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  • sodium
  • In spite of the fact that the first publication about sodium hypochlorite medicinal application in dentistry was in 1989 , modern hypochlorite solutions, produced by "Chlorox" (USA) and "Parcan" (France), are widely used in many Russian dental clinics due to their superiority over other disinfectants, such as alcohols, phenols, quarternary ammonium compounds, dichlorisocyanurats, etc . (bakhir.com)
  • This article's goal is to evaluate, based on published results of the original research work, the biocidal efficacy of the main chlorine-based liquid chemical germicides such as sodium hypochlorite, chlorinated water and hypochlorous acid in respect to their chemical equilibrium. (bakhir.com)
  • Sodium or lithium peroxides are preferred in space applications because of their lower molar mass and therefore higher oxygen yield per unit weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound is more conveniently prepared by treatment of sodium chlorate and chlorine trifluoride and purified by vacuum fractionation, i.e. selectively condensing this species separately from other products. (wikipedia.org)
  • acids
  • Inorganic compounds are often studied as ionic compounds , molecular compounds, and acids . (coursehero.com)
  • organ system for circulating blood in animals The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention uses select organic compounds, including for example the following organic activator-stabilizers: heat-deactivated proteases and zwitterionic materials, such as amphoteric surfactants and amino acids and proteins. (google.com)
  • The law of definite proportions refers to the fixed composition of any compound formed between element A and element B. The law of multiple proportions describes the stoichiometric relationship between two or more different compounds formed between element A and element B. The law of reciprocal proportions was proposed in essence by Richter, following his determination of neutralisation ratios of metals with acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once in water, the naturally occurring fulvic acids and humic acids can lead to formation of mutagenic compounds such as halogenated furanone MX (Z-3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone). (wikipedia.org)
  • While combustion of hydrocarbon part of the compounds form CO2 and H2O, halo acids are formed from the halogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • doi:10.1002/anie.201003379 Synthesis and Characterization of a Coordinated Oxoborane: Lewis Acid Stabilization of a Boron−Oxygen Double Bond Dragoslav Vidovic, Jennifer A. Moore, Jamie N. Jones, and Alan H. Cowley J. Am. Chem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selenium monochloride is mainly used as a reagent for the synthesis of Se-containing compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • react
  • Within the soil, the halo compounds resist degradation and often react with metal ions, resulting in non-degradable metal complexes, increasing soil toxicity and accumulating in the food chain of aquatic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complementary metalloprotein to those that react with oxygen is the oxygen evolving complex present in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • The peroxide ion is composed of two oxygen atoms that are linked by a single bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that transfers electronegative atoms, usually oxygen, to a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In more common usage, an oxidising agent transfers oxygen atoms to a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the compound has been used to introduce bridging selenium ligands between the metal atoms of some iron and chromium carbonyl complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • compositions
  • It is to be understood, however, that the novel compounds of this invention are likely to be mixtures of tautomeric forms, the compositions of which are dependent on such factors as the nature of R R R and R and the environment. (google.es)
  • The methods and compositions according to the invention provide select organic compounds for the activation and stabilization of thermally labile enzymes, including proteases. (google.com)
  • irradiation
  • after irradiation, "dioxins" (polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins) are dechloroinated in the same way as PCBs can be converted to biphenyl an inorganic chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the reduction of organic compounds by the solvated electrons it has been reported that upon irradiation a pertechnetate solution, at pH 4.1 is converted to a colloid of technetium dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • ketones
  • It converts hydrazones of hindered ketones into the corresponding selones, the structural analogs of ketones whereby the oxygen atom is replaced with a selenium atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • dioxins
  • For example, compounds like dioxins can inhibit the actions of sex hormones by binding to steroid receptors along with causing long lasting cell disruption in several tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • metal ions
  • This theme relies on the study of the design and mechanism of action of metal-containing pharmaceuticals, and compounds that interact with endogenous metal ions in enzyme active sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The hemolymph of lower arthropods, including most insects, is not used for oxygen transport because these animals respirate through other means, such as tracheas, but it does contain nutrients such as proteins and sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • preparation
  • RuO2 is extensively used for the coating of titanium anodes for the electrolytic production of chlorine and for the preparation of resistors or integrated circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • decomposes
  • This process relies on the temperature-dependent chemical balance between barium oxide and peroxide: the reaction of barium oxide with air at 500 °C results in barium peroxide, which upon heating to above 700 °C in oxygen decomposes back to barium oxide releasing pure oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It decomposes rapidly on standing to bromic acid and oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • volatile
