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  • vapors
  • Dr. Burbacher and colleagues of the University of Washington studied the effects of long-term exposure to methanol vapors on metabolism and reproduction in adult female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and developmental effects in their offspring, who were exposed prenatally to methanol. (healtheffects.org)
  • toxicity
  • The PETA International Science Consortium (PISC) awarded four VITROCELL in vitro exposure systems to researchers from institutions in the UK, US, and Belgium who are leading the development of non-animal methods to test the toxicity of airborne substances. (iivs.org)
  • Repeated exposures to 1/10 of the LCt50 did not produce overt systemic toxicity or significant pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, the inherent physicochemical toxicity of the nanoparticle itself may lead to lower exposure limits than those associated with the radioactivity alone, which is not the case with most radioactive materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Devlin RB, McDonnell WF, Mann R, Becker S, House DE, Schreinemachers D, Koren HS (1991a) Exposure of humans to ambient levels of ozone for 6.6 hours causes cellular and biochemical changes in the lung. (springer.com)
  • For humans, the main source of toxaphene exposure is through ingested seafood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Industrial applications also are quite wide ranging, from preservative and sanitizing uses to antimicrobial agents, energy production, metalworking fluids, mining, paint manufacturing, and paper manufacturing, many of which increase potential exposure to it by humans as well as organisms, both terrestrial and marine. (wikipedia.org)
  • hazards
  • The hazards of ionizing radiation depend on whether the exposure is acute or chronic, and includes effects like radiation-induced cancer and teratogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ozone exposure
  • The overall goals of this study were (1) to develop a system capable of automatically controlling the ozone exposure levels so the steady-state error remained less than 1% and (2) to optimize the system's response time. (cdc.gov)
  • Drechsler-Parks DM, Bedi JF, Horvath SM (1987) Pulmonary function response of older men and women to ozone exposure. (springer.com)
  • assess
  • The aim of the present study was to assess whether asthma onset prior to entering the workforce influences whether a person holds a subsequent job with asthma-related inhalation exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • They also conducted pharmacokinetic studies to determine whether methanol disposition was altered as a result of repeated methanol exposures and to assess pregnancy-related changes. (healtheffects.org)
  • chamber
  • Subjects were exposed in a 2 cubic meter exposure chamber for 4 hours to 200 parts per million (ppm) MEK (20 subjects), 100ppm toluene (30 subjects), 100ppm MEK plus 50ppm toluene (16 subjects) or, as a positive control, 0.8 milliliters ethanol per kilogram of body weight (18 subjects). (cdc.gov)
  • oral
  • The EPA defines an oral reference dose (abbreviated RfD) as: [A]n estimate, with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude, of a daily oral exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • postexposure
  • Venous blood samples were drawn from ethanol and MEK exposed subjects after 2 and 4 hours of exposure, and from MEK plus toluene exposed subjects after 2 hours of exposure and 1.5 hours postexposure. (cdc.gov)
  • studies
  • A new report published by the National Academies Press (NAP) focuses on EPA's controlled human inhalation exposure (CHIE) studies, which are also referred to as human clinical studies or human challenge studies. (aiha.org)
  • A free PDF download of Controlled Human Inhalation-Exposure Studies at EPA is available on NAP's website . (aiha.org)
  • The EPA also determined a chronic RfD for chlorpyrifos exposure based on studies in which animals were administered low doses of the pesticide for two years. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • The investigators did not observe a general performance deterioration over the course of the study, and they suggest that the effective MAK doses might have been much greater if the animals had received an extended course of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Reference doses are specific to dietary exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • worker exposure
  • One study considers release of airborne engineered nanoparticles at workplaces, and associated worker exposure from various production and handling activities, to be very probable. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • The system allows you to vary the concentration of airborne pathogens, the rate of air flow, and the length of exposure, so experiments can be reproduced accurately and adjusted easily. (glascol.com)
  • Exposure is commonly understood to be the concentration of the airborne pollutant in the air at the mouth and nose boundary. (wikipedia.org)
  • risks
  • This system needed the capability of maintaining exposures at selected levels between 0.2 to 3.0 ppm over specified periods ranging between 1 and 8 h in order to evaluate health risks associated with ozone. (cdc.gov)
  • gases
  • For each respondent, a current or previously held job was linked to a job exposure matrix assigning high, low or no exposure to dust, gases or fumes. (cdc.gov)
  • 0.80-1.03) exposure to dust, gases or fumes. (cdc.gov)
  • emissions
  • In this work, a computer tower in an office setting provides a case study to examine the emissions of, and exposure to, PBDEs. (utexas.edu)
  • and hand-held portable versions for measurements of personal exposure to combustion emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • The median lethal dose (LD50) of ricin is around 22 micrograms per kilogram of body weight if the exposure is from injection or inhalation (1.78 milligrams for an average adult). (wikipedia.org)
  • harmful
