• consumption
  • Popkin and colleagues ( 16 ) reported that daily energy consumption among habitual water drinkers in the general adult population was approximately 9% (194 kcal/day) less than those who do not drink water. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The present proposal hypothesizes the trend is attributal, in part, to increasing consumption of energy-yeilding beverages since they are a significant and increasing source of dietarty energy and they elicit weaker appetitive and dietary responses than solid foods. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate ( P =0.01). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Secondary objectives are to encourage screening during annual physical examinations for sports and energy drink use, to understand the reasons why youth consumption is widespread, and to improve education aimed at decreasing or eliminating the inappropriate use of these beverages by children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • Health agencies recommend that people maintain a normal weight by limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, eating plant-based food, limiting consumption of red and processed meat, and limiting alcohol intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • The digestive rate model (DRM) (of foraging) is related to optimal foraging theory in that the model describes the diet selection that animals should perform in order to maximize the energy (or nutrients) available to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • TEF has been described as the energy used in the distribution of nutrients and metabolic processes in the liver, but a hepatectomized animal shows no signs of TEF and intravenous injection of amino acids results in an effect equal to that of oral ingestion of the same amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothalamic
  • Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fat on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptides in chickens subjected to two feeding states or two diets. (biologists.org)
  • Several studies have shown that these hypothalamic neuropeptides are sensitive to body energy status and critical to whole-body metabolic adjustment. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that the response of hypothalamic neuropeptides to energy status could be changed by the dietary fat level. (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary fat on the response of hypothalamic neuropeptides to different energy statuses in broiler chickens. (biologists.org)
  • Adults
  • However, it is unknown whether this effect is evident among overweight and obese older adults, a population who would benefit from strategies to improve energy intake regulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Standards adopted by some nations recommend different copper intake levels for adults, pregnant women, infants, and children, corresponding to the varying need for copper during different stages of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • dietary
  • These findings provide a novel view of the metabolic perturbations associated with long-term dietary fat over-ingestion in chickens. (biologists.org)
  • chronic
  • Subjects were weight-stable (±2 kg for more than 1 year, determined by self-report), nonsmokers, without major chronic disease (ie, diabetes, coronary heart disease), and not taking medications known to influence food intake or body weight. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • calories
  • Meaning, the calories you consume will be quickly delivered to your cells to produce energy instead of being stored away by your adipocytes as fat. (algaecal.com)
  • By using more calories for energy, there are less calories to be stored as fat. (algaecal.com)
  • Two mechanisms are required to maintain a relatively constant body weight: one must increase motivation to eat if long-term reservoirs are being depleted, and the other must restrain food intake if more calories than needed are being consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • Rigorous review and analysis of the literature reveal that caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • calorie
  • The effect that eating has on weight gain can vary greatly depending on the following factors: energy (calorie) density of foods, exercise regimen, amount of water intake, amount of salt contained in the food, time of day eaten, age of individual, individual's country of origin, individual's overall stress level, and amount of water retention in ankles/feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • assuming total calorie intake for the days are equivalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • balance
  • Energy intake from prey ingestion must exceed these costs if a predator is to achieve a net positive energy balance. (biologists.org)
  • Other factors beside energy balance that may contribute to gaining weight include: A study, involving more than 12,000 people tracked over 32 years, found that social networks play a surprisingly powerful role in determining an individual's chances of gaining weight, transmitting an increased risk of becoming obese from wives to husbands, from brothers to brothers and from friends to friends. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurements
  • The internal doses for workers or members of the public exposed to the intake of radioactive particulates can be estimated using bioassay data such as lung and body counter measurements, urine or faecal radioisotope concentration, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) biokinetic models are applied to establish a relationship between the individual intake and the bioassay measurements, and then to infer the internal dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ICRP further states "For internal exposure, committed effective doses are generally determined from an assessment of the intakes of radionuclides from bioassay measurements or other quantities (e.g., activity retained in the body or in daily excreta). (wikipedia.org)
  • increase
  • For both terrestrial ( Kleiber, 1975 ) and marine ( Costa and Williams, 1999 ) carnivores, metabolic rate may increase 30-67% over resting levels following the ingestion of prey. (biologists.org)
  • Supplemental barley and activated charcoal increase intake of sagebrush by lambs. (springer.com)
  • The increase of food intake by so many people is due primarily to a number of environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • GLUT2 is present in brain areas involved in the control of food intake, whereas the exact nature of GLUT2-expressing cells remains unclear since GLUT2 