• 2017
  • An amendment to the regulation, approved by the Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed (SCoPAFF), will remove the final barrier to using insects in fish feed in the EU - the need for non-ruminant animals to be used in PAPs to be slaughtered in registered EU slaughterhouses - meaning that insect proteins could be used as fish feed from July 2017. (thefuturescentre.org)
  • molecular biology
  • All these contribute to add new dimensions in molecular approaches such as comparative genomics and proteomics, which are adding a wealth of information on the molecular biology, physiology and biochemistry of a plethora of insects. (frontiersin.org)
  • In spite of the rapid advances made in the areas of genetics and molecular biology of insects, insect proteins and enzymes have been under-explored and their biotechnology potentials have been under-utilized. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of the Research Topic "New dimensions in molecular approaches to insect proteins and enzymes" is to highlight recent advances made to integrate molecular biology and "omics" tools with fundamental biological disciplines to address some long-standing biological questions with practical implications. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Research Topic will form an invaluable source of information not only for entomologists but also for all scientists working in the area of molecular biology, insect biochemistry, immunology, pest management, and enzymology. (frontiersin.org)
  • In molecular biology, the insect pheromone-binding family A10/OS-D is a family of small helical proteins postulated to contribute to the specificity of the insect's olfactory system by binding components of the natural pheromone mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insect Molecular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Despite such strong conservation, recent comparative work in insects has revealed interesting differences in the way the patterning function of the DV system is achieved in different species. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Reports indicating the proteins in the cestode-host interactions are limited predominantly to taeniids, with no previous data available for non-taeniid species. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Already a natural source of food for pigs, poultry and many fish species, insects have a high protein and nutrient content and a good feed conversion rate. (thefuturescentre.org)
  • The structure of the protein has been investigated well in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), and in some insect species bursicon gene has been sequenced, including the mosquito (Anopheles gambiae), cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), locust (Locusta migratoria), and mealworm (Tenebrio molitor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 1,000 species of insects are known to be eaten in 80% of the world's nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects and arachnids eaten around the world include crickets, cicadas, grasshoppers, ants, various beetle grubs (such as mealworms, the larvae of the darkling beetle), various species of caterpillar (such as bamboo worms, mopani worms, silkworms and waxworms), scorpions and tarantulas. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is potential for growth in the pet food industry, with many insect species having the ability to be used as a novel protein source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of insects also produces lower greenhouse gases and ammonia than traditional livestock species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Order of most consumed species of insect varies by region due to different environment, ecosystems, and climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2015), did a study called Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects have a high palatability to companion and livestock animals as well as a good amino acid profile, where some species are comparable to chicken or soybean meal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efetov has established a new scientific approach - monoclonal immunosystematics that makes it possible to evaluate evolutionary relationships between the biological species through studying their proteins with use of monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The evolutionary changes within the phylogeny of the hemocyanin superfamily are closely related to the emergence of these different proteins in various species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide
  • Peptide proteinase inhibitors are in many cases synthesised as part of a larger precursor protein, referred to as a propeptide or zymogen, which remains inactive until the precursor domain is cleaved off in the lysosome, the precursor domain preventing access of the substrate to the active site until necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemolymph
  • Data are presented showing that hemolin (previously named P4), a bacteria-inducible hemolymph protein of the giant silk moth Hyalophora cecropia, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. (sciencemag.org)
  • Functional analyses indicate that hemolin is one of the first hemolymph components to bind to the bacterial surface, taking part in a protein complex formation that is likely to initiate the immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hemolin is the most abundant bacteria-induced proteins in Hyalophora cecropia hemolymph. (diva-portal.org)
  • humans
  • The report said that insects are "extremely efficient" in converting feed into edible meat for humans. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Nutritionists and scientists have long touted insect consumption for humans as a sustainable and cheap source of protein, but snacking on bugs is a stomach-churning prospect for people in many countries and cultures. (reuters.com)