  • But detection of cases of excessive exposure of harmful agents on those workers who properly used and maintained approved respirators (with high efficiency filters), has prompted experts to change their opinions. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • The authors note that these levels do not exceed those for single exposures, and conclude that the OSHA mixtures formula, which assumes additivity, is conservative in relation to the exposure conditions studied. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high levels of toxaphene can cause damage to the lungs, nervous system, liver, kidneys, and in extreme cases, may even cause death. (wikipedia.org)
  • sources
  • The main sources of exposure are through food, drinking water, breathing contaminated air, and direct contact with contaminated soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • materials
  • RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials [03-May-- RIFM 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion Model Is An Alternative Method To Calculate Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance WOODCLIFF LAKE, New Jersey, May 3, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) is beta testing its innovative 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion Model software, an alternative method for assessing inhalation exposure to fragrance materials. (comunicati.net)
  • systems
  • These systems are necessary for determining the dose-response relationship of toxicants under a variety of exposure conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • children
  • The EPA then looked at dietary exposure to endosulfan, and found that for the most exposed 0.1% of children age 1-6, their daily consumption of the endosulfan exceeded this RfD. (wikipedia.org)
  • To remedy this, the EPA revoked the use of endosulfan on the crops that contributed the most to exposure of children: certain beans, peas, spinach, and grapes. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • The new Right side door model desktop Inhalation Exposure System provides the same reproducible animal exposure to droplet-borne contaminants and infectious agents as our standard larger unit. (glascol.com)
  • The 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion Model is a computational, indoor environment, air exposure model that characterizes the movement of a single chemical inside two connected, enclosed rooms. (comunicati.net)
  • respiratory
  • Therefore, from a liability standpoint an employee that has not had respiratory protection over several years could develop bone or other cancers from NORM exposure and decide to seek compensation such as medical expenses and lost wages from the oil company which generated the TENORM and the employer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection in humans typically occurs by direct or indirect exposure to animal excrement through the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • allergic
  • Pneumonia Radiation therapy Inhaling chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide Sepsis Adverse reaction to medications Hypersensitivity to inhaled agents Inhalation of spores of some species of mushroom (bronchoalveolar allergic syndrome) Mercury exposure Smoking Overexposure to chlorine Bronchial obstruction (obstructive pneumonitis or post-obstructive pneumonitis) Ascariasis (during parasite migration) Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) "pneumonitis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Stedman's medical dictionary (28th ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Not likely to be carcinogenic to humans.There is no concern for mutagenicity resulting from exposure to dinotefuran. (rayfull.com)
  • Members of other Bunyaviridae family genera are generally arthropod-borne viruses, but hantaviruses are thought to be transmitted to humans mainly through inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta or rodent bites. (wikipedia.org)
  • measures
  • Material Safety Data Sheet for: HERCULITE XRV ULTRA SECTION 8 Exposure controls/personal protection PEL/TLV (TiO2 contained only in dentin shades): 3,1ppm (10mg/m3) 8.2 Exposure control measures 8.2.1 Precautionary Measures: (according to communitarian directives 89/686/EEC & article 4 of 98/24/EC) Local Exhaust Ventilation: Good general ventilation should be sufficient to control airborne levels of vapors released by Special Ventilation: None. (pdfmedfinder.com)
  • Measures listed in this paragraph are to be consider as indications and NOT as prescriptions (89/656/EEC) 8.2.2 Environment exposure control measures Not Applicable. (pdfmedfinder.com)
  • species
  • Besides the advantage of allowing the recruitment of a priori information about parameter values, these models also facilitate inter-species transpositions or extrapolation from one mode of administration to another (e.g., inhalation to oral). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute
  • Without a history of exposure, lead poisoning has been mistaken for acute viral illness, sickle cell vasoocclusive crisis, gastro-enteritis, acute appendicitis, nephrolithiasis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. (aafp.org)
  • dentin
  • One study has shown that Enterococcus faecalis was still present in the dentin after 40 minutes of exposure of 1.3% and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, whereas 40 minutes at a concentration of 5.25% was effective in E. faecalis removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • thought
  • The outbreak was thought due to visitor inhalation of aerolized droppings of deer mice, which nested in the tent insulation between the walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • direct
  • Three mechanisms for each type of catastrophe were considered: direct irradiation from the fission product cloud, inhalation of the air in the cloud, and rainout from the cloud followed by irradiation from the ground. (unt.edu)
  • people
  • An estimated 10,000 people were possibly at risk because of exposure at the camp grounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In people with sensitized immune systems, the inhalation of one of these substances triggers the production of the antibody immunoglobulin E (IgE), which binds to mast cells and basophils. (wikipedia.org)