• vitro
  • In vitro, Caco-2 cells were cultured for 21 d, homogenized, and used as an enzyme preparation with sucrose as substrate in concentrations from 7 to 280 mmol/L with 0.84, 1.4, and 2.8 mmol l-arabinose/L as inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that L. reuteri strains, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to Caco-2 cells and are highly antagonistic to pathogens tested in which surface associated proteins play an important role. (frontiersin.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Sucrose esters fluidized the plasma membrane and enhanced the accumulation of efflux transporter ligands rhodamine 123 and calcein AM in epithelial cells, but did not inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P- gp)-mediated calcein AM accumulation in MES-SA/Dx5 cell line. (mtak.hu)
  • The protein PDZD11 was identified as a protein interacting through its N-terminal region with the N-terminal WW domain of PLEKHA7, based on 2-hybrid screen and analysis of PLEKHA7 immunoprecipitates Unlike most other AJ proteins, but similar to afadin, PLEKHA7 is exclusively detected in the zonular apical part of AJ, but not in the "puncta adherentia" along lateral membranes of the epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, researchers discovered that PLEKHA7 recruits the so-called microprocessor complex (association of Drosha and DGCR8 proteins) to a growth-inhibiting site (apical zonula adherens) in epithelial cells instead of sites at basolateral areas of cell-cell contact containing tyrosine-phosphorylated p120 and active Src. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediator
  • It directly targets HER3 receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) through interaction with putative binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of ErbB3 and VEGF-A. miR-205 inhibits the activation of the downstream mediator Akt. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • LPS binding promotes the dimerization of TLR4/MD-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP3A4 promotes the growth of various types of human cancer cell lines in culture by producing (±)-14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids which stimulate these cells to grow, The cytochrome P450 is also reported to have fatty acid monooxgenase activity for metabolizing arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Caco-2 monolayers formed a good barrier as reflected by high transepithelial resistance and positive immunostaining for junctional proteins claudin-1, ZO-1, and -catenin. (mtak.hu)
  • BLT2 receptors, similar to BLT1 receptors, are G protein coupled receptors that, when ligand-bound, activate G proteins that contain either the Gi alpha subunit and are therefore inhibited by pertussis toxin or the Gq alpha subunit and therefore not inhibited by pertussis toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It interacts with the transcription factor TBR1 and binds to several cell-surface proteins including amyloid precursor protein, neurexins and syndecans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram negative microbes are also suspected to deploy bacterial outer membrane vesicles to translocate effector proteins and virulence factors via a novel membrane vesicle trafficking secretory pathway, in order to modify their environment or attack/invade target cells, for example, at the host-pathogen interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yersinia inhibits phagocytosis through the concerted actions of several effector proteins, including YopE which acts as a RhoGAP and inhibits Rac-dependent actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • LPS stimulation induces a series of interactions with several accessory proteins which form the TLR4 complex on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • Sphingomyelin is a lipid constituent of cell membrane, and a dietary component being particularly abundant in milk, cheese, egg, and meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasion
  • Treatment with phloretin simultaneously reduced L. monocytogenes invasion into host cells and blocked the escape of vacuole-entrapped L. monocytogenes into cytoplasm. (frontiersin.org)
  • miR-205 exerts a tumor-suppressive effect in human prostate by counteracting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and reducing cell migration/invasion, at least in part through the down-regulation of protein kinase Cepsilon. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatic
  • First-generation microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors were designed to inhibit hepatic MTP and provide a novel treatment of dyslipidemia. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mevastatin acts to lowers hepatic production of cholesterol by competitively inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway via the mevalonic acid pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Vitamin D refers to two fat soluble substances, vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol), and their metabolites, which are considered to be important nutrients for human health. (mdpi.com)
  • Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling in Human Dendritic Cells is Enhanced by ICOS Ligand and Modulated by the Crohn's Disease ICOSLG Risk Allele. (yale.edu)
  • The decrease is caused by expression of a few mutant forms of ENPP7, which lack exon 4, resulting in total inactivation of the enzyme, as found in human colon and liver cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2006) predicted more than 60 effectors for pathogenic E. coli but could only show for 39 that they are secreted into human Caco-2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma miR-26a has been found to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, in part through direct downregulation of cyclin D2 and cyclin E2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer There is downregulation of miR-26a in breast cancer specimens and cell lines, and it has been shown to functionally antagonise human breast carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-26a is found to be downregulated in primary human Burkitt lymphoma and MYC-driven lymphoma cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme
  • Enzyme levels were measured by using Western blotting and correlated with NO and ONOO¯ levels in normal and cancer cells treated with 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1) (ONOO¯ donor) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (NO donor), respectively. (openthesis.org)
  • When the enzyme is active, the product, malonyl-CoA, is produced which is a building block for new fatty acids and can inhibit the transfer of the fatty acyl group from acyl CoA to carnitine with carnitine acyltransferase, which inhibits the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose
  • Three water-soluble sucrose esters, palmitate (P-1695), myristate (M-1695), laurate (D-1216), and two reference absorption enhancers, Tween 80 and Cremophor RH40, were tested on Caco-2 cells. (mtak.hu)
  • Sucrose esters in nontoxic concentrations significantly reduced resistance and impedance, and increased permeability for atenolol, fluorescein, vinblastine, and rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 monolayers. (mtak.hu)