  • The purpose of this Rule is to limit the quantity of volatile organic compounds in architectural coatings. (ca.gov)
  • Nearly stoichiometric single crystals of RuO2 can be obtained by chemical vapor transport, using O2 as the transport agent: RuO2 + O2 ⇌ RuO4 Films of RuO2 can be prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from volatile ruthenium compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Macro fouling is caused by coarse matter of either biological or inorganic origin, for example industrially produced refuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] With passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act in 2001, TOC analysis emerged as a quick and accurate alternative to the classical but more lengthy biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) tests traditionally reserved for assessing the pollution potential of wastewaters. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • As presented in number of scientific publications, the multicellular organisms, including human organism, form hypochlorous acid and super-active metastable oxy-chlorine- and hydroperoxi- compounds (mixture of metastable oxidants) by special cellular structures to defend organism against pathogens and foreign compounds [11, (bakhir.com)
  • The same element may form more than one oxyanion with oxygen. (coursehero.com)
  • Heme is utilized by red blood cells in the form of hemoglobin for oxygen transport and is perhaps the most recognized metal system in biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these compounds the boron and oxygen form a triple bond prone to cyclotrimerization to boroxines. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a water-soluble inorganic pesticide most commonly used as a wood preservative to make it resistant to attack by termites and fungi that cause decay. (cdc.gov)
  • Nowadays chlorine and chlorine-based compounds are extensively used for drinking water disinfection. (bakhir.com)
  • Na2O2 + 2 HCl → 2 NaCl + H2O2 Upon heating, the reaction with water leads to the release of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • While strict regulations from the government have reduced the high level of past emissions, these compounds find their way to water sources through improper consumer disposal of items that contain chlorinated compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • While this method can be effective at trapping particulates produced by combustion, it does not filter out harmful gasses which may be toxic or which displace the oxygen required for survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • In this context, the oxidising agent can be called an oxygenation reagent or oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the atom is present in a chemical compound its magnetic behaviour is modified by its chemical environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • These compounds, useful inter alia as hypertensive agents, bear a substituent in both the 4- and the 5-positions which is a secondary or a tertiary amino moiety. (google.es)
  • sodium
  • The other major minerals (potassium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur and magnesium) make up only about 0.85% of the weight of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is practically and chemically distinct from chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
  • US government regulations allow food processing equipment and food contact surfaces to be sanitized with solutions containing bleach, provided that the solution is allowed to drain adequately before contact with food, and that the solutions do not exceed 200 parts per million (ppm) available chlorine (for example, one tablespoon of typical household bleach containing 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, per gallon of water). (wikipedia.org)
  • Addition of chlorine to water gives both hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl): Cl2 + H2O ⇌ HClO + HCl Cl2 + 4 OH− ⇌ 2 ClO− + 2 H2O + 2 e− Cl2 + 2 e− ⇌ 2 Cl− When acids are added to aqueous salts of hypochlorous acid (such as sodium hypochlorite in commercial bleach solution), the resultant reaction is driven to the left, and chlorine gas is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the formation of stable hypochlorite bleaches is facilitated by dissolving chlorine gas into basic water solutions, such as sodium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other inorganic fluorides made in large quantities include cobalt difluoride (for organofluorine synthesis), nickel difluoride (electronics), lithium fluoride (a flux), sodium fluoride (water fluoridation), potassium fluoride (flux), and ammonium fluoride (various). (wikipedia.org)
  • SULFUR
  • In purple sulfur bacteria, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is oxidized to sulfur (S). In oxygenic photosynthesis, water (H2O) serves as a substrate for photolysis resulting in the generation of diatomic oxygen (O2). (wikipedia.org)
  • bromine
  • In addition to the work on the destruction of aryl chlorides it has been shown that aliphatic chlorine and bromine compounds such as perchloroethylene, Freon (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane) and halon-2402 (1,2-dibromo-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) can be dehalogenated by the action of radiation on alkaline isopropanol solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • chloride
  • Lead tetrachloride can be made by reacting lead(II) chloride PbCl2, and hydrochloric acid HCl, in the presence of chlorine gas (Cl2), leading to the formation of chloroplumbic acid H2PbCl6. (wikipedia.org)