  • The eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of certain insects have been eaten by humans from prehistoric times to the present day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before humans had tools to hunt or farm, insects may have represented an important part of their diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects also have the ability to feed on organic waste products such as vegetable, restaurant and animal waste therefore reducing the amount of excess food produced by humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The table below lists top five insects consumed by humans worldwide, retrieved from Edible insects: future prospects for food and feed security by Arnold van Huis, Joost Van Itterbeeck, Harmke Klunder, Esther Mertens, Afton Halloran, Giulia Muir and Paul Vantomme. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Strategies that allow for the co- or post-translational release of two or more pesticidal proteins are then considered, including polyprotein precursors releasing free proteins upon proteolytic cleavage, and multicistronic transcripts for the parallel translation of single protein-encoding mRNA sequences. (mdpi.com)
  • toxins
  • This protein is a member of the alpha pore forming toxins family, which gives it insecticidal qualities advantageous in agricultural pest control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with several other Cry protein genes, cry6aa can be genetically recombined in Bt corn and Bt cotton so the plants produce specific toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein has structural similarities to other toxins, including haemolysin E and B. cereus toxins HlbB and NheA. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterologous
  • Among the wide range of methods and expression hosts available for the heterologous production of recombinant proteins, insect cells are ideal for the production of complex proteins requiring extensive post-translational modification. (thescipub.com)
  • In this review we describe current strategies devised for the heterologous co-expression of pesticidal proteins in planta , some of which have already shown usefulness in plant protection. (mdpi.com)
  • livestock
  • All About Feed's free whitepaper: Why are insects not allowed yet in livestock feed? (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The report claims that eating insects is also better for the environment - according to the agency, most insects are likely to produce fewer environmentally harmful greenhouse gases than other livestock. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Producing insect protein through other agricultural practices requires considerably less resources than traditional livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects are very efficient at converting feed into protein, as they require less feed than traditional livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Farming these insects could promote better manure and organic waste management, while providing nutritious feed ingredient to pets and livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • irritate
  • LPLF = low protein, low fat, C= carrot supplementation A challenge that is presented when feeding companion animals with food intolerance or sensitivities is finding protein sources that will not irritate their gastrointestinal tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Multimodal fusion proteins integrating complementary pesticidal functions along a unique polypeptide are first considered, taking into account the structural constraints associated with protein or protein domain grafting to biologically active proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Collagen is the major structural protein outside cells in many connective tissues of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • consumption
  • IPIFF will now further elaborate on this document in order to outline the specificities of insect products and single out the elements which are particularly relevant to demonstrate their safety for human consumption' added Hubert. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Flying SpArk is a new food-tech company focused on all-natural protein extracted from the Mediterranean fruit fly for human consumption. (fdiforum.net)
  • Global population growth and an expanding middle class have raised per capita meat consumption by 50 percent over the past four decades, fueling fears of a protein pinch. (reuters.com)
  • interactions
  • Through testing, glycerol requires interactions with other cell components within the insect in order to decrease the body's permeability to the cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • After activation, the beta tongue head domain binds with the target membranes on brush border membrane cells similar to Haemolysin E. Typical Cry proteins are enhanced by interactions with cadherin, but Cry6Aa receptors remain unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Hemocyanin is made of many individual subunit proteins, each of which contains two copper atoms and can bind one oxygen molecule (O2). (wikipedia.org)
  • poultry
  • Enterra Feed, one of an emerging crop of insect growers, will process the bugs into protein-rich food for fish, poultry - even pets. (reuters.com)
  • Cargill conducted an insect-based feed trial on poultry in 2015, but the company's efforts with insects have since focused on bolstering its growing aquaculture business, where demand for alternative proteins is most acute. (reuters.com)
  • Plant
  • Leaf-cutting ants are insects that use plant material to grow fungus from which they feed. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Transgenic plants expressing combinations of microbial or plant pesticidal proteins represent a promising tool for the efficient, durable control of herbivorous insects. (mdpi.com)
  • Emphasis is placed on protein engineering strategies involving the insertion of single DNA constructs within the host plant genome. (mdpi.com)