  • These data indicate that in addition to their dissolution-increasing properties sucrose esters can enhance drug permeability through both the transcellular and paracellular routes without inhibiting P-gp. (mtak.hu)
  • cholesterol
  • Nagaoka S, Miwa K, Eto M, Kuzuya Y, Hori G, Yamamoto K (1999) Soy protein peptic hydrolysate with bound phospholipids decreases micellar solubility and cholesterol absorption in rats and caco-2 cells. (springer.com)
  • protein
  • Another surface protein, ActA, hijacks the actin-assembly machinery of the host cell, which powers the motility of L. monocytogenes into or between infected cells and neighboring cells without exposing the bacteria to extracellular space, enabling it to evade the host immune system ( Reddy and Lawrence, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Leukotriene B4 receptor 2, also known as BLT2, BLT2 receptor, and BLTR2, is a Integral membrane protein that is encoded by the LTB4R2 gene in humans and the Ltbr2 gene in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • it also stimulates cells to activate Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), Protein kinase B (also known as Akt), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT protein (i.e. signal transducer and activator of transcription, NADPH oxidase (NOX), and NF-κB pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is expressed as a precursor protein that is processed into two cell-surface-associated subunits, although the site at which the precursor is cleaved has not been precisely determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 and membrane-associated guanylate kinase 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, it is difficult to prove experimentally that a predicted effector is actually secreted into a host cell because the amount of each effector protein is tiny. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectopic expression of miR-26a influences cell cycle progression by targeting the bona fide oncogene EZH2 which is a polycomb protein and global regulator of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD14 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that binds the LPS-LBP complex and facilitates the transfer of LPS to MD-2 protein, which is associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • This down regulation was also observed in breast cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 compared to the non-malignant cell line MCF-10A. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in Eph4 cell line, PLEKHA7 is recruited to E-cadherin based AJ by Afadin, independently of p120. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • The normal blood glucose level is about 4 mM but increases to about 12 mM within 30 minutes after intake of high carbohydrate diet [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Staphylococcus
  • In 2015 it was also discovered that PLEKHA7 has a role in controlling susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin Cells lacking PLEKHA7 are injured by the toxin, but recover after intoxication. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • COMT activity can be inhibited by a drug called entacapone. (csub.edu)
  • Here, phloretin, a natural polyphenolic compound derived from apples and pears that has little anti- L. monocytogenes activity, was identified to simultaneously inhibit LLO expression and neutralize SrtA catalytic activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • nitric
  • Nanosensors were applied to measure nitric oxide and peroxynitrite concentration in cancer and normal cells. (openthesis.org)
  • respectively
  • The miR-26 family is composed of miR-26a-1, miR-26a-2 and miR-26b located in chromosomes 3, 12 and 2, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • BLT2 is a Cell surface receptor that functions by recognizing, binding, and mediating responses to a particular set of messenger molecules or ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • One prominent cell-activating pathway involves BLT2 receptor activation of NOX2 or NOX1 with the subsequent production of reactive oxygen species which in turn activate the transcription inducing function of NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decrease
  • After the preincubation with SNP and SIN-1 in MRC-5 cells, a significant decrease in eNOS expression was observed compared to HT1080 cancer cells. (openthesis.org)
  • induce
  • Moreover, cysteine is substrate for glutathione, an important intracellular antioxidant, and H 2 S, a gas that can induce endothelial-dependent relaxation. (ahajournals.org)
  • humans
  • It has been cultivated and used in traditional medicine by humans for more than 5000 years [ 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • expression
  • It indicated that exogenous NO or ONOO¯ downregulate eNOS expression in both cancer and normal cells. (openthesis.org)
  • A treatment of CACO-2 cancer cells with SNP decreased eNOS expression more significantly that a treatment with SIN-1. (openthesis.org)
  • In this study, we found that NO not only affected eNOS expression but also cell growths. (openthesis.org)
  • miR-26a again suppresses tumorigenesis in nasopharyngeal cells in vivo, with suppressed expression of c-myc, cyclins D3 and E2, and cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • T cell-extrinsic CD18 attenuates antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell activation in vivo. (yale.edu)
  • Wu X, Lahiri A, Sarin R, Abraham C. T cell-extrinsic CD18 attenuates antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell activation in vivo. (yale.edu)
  • immune cells
  • The development of inflammatory bowel disease appears to be related to the uncontrolled activation of immune cells within the specialized immune system of the intestine. (yale.edu)
  • high
  • Study demonstrated that the high mRNA level of both MCT1 (show CMA1 Antibodies ) and GLUT1 (show SLC2A1 Antibodies ) correlated with poor prognosis, high- Fuhrman grade clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (show MOK Antibodies ) and metabolic reprogramming. (antibodies-online.com)
  • postprandial
  • Thus management of postprandial glucose is critical in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes patients. (hindawi.com)
  • metabolites
  • These messenger ligands are any one of a range of structurally different arachidonic acid metabolites made and released by nearby cells to act as paracrine signals for coordinating responses between cells or autocrine signals for modulating their parent cells' responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Once internalized by host cells Salmonella subverts the endolysosome trafficking pathway to create a Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), which is essential for its intracellular survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • ACC1 is found in the cytoplasm of all cells but is enriched in lipogenic tissue, such as adipose tissue and lactating mammary glands, where fatty acid synthesis is important. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Cysteine, precursor for the important antioxidant glutathione and the gaseous transmitter/signaling molecule H 2 S, can be further converted to cysteine sulfinate. (ahajournals.org)