immunocompetent cells at sites of lesion. (mysciencework.com)
  • Expression of interleukin-3 (IL3) is restricted to activated T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and mast cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Both in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the addition of growth factors (G-CSF, GM-CSF) or interleukin-3 (IL-3) may potentiate the effect of r-EPO on dysplastic erythropoiesis. (haematologica.org)
  • Clone
  • We isolated a 0.96-kb cDNA that encoded a basic amino acid domain and a leucine zipper domain and used the "rapid amplification and cloning of 3' ends" technique to isolate the 3' half of the cDNA clone, generating a 1.9-kb full-length cDNA clone. (asm.org)
  • hematological
  • Since there was also no difference in hematological efficacy between the two routes of rhIL-3 administration, we conclude that the s.c. route of administration appears to have no disadvantages over the i.v. route and may facilitate its clinical application. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Phase I trial of subcutaneous interleukin 3 in patients with refractory malignancy: hematological, immunological, and pharmacodynamic findings. (semanticscholar.org)
  • survival
  • Interleukin-3-mediated Cell Survival Signals Include Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-dependent Translocation of the Glucose Transporter GLUT1 to the Cell Surface. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • cell
  • Overall, among 50 patients who completed the study, there were 3 erythroid responses (as determined by complete abolition of red-cell transfusions): 1 (4%) in the G-CSF + r-EPO and 2 (10.5%) in the GM-CSF + r-EPO treated groups. (haematologica.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry and photoaffinity labeling revealed that IL-3 caused translocation of intracellular GLUT1 transporters to the cell surface, whereas a second transporter isoform, GLUT3, remained predominantly intracellular. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • erythroid
  • RESULTS: Ten patients were not evaluable for erythroid response because of relevant side effects related to GM-CSF or IL-3 administration. (haematologica.org)
  • Complex
  • PKM2 is a cytosolic enzyme that is associated with other glycolytic enzymes, i.e., hexokinase, glyceraldehyde 3-P dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoglyceromutase, enolase, and lactate dehydrogenase within a so-called glycolytic enzyme complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • This means there is a translocation between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22, with breaks happening in region (3), band (4), sub-band (1) of the long arm (q) of chromosome 9 and region (1), band (1), sub-band (2) of the long arm (q) of chromosome 22. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structures
  • As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1MRQ, 1Q13, and 1Q5M. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • In enzymology, a 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.149) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 17alpha,20alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one + NAD(P)+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone + NAD(P)H + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 17alpha,20alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, NADH, NADPH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Patients received rhIL-3 by continuous i.v. infusion or once daily s.c. injection in Cycle 1 and the alternate route in Cycle 3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Plasma rhIL-3 samples were obtained once daily on Days 1 to 6 and serially over a 24-h period on Day 7 for pharmacokinetic assessment of s.c. and i.v. administered rhIL-3 in 16 and 17 patients, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the combination of r-EPO with G-CSF, GM-CSF or IL-3 on the anemia of heavily transfusion-dependent MDS patients, previously unresponsive to r-EPO alone. (haematologica.org)
  • A significant increase in leukocyte count occurred in 96% of patients who received r-EPO + G-CSF, 78.9% of those treated with r-EPO + GM-CSF and 66% of subjects receiving r-EPO + IL-3. (haematologica.org)
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the combination of r-EPO with G-CSF, GM-CSF or IL-3, at least at the doses and schedules employed in the present study, has limited efficacy on the anemia of heavily transfusion-dependent MDS patients previously unresponsive to r-EPO alone. (haematologica.org)