  • While the structure resembles those of carnivorous plants, the wineberry plant does not get nutrients from insects caught in the sap: the sticky mucilage contains no digestive enzymes, surrounding tissues cannot absorb nutrients, and there are no protein-storage tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • To protect the cell membrane from expansion induced damage, the plant cell changes the proportions of almost all lipids in the cell membrane, and increases the amount of total soluble protein and other cryoprotecting molecules, like sugar and proline. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is interesting, that drosomycin has bigger sequence similarity with these plant defensis, for example defensin from Raphanus sativus (about 40%), than with other insect defensins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • OS-D and related proteins are members of the insect pheromone-binding family A10/OS-D. McKenna MP, Hekmat-Scafe DS, Gaines P, Carlson JR (June 1994). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Resilin is a protein found in insects that allows them to jump long distances and beat their wings quickly. (kvpr.org)
  • A class of small (14-20 Kd) water-soluble proteins, called pheromone binding proteins, first discovered in the insect sensillar lymph but also found in the mucus of vertebrates, is postulated to mediate the solubilisation of hydrophobic odorant molecules, and thereby to facilitate their transport to the receptor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • OS-D derivatives have subsequently been found in chemosensory organs of phylogenetically distinct insects, including cockroaches, phasmids and moths, suggesting that OS-D-like proteins seem to be conserved in the insect phylum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bursicon is found in different insects and considered to be unspecific. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antifreeze protein was found to inhibit ice recrystallization in the flounder blood, but had no effect when expressed in transgenic tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol is a cryoprotective substance found within these insects capable of overwintering. (wikipedia.org)
  • accelerate
  • The timely adoption of the proposed reform is indeed crucial to accelerate investments and the further growth of the EU insect sector, therefore preserving its current global leading position. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • We discuss the different strategies used to generate recombinant baculovirus vectors and show how advanced techniques for virus titer determination can accelerate the production of recombinant proteins. (thescipub.com)
  • Protix has recently joined forces with Buhler, the leading solution provider for the food and feed industry, to accelerate the standardization and roll-out of insect rearing and processing equipment globally. (benisonmedia.com)
  • larvae
  • For example, fly larvae can reduce the mass of organic waste by up to 60% in 10 days, whilst extracting protein. (thefuturescentre.org)
  • Traditionally several ethnic groups in Indonesia are known to consume insects-especially grasshopper, cricket, termite, also the larvae of sago palm weevil and bee. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • The UN even suggests that the restaurant industry could help in "raising the status of insects" by adding them to their menus. (prisonplanet.com)
  • In addition, S.tellinii produces a group of proteins in the Wnt family that are similar to insect proteins, which suggests molecular mimicry as a possible source for behavioral manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental data suggests the proteins embed in the membrane and form oligomeric pores, but the complete mechanism has not been deduced in 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • The EU insect sector welcomes the proposal for authorising the use of insect proteins in aquaculture, and considers the guidance on novel food as good working basis. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Study of insect proteins and enzymes will not only give valuable information on their unique biochemistry and physiology but will also identify novel tools for the development of new technologies and new ways to produce novel insect control measures. (frontiersin.org)
  • A novel protein is a protein source that the animal has not had any previous exposure to. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are some risks to using novel protein sources such as contaminants, antinutritional factors (ANFs), allergens which are not well known. (wikipedia.org)
  • IPIFF
  • At its General meeting held on 17 November, IPIFF - the European Umbrella Organisation representing the interests of Insect Producers for Food and Feed - welcomed the recent progress made by EU policy makers on 'key' dossiers for the sector. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The IPIFF members highly value this document as 'baseline' for insect producers to prepare applications in order authorise their products as food on the European market', said Antoine Hubert , the IPIFF President. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • IPIFF also welcomes the recent European Commission proposal for authorising the use of insect proteins in aquaculture: 'we are particularly pleased with the recent move made by the EU Executive and we now call for a swift adoption of these proposals by EU authorities' said Antoine Hubert. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • IPIFF, the European Umbrella Organisation representing the interests of the Insect Production sector for Food. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • vaccine
  • They are not making the vaccine in insect cells to make more of it faster, they are doing it because manufacturing the vaccine in chicken eggs produces a well known virus mutation that makes the vaccine less effective against type A influenza. (offthegridnews.com)
  • scientists
