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  • motility
  • Male factor infertility can include any of the following problems: low sperm counts, poor motility or movement of the sperm, poor sperm quality, or sperm that lack the ability to penetrate an egg. (inciid.org)
  • This process dramatically increased the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF), and could partially overcome poor motility and low sperm count. (inciid.org)
  • Shug human trials showed a 97% decrease in sperm motility through the vas deferens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sample should never be obtained through coitus interruptus for several reasons: Some part of ejaculation could be lost, bacterial contamination could happen and the acid vaginal pH could be detrimental for sperm motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of parameters measured in a semen analysis are: sperm count, motility, morphology, volume, fructose level and pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the sperm count is very high, then a low motility (for example, less than 60%) might not matter, because the fraction might still be more than 8 million per millilitre. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other way around, a man can have a sperm count far less than 20 million sperm cells per millilitre and still have good motility, if more than 60% of those observed sperm cells show good forward movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more specified measure is motility grade, where the motility of sperm are divided into four different grades: Grade a: Sperm with progressive motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sperm is selected not only by its highest motility but also by other factors such as DNA integrity, production of reactive oxygen species and viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract, inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, and impaired growth and development of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • those that decrease sperm motility such as sulfasalazine and nitrofurantoin Genetic abnormalities such as a Robertsonian translocation There is increasing evidence that the harmful products of tobacco smoking may damage the testicles and kill sperm, but their effect on male fertility is not clear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sperm cell acquires a "hyperactive motility pattern" by which its flagellum produces vigorous whip-like movements that propel the sperm through the cervical canal and uterine cavity, until it reaches the isthmus of the fallopian tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • ejaculate
  • We can take a man who would otherwise have to resort to donor sperm, and if we can find just a few weak sperm in his otherwise sterile appearing ejaculate, it is more than enough to microsurgically inject these few sperm into his wife's eggs, fertilize them normally, and get her pregnant. (infertile.com)
  • If there is absolutely no sperm in the ejaculate, we can perform a microsurgically precise testicle biopsy, remove the few non-moving sperm that we find through a highly refined ultra micropipette, inject it into the wife's egg and still get her pregnant. (infertile.com)
  • Sperm count, or sperm concentration to avoid confusion with total sperm count, measures the concentration of sperm in a man's ejaculate, distinguished from total sperm count, which is the sperm count multiplied with volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • find sperm
  • Even in cases where we find no sperm, we can safely freeze the wife's eggs and save them for a future date when further breakthroughs will allow us to find sperm. (infertile.com)
  • The realization that the specific histologic abnormality observed on testis biopsy has no definite correlation to either the etiology of infertility or to the ability to find sperm for assisted reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • motile
  • A man can have a total number of sperm far over the limit of 20 million sperm cells per milliliter, but still have bad quality because too few of them are motile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, so-called swim-up techniques apply a centrifugation step and then sperm is allowed to swim up into a medium, thus enriching a subpopulation of motile sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • male infertility
  • This procedure is most commonly used to overcome male infertility problems, although it may also be used where eggs cannot easily be penetrated by sperm, and occasionally in addition to sperm donation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Age (see also: Paternal age effect) Genetic defects on the Y chromosome Y chromosome microdeletions Abnormal set of chromosomes Klinefelter syndrome Centriole Neoplasm, e.g. seminoma Idiopathic failure Cryptorchidism Trauma Hydrocele Mumps Malaria Testicular cancer Defects in USP26 in some cases Acrosomal defects affecting egg penetration Idiopathic oligospermia - unexplained sperm deficiencies account for 30% of male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common inherited variants in genes that encode enzymes employed in DNA mismatch repair are associated with increased risk of sperm DNA damage and male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increasing amount of recent evidence has been recorded documenting abnormal sperm DNA methylation in association with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilize
  • For normal conception, millions of sperm race through a woman's vagina, pass the cervix, through the uterus and then fallopian tubes to fertilize a single egg (or more in the case of fraternal twins, triplets, etc. (chaivf.com)
  • As a part of CHA Fertility Center IVF treatments, our embryologists can insert a tiny needle through the cell wall of an unfertilized egg and deliver a single sperm cell to fertilize it. (chaivf.com)