  • The journal Environmental Science & Technology reported that sweat and urine react with chlorine and produce trichloramine and cyanogen chloride, two chemicals dangerous to human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The standard chloride process for titanium dioxide base material consists of the following main production units: Oxidation Chlorination Condensation Purification The following auxiliary production units are necessary: Ore/coke storage Off-Gas Treatment Dust treatment Under steady state conditions the chloride process is a continuous cycle in which chlorine changes from the oxidized state to the reduced state and reverse. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein-bound inorganic complex contains four manganese ions, plus calcium and chloride ions as cofactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • after irradiation, "dioxins" (polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins) are dechloroinated in the same way as PCBs can be converted to biphenyl an inorganic chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because the solvated electrons react with the organic compound to form a radical anion, which decomposes by the loss of a chloride anion. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a deoxygenated mixture of PCBs in isopropanol or mineral oil is irradiated with gamma rays, then the PCBs will be dechlorinated to form inorganic chloride and biphenyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • contaminants
  • Sanitation methods include a water filter to remove pollutants, disinfection to kill infectious microorganisms, swimmer hygiene to minimize the introduction of contaminants into pool water, and regular testing of pool water, including chlorine and pH levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2010 NASA press release: "The only organic chemicals identified when the Viking landers heated samples of Martian soil were chloromethane and dichloromethane -- chlorine compounds interpreted at the time as likely contaminants from cleaning fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the 2010 NASA press release also noted that: "One reason the chlorinated organics found by Viking were interpreted as contaminants from Earth was that the ratio of two isotopes of chlorine in them matched the three-to-one ratio for those isotopes on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • gaseous
  • Dichlorine hexoxide is the chemical compound with the molecular formula Cl 2O 6, which is correct for its gaseous state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many 1:1 binary compounds are not normally considered diatomic because they are polymeric at room temperature, but they form diatomic molecules when evaporated, for example gaseous MgO, SiO, and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • If a diatomic molecule consists of two atoms of the same element, such as hydrogen (H2) or oxygen (O2), then it is said to be homonuclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • John Dalton's original atomic hypothesis assumed that all elements were monatomic and that the atoms in compounds would normally have the simplest atomic ratios with respect to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Most chemical elements that are ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxidized form of the chlorine is molecular chlorine Cl2, the reduced form is titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). (wikipedia.org)
  • The added O2 leaves the process with the product TiO2, the added coke leaves the process together with the added oxygen from the titanium ore in form of CO and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypochlorite
  • Strong chlorine solution" is a 0.5% solution of hypochlorite (containing approximately 5000 ppm free chlorine) used for disinfecting areas contaminated with body fluids, including large blood spills (the area is first cleaned with detergent before being disinfected). (wikipedia.org)
  • Weak chlorine solution" is a 0.05% solution of hypochlorite used for washing hands, but is normally prepared with calcium hypochlorite granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • diatomic
  • The homonuclear diatomic gases and noble gases together are called "elemental gases" or "molecular gases", to distinguish them from other gases that are chemical compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • All other diatomic molecules are chemical compounds of two different elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • As early as 1805, Gay-Lussac and von Humboldt showed that water is formed of two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen, and by 1811 Amedeo Avogadro had arrived at the correct interpretation of water's composition, based on what is now called Avogadro's law and the assumption of diatomic elemental molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • ozone
  • After the decontamination process, the acidic ozone water disintegrates into water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Thus
  • Also, because of the presence of empty d orbitals on the Pb atom, oxygen can bind to it before a Pb-Cl bond has to break, thus requiring less energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • Iridium metal is employed when high corrosion resistance at high temperatures is needed, as in high-performance spark plugs, crucibles for recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures, and electrodes for the production of chlorine in the chloralkali process. (wikipedia.org)
  • bleach
  • Solutions containing more than 500 ppm available chlorine are corrosive to some metals, alloys and many thermoplastics (such as acetal resin) and need to be thoroughly removed afterwards, so the bleach disinfection is sometimes followed by an ethanol disinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • To kill pathogens and help prevent recreational water illnesses, pool operators must maintain proper levels of chlorine or another sanitizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of this cycle, free oxygen (O2) is generated and the hydrogen of the water molecules has been converted to four protons released into the thylakoid lumen (Dolai's S-state diagrams). (wikipedia.org)
  • formula
  • Ethyldichloroarsine, sometimes abbreviated 'ED', is an organoarsenic compound with the formula CH3CH2AsCl2. (triveniinterchem.in)
  • For example, Dalton assumed water's formula to be HO, giving the atomic weight of oxygen as eight times that of hydrogen[citation needed], instead of the modern value of about 16. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • Only limited evidence have been shown of lead's carcinogenic effect, but lead tetrachloride, as well as all other lead compounds, is "reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens" according to the Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition (2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • The HClO mechanism of sulfhydryl oxidation is similar to that of chloramine, and may only be bacteriostatic, because once the residual chlorine is dissipated, some sulfhydryl function can be restored. (wikipedia.org)