  • Thirdly, from an ethical/animal welfare point of view, when it comes to preparing them to be food, many scientists have concluded that insects do not feel pain in the same way as other animals do. (healthbloggerscommunity.com)
  • ants
  • University biologists agree, claiming that certain types of beetles, ants, crickets, and grasshoppers offer nearly as much protein per gram as lean red meat or broiled fish. (prisonplanet.com)
  • agricultural
  • The small but growing insect farming sector has captured attention and investments from some heavyweights in the $400 billion-a-year animal feed business, including U.S. agricultural powerhouse Cargill Inc [CARG.UL], feed supplier and farm products and services company Wilbur-Ellis Co and Swiss-based Buhler Group, which makes crop processing machinery. (reuters.com)
  • norm
  • In the related Spinochordodes tellinii, another parasitic and brain-manipulative nematomorph, the parasitic worm produces certain effector molecules to manipulate the cricket's central nervous system to behave in ways that are out of the norm for the insect, as in jumping into water. (wikipedia.org)
  • sources of protein
  • Though an assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) confirms that insect PAPs reared on currently allowed feed do not pose any additional microbiological hazard compared to other animal sources of protein, further research is needed to establish the safety of rearing insects on organic waste, before this system change can be implemented. (thefuturescentre.org)
  • The fact that such global food production giants are turning to insects illustrates the lengths they will go to find alternative sources of protein that are profitable and sustainable as animal feed or additives to human food. (reuters.com)
  • Benoit Anquetil - strategy and technology lead for Cargill's animal nutrition business - called developing new sources of protein a "long-term opportunity. (reuters.com)
  • cells
  • We consider the advantages and limitations of these techniques for the production of recombinant proteins in insect cells and compare them to other expression platforms. (thescipub.com)
  • Periostin is a secreted extracellular matrix protein that was originally identified in cells from the mesenchymal lineage (osteoblasts, osteoblast-derived cells, the periodontal ligament, and periosteum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cry6Aa has pore-forming action that destroys insect intestinal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASP-1 proteases are highly concentrated in nematode intestinal cells and protect Cry6Aa proteins from over-degradation during activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • locusts
  • In Leviticus 11 of the Bible, the Jewish people are given specific rules around what kind of insects and bugs are okay to eat (such as locusts, crickets and grasshoppers). (healthbloggerscommunity.com)
  • In the 2010 French documentary Global Steak he says that locusts can produce 1 kg protein from 2 kg fodder compared to a cow needing 10 kg fodder to produce the same amount of protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • producer
  • Flying SpArk, an Israeli insect protein producer, has joined the inaugural IKEA Bootcamp start-up accelerator. (fdiforum.net)
  • Following the decision, French producer Ynsect announced an additional $15.2m to develop its robotics-enabled insect farm, which is also the world's largest. (thefuturescentre.org)
  • Aside from nutritional composition and digestibility, insects are also selected for ease of rearing by the producer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production
  • These notably include relevant information on production standards and on the substrates used to feed the insects - i.e. two critical elements underlined by EFSA in its opinion from 8 October 2015. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Food
  • Believe it or not, insects are now becoming accepted as a new food ingredient in many EU countries. (healthbloggerscommunity.com)
  • You would be surprised to know how many healthy eating and fitness food brands have started to launch products with insect powder in them. (healthbloggerscommunity.com)
  • Protix breeds insects for animal feed, as insects offer a low-impact protein alternative that can be cultivated on a variety of food scraps. (benisonmedia.com)
  • The UN has been working on ways to end world hunger for decades, but their newest idea does not involve economics, politics, or even food: The organization is now advising people to eat more insects. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Insect farming is "one of the many ways to address food and feed security," the agency said in a 200-page report released at a news conference at the UN's Rome headquarters. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Fast food giant McDonald's is studying using insects for chicken feed to reduce reliance on soy protein. (reuters.com)
  • Introducing insect protein further down the food chain may be more palatable. (reuters.com)
  • Today, insect eating is uncommon in North America, but insects remain a popular food in many regions of Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the ability to meet the needs of the growing population may require alternative sources of quality protein As the global population rises there is an increasing demand for animal based proteins that will require the use of alternative and sustainable sources for pet food as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • This creates a competition with the human food chain for quality protein sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, van Huis co-authored The Insect Cookbook: Food for a Sustainable Planet (Arts and Traditions of the Table: Perspectives on Culinary History). (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects could be the key to meeting food needs of growing global population", The Guardian 1 August 2010. (wikipedia.org)