• triglyceride
  • In type 2 diabetic patients, hepatic parenchymal perfusion ( r = −0.360, P = 0.007) and hepatic fatty acid influx rate constant ( r = −0.407, P = 0.007) correlated inversely with hepatic triglyceride content. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, type 2 diabetic patients with increased hepatic triglyceride content showed decreased hepatic parenchymal perfusion and hepatic insulin mediated glucose uptake, suggesting a potential modulating effect of hepatic fat on hepatic physiology. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The medium-chain triglyceride decanoic acid has been shown to be a partially-activating PPAR-gamma ligand that does not increase adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF21 also protects animals from diet-induced obesity when overexpressed in transgenic mice and lowers blood glucose and triglyceride levels when administered to diabetic rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition of lipogenesis occurs through the down regulation of fatty acid and triglyceride gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It shares with Angptl4 and Angptl3 the ability to inhibit the enzyme Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and its hepatic overexpression causes elevation of circulating Triglyceride levels in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • LPL functions as a homodimer, and has the dual functions of triglyceride hydrolase and ligand/bridging factor for receptor-mediated lipoprotein uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANGPTL4 in nonexercising muscle presumably leads to reduced local uptake of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids and their sparing for use by exercising muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In addition to promoting glucose uptake, insulin regulates long-chain fatty acid uptake, protein synthesis, and vascular function in the normal cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lipolysis, lipid oxidation, ketone body synthesis, tailored endogenous glucose production and uptake, and decreased glucose oxidation serve to protect against excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains for synthesis of newly formed glucose. (physiology.org)
  • These processes are crucial for survival and serve to protect the organism from excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains that can be used for synthesis of newly formed glucose ( 14 , 26 , 87 , 99 ). (physiology.org)
  • Western blot analysis revealed that, compared with the TNF-α-treated control group, FWFE increased the expression of the insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), and increased IR tyrosyl phosporylation, in insulin resistant FL83B cells. (mdpi.com)
  • AdPLA regulates adipocyte lipolysis and release of fatty acids through a G-protein coupled pathway involving prostaglandin and EP3. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGE2 enters the signaling pathway binding to G protein-coupled receptor (EP3) which inhibits adenylyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also evidence suggesting that acylation stimulating protein (ASP) promotes the aggregation of triglycerides in adipose cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major role for RIP140 in adipose tissue is to block the expression of genes involved in energy dissipation and mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein 1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • This response results in an increased prevalence of essential hypertension and higher plasma uric acid concentration. (bootcampmilitaryfitnessinstitute.com)
  • Net glucose transfer is therefore highly dependent on maternal-fetal concentration gradients [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • When carbohydrates are consumed, digested, and absorbed the pancreas senses the subsequent rise in blood glucose concentration and releases insulin to promote an uptake of glucose from the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction of glucose and lipogenic gene expression is assumed to be managed by the increasing concentration of an unknown glucose metabolite through the activity of glucokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it can regulate fatty acid concentration in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong activity in glyceroneogenesis will induce the re-esterification of fatty acid which will result in decrease of fatty acid concentration in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cell surface, GLUT4 permits the facilitated diffusion of circulating glucose down its concentration gradient into muscle and fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate cannot diffuse back out of cells, which also serves to maintain the concentration gradient for glucose to passively enter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, and unresponsive to the concentration of glucose in the blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • FFAs
  • The plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) were estimated in steroid-background rats (SBRs) and compared with those in healthy rats treated with normal saline. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The plasma levels of FFAs increased markedly in SBRs, the HOMA index was markedly higher, and glucose tolerance was impaired. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EA improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by decreasing the plasma levels of FFAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, FFAs, TNF-α, and glucocorticoids, through different mechanisms, stimulate the accumulation of ceramide and various ceramide metabolites ( 16 - 24 ), and these sphingolipids have been shown to amass in tissues from insulin-resistant rodents ( 25 , 26 ) and humans ( 27 , 28 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • pancreas
  • We also examine three organs with endocrine tissue: hypothalamus, thymus, and pancreas. (schoolbag.info)
  • In the beta-cells of the pancreas, glucose enters through the GLUT 2 receptors (process described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucose that goes in the bloodstream after food consumption also enters the beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • As we eat and glucose levels increase, insulin is released from the pancreas and into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • type 2 diabet
  • 16 Moreover, in 207 women with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, low plasma leptin predicted cardiovascular mortality during a 7-year follow-up period. (ahajournals.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Free fatty acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction involves several mechanisms including impaired insulin signaling and nitric oxide production, oxidative stress, inflammation and the activation of the renin-angiotensin system and apoptosis in the endothelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The vascular endothelium is a tightly regulated organ that forms a vast interface between the blood and neighboring tissues, and is consisted of a monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • triglycerides
  • Glyceroneogenesis involves re-esterification of fatty acids to generate triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), into two free fatty acids and one monoacylglycerol molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity
  • Impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake is a uniformly observed characteristic of the heart in these states, although changes in upstream kinase signaling are variable and dependent on the severity and duration of the associated obesity or diabetes mellitus. (ahajournals.org)
  • The multiple definitions have included insulin resistance or glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity. (bootcampmilitaryfitnessinstitute.com)
  • Obesity is strongly associated with changes in the physiological function of adipose tissue, leading to insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and altered secretion of adipokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Plasma free fatty acids levels are increased in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes, playing detrimental roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An imbalance in glucose intake and energy expenditure has been shown to lead to both adipose cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which lead to obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In morbid obesity, RIP140 levels are down-regulated in visceral adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thyroid receptors bind to response elements in gene promoters, thus enabling them to activate or inhibit transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-throughput RNA sequencing of lung tissue samples from the 1918 and 2009 influenza pandemic revealed that ANGPTL4 was one of the most significantly upregulated gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extent of inhibition increases along the glycolytic pathway, being most severe at the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase and less severe at the level of glucose uptake and 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose in the body increases after food consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • As activity increases and it begins to pump faster, the cardiac muscles begin to oxidize glucose at a higher rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, GLUT4 transporters are inserted and become available for transporting glucose, and glucose absorption increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Insulin is secreted by pancreatic β cells in response to increased circulating levels of glucose after a meal. (jci.org)
  • Many insulin sensitizing drugs (namely, the thiazolidinediones) used in the treatment of diabetes activate PPARG as a means to lower serum glucose without increasing pancreatic insulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Decreased capacity for adipocyte differentiation and angiogenesis along with adipocyte hypertrophy can trigger a vicious cycle of inflammation leading to subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction and ectopic fat deposition. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, hepatic steatosis is associated with impaired insulin signaling in insulin responsive tissues by promoting the formation of humoral factors, ( 5 ) and it plays a role in atherogenesis via induction of systemic inflammation ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • ANGPTL4 enhanced pulmonary tissue leakiness and exacerbated inflammation-induced lung damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • This is when plasma concentrations of fatty acids or ketone bodies are increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the fasted state, cortisol stimulates several processes that collectively serve to increase and maintain normal concentrations of glucose in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • As G-6-P concentrations decrease, hexokinase becomes less inhibited, and the glycolytic and oxidative pathways that make ATP are able to proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also means that muscle cells are able to take in more glucose as its intracellular concentrations decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway is part of a closed-loop feedback process: Elevated concentrations of T3, and T4 in the blood plasma inhibit the production of TSH in the anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells, secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • Although sphingolipids represent a significant dietary component, they are largely degraded in the mammalian intestine ( 29 ), and their production in animal tissues is primarily dependent on a widespread biosynthetic pathway ( 30 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adipocyte hypotrophy was attributed primarily to reduced triacylglyceride content in WAT from lipolysis, while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)