  • If there is a question of the sperm's ability to fertilize the egg, due to either a low sperm count or poor quality of the sperm, that poses no problem whatsoever. (infertile.com)
  • This process, while certainly a step forward in the relatively new field of micromanipulation, was considered rather passive because even with the zona opened there was no guarantee the sperm would enter and fertilize the egg. (inciid.org)
  • Sperm sorting is a means of choosing what type of sperm cell is to fertilize the egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm undergoes a process of natural selection when millions of sperm enter vagina but only few reach the egg cell and then only one is usually allowed to fertilize it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm that are unable to properly go through the acrosome reaction will not be able to fertilize an egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration of sperm
  • Such a chip may measure the concentration of sperm in a semen sample against a control liquid filled with polystyrene beads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Density gradient centrifugation (in a continuous or discontinuous gradient) can concentrate semen samples with low concentration of sperm, using the density of sperm as a measure of their quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Harvesting immature sperm for the injection process was always an option, but the technique produced too few fertilised eggs to be of any real clinical value. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Using mouse eggs, we reproduced the failure of sperm from these patients to induce egg activation and rescued it by injection of mouse Plcz1 mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Injection of mouse and human sperm into mouse eggs induces [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations. (nih.gov)
  • Insets in panels for patients K and P depict representative patterns of [Ca 2+ ] i responses observed in the few eggs that initiated oscillations following sperm injection. (nih.gov)
  • However, the eggs and the sperm are then fertilized in the laboratory, by direct injection of a single sperm into each egg. (infertile.com)
  • mature sperm
  • Their improvements have made the version of the technique that uses immature spermatids - the pre-tail precursors of mature sperm - just as successful at producing viable embryos as the version using full-fledged spermatozoa. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • standard IVF treatments
  • In circumstances where standard IVF treatments require manual introduction between egg and sperm, this intimate procedure allows sperm the highest possible chance of fertilizing an egg. (chaivf.com)
  • procedure
  • Although the sperm chosen for the procedure may appear quite normal, researchers in the US have found that many of them in fact have DNA damage, which can decrease the chances of pregnancy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prior to FNA Mapping, testis biopsy was the major procedure for determining the quality of sperm presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testis biopsy is a more invasive procedure than FNA Mapping, and studies have shown that FNA Mapping provides better and more complete information about sperm presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • Human sperm devoid of PLC, zeta 1 fail to induce Ca(2+) release and are unable to initiate the first step of embryo development. (nih.gov)
  • In 1999 it was reported that paternal sperm mitochondria (containing mtDNA) are marked with ubiquitin to select them for later destruction inside the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our preliminary results using this new evaluation method show a clear negative correlation between the percentage of DNA fragmented sperm and the embryo quality and pregnancy outcome," said Mr. Avendaño. (innovations-report.com)
  • testes
  • It can be used to help men who have a total blockage of any part of the male tubing from the testes as sperm can be 'sucked' directly from the blocked tubing or from the testicle itself. (essentialparent.com)
  • Testicular factors refer to conditions where the testes produce sperm of low quantity and/or poor quality despite adequate hormonal support and include: Varicocele, is a condition of swollen testicle veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • human sperm
  • Together, our results indicate that the inability of human sperm to initiate [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations leads to failure of egg activation and sterility and that abnormal PLCZ1 expression underlies this functional defect. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse sperm (left panel) induce consistent oscillations (representative of at least 10 sperm per male and of at least 10 different males), whereas human sperm induce highly variable responses according to male of origin (3 right panels). (nih.gov)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic sperm defects and consanguinity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although few dysfunctional proteins could result in abnormal junction between the head and tail of spermatozoon, little is known about the genetic cues in this process. (bmj.com)
  • With PZD, frequently too many sperm would enter the egg causing genetic abnormalities and arrested development of the zygote. (inciid.org)
  • azoospermic
  • A vasectomy is considered successful if the sample is azoospermic (zero sperm of any kind found). (wikipedia.org)
  • FNA Mapping failed to diagnose the degree of "patchiness" of sperm production in azoospermic men and determine, among other things, whether a sperm retrieval would succeed in a specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • Among the 28 candidate genes identified by RNA-sequencing analysis, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified 10 genes whose expression was enriched in regenerating tadpole tails compared with non-regenerating tadpole tails or tails from the tail bud embryos. (jove.com)
  • single
  • This is done on a microscopic scale with a micro-pipette and micro-injector being utilized to manipulate the cell and introduce the single sperm into the egg. (chaivf.com)
  • From the opposite side a thin, hollow glass micropipette is used to collect a single sperm, having immobilised it by cutting its tail with the point of the micropipette. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defective sperm function remains the single most important cause of human infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • In theory, it can help a man who can produce only a single sperm, and the sperm does not even need to be able to move or to be fully mature. (essentialparent.com)
  • defects
  • It is very easy to damage the egg, and there is a considerable skill in picking up the best sperm, free from obvious defects that might prevent fertilisation. (essentialparent.com)
  • ovum
  • The presence of abnormally-shaped sperm can negatively affect fertility by preventing transport through the cervix and/or preventing sperm from adhering to the ovum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sperm approaches the ovum in the ampulla of the fallopian tube with the help of various mechanisms, including chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoproteins on the outer surface of the sperm then bind with glycoproteins on the zona pellucida of the ovum. (wikipedia.org)
  • cumulus
  • In normal circumstances, the egg is surrounded by a cluster of cells known as the cumulus-corona cells, all of which must be removed before the sperm injection takes place. (inciid.org)
  • If cumulus were not removed, it could create a shadow that may impair viewing and jeopardize the injection. (inciid.org)
  • acrosome reaction
  • Therefore, sperm cells go through a process known as the acrosome reaction which is the reaction that occurs in the acrosome of the sperm as it approaches the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the sperm approaches the zona pellucida of the egg, which is necessary for initiating the acrosome reaction, the membrane surrounding the acrosome fuses with the plasma membrane of the sperm's head, exposing the contents of the acrosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm that did not initiate the acrosome reaction prior to reaching to the zona pellucida are unable to penetrate the zona pellucida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the acrosome reaction has already occurred, sperm are then able to penetrate the zona pellucida due to mechanical action of the tail, not because of the acrosome reaction itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is necessary for the acrosome reaction to occur before the sperm cell reaches the zona pellucida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphological
  • Morphological observation showed that almost all the DDS broke into decaudated heads and headless tails at the implantation fossa or the basal plate. (bmj.com)
  • zona
  • With SUZI, once the shell was punctured the sperm was then injected into the area between the zona and the egg, rather than left to find its own way. (inciid.org)
  • While he was at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology as a Dr. M.C. Chang's postdoctoral fellow (1960-1964), he witnessed and recorded the entire process of sperm penetration through the zona pellucida and fusion with the egg proper in living (hamster) egg, which was the first in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acrosomal reaction does not begin until the sperm comes into contact with the oocyte's zona pellucida. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mouse it has been demonstrated that ZP3, one of the proteins that make up the zona pellucida, binds to a partner molecule (to the β1,4-galactosyl transferase receptors) on the sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zona pellucida also releases Ca granules to prevent additional sperm from binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Some sources state that so little paternal mtDNA is transmitted as to be negligible ("At most, one presumes it must be less than 1 in 1000, since there are 100 000 mitochondria in the human egg and only 100 in the sperm (Satoh and Kuroiwa, 1991). (wikipedia.org)
  • Testis
  • Turek is the inventor of Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Mapping, also known less formally as sperm mapping, testicular cartography, or "GPS for the testis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assisted reproduction has undergone dramatic advances such that testis sperm are routinely used for biological pregnancies, thus fueling the development of novel FNA techniques to both locate and procure sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • count
  • and in human subjects, a urethane-coated nylon IVT resulted in significantly reduced sperm count but could not guarantee absolute sterility at the same rate as a vasectomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lower sperm count is considered oligozoospermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chips for home use are emerging that can give an accurate estimation of sperm count after three samples taken on different days. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrieval
  • This technique has been important because it has improved identification of men who are likely to have a successful sperm retrieval while at the same time avoiding costly and unnecessary assisted reproductive techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • infertility
  • Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance (RISUG) is a non-toxic polymer gel-based contraceptive that is injected into the lumen of the vas deferens and results in infertility within 10 days following injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Following the binding of these antibodies, spermatozoa which undergo apoptosis are sorted by applying magnetic field to the sperm suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICSI
  • FNA Mapping is a non-invasive office procedure that can be performed in a standardized, template fashion to identify men who qualify for, and assist in the planning of, sperm retrieval for IVF-ICSI. (wikipedia.org)
  • In men with no sperm count (azoospermia), it soon became clear that sperm could be found in the testes and used with ICSI, but sperm production was characteristically "patchy" or "focal" in azoospermic testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of insemination, ICSI needs one only sperm cell per oocyte, meanwhile IVF needs between 50 and 100 thousands. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the past decade, ICSI has been applied increasingly around the world to alleviate problems of severe male infertility in human patients who either could not be assisted by conventional IVF procedures or could not be accepted for IVF because too few motile and morphologically normal sperm were present in the ejaculate of the male partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low sperm count, poor quality of sperms and inability to fertilize the egg are some of the factors for which ICSI is suggested. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first child born from a gamete micromanipulation (technique in which special tools and inverted microscopes are used that help embryologists to choose and pick an individual sperm for ICSI IVF) was a child in Singapore-born in April 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ICSI IVF, the male partner or a donor provides a sperm sample on the same day when the eggs are collected. (wikipedia.org)
  • testicular
  • In this study, we analyzed sperm parameters and prevalence of HPV on sperm in 155 testicular cancer patients at diagnosis (T−1), after orchiectomy (T0) and after 12 months from surgery or from the end of adjuvant treatments (T12). (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, patients with testicular cancer had frequently altered sperm parameters and higher prevalence of HPV semen infection that were worsened after radio and chemotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Turek is the inventor of Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Mapping, also known less formally as sperm mapping, testicular cartography, or "GPS for the testis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extraction of sperm from epididymis is also known as percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and extraction of sperm from testicle is also known as testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • This technique has been important because it has improved identification of men who are likely to have a successful sperm retrieval while at the same time avoiding costly and unnecessary assisted reproductive techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • contraception
  • Here, using an integrative approach that combines hormonal, chemical, genetic and behavioural analyses, we document the profound impact of contraception on detectable female olfactory signals in a highly sociable, promiscuous primate, the ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • semen
  • All patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of semen infection than controls (9.5% and 2.4% respectively,) and altered sperm parameters both at T−1 and T0. (frontiersin.org)
  • eggs
  • This procedure is most commonly used to overcome male infertility problems, although it may also be used where eggs cannot easily be penetrated by sperm, and occasionally in addition to sperm donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Testis biopsy is a more invasive procedure than FNA Mapping, and studies have shown that FNA Mapping provides better and more complete information about sperm presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Some sources state that so little paternal mtDNA is transmitted as to be negligible ("At most, one presumes it must be less than 1 in 1000, since there are 100 000 mitochondria in the human egg and only 100 in the sperm (Satoh and Kuroiwa, 1991). (wikipedia.org)
  • Defective sperm function remains the single most important cause of human infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • We examined the effects of a common contraceptive, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), on the olfactory cues of female ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta ), and the behavioural response these cues generated in male conspecifics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For example, in Mytilidae mussels, paternal mtDNA "is transmitted through the sperm and establishes itself only in the male gonad. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • FNA Mapping failed to diagnose the degree of "patchiness" of sperm production in azoospermic men and determine, among other things, whether a sperm retrieval would succeed in a specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • take
  • Based on this, very take the lining in doxycycline capsules used treat sperm your sperm has decided that it represents the best provider for you. (eltbech.pl)
  • provide
  • Ring-tailed lemurs provide an ideal model for examining the effects of hormonal manipulation on olfactory signals, as they display a complex system of chemical communication that shows natural variation owing to hormonal modulation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • help
  • In the 1980s, Fishel sought out Falmouth-based micro-electronics firm Research Instruments to help him develop tools for the earliest beginnings of sperm microinjection. (wikipedia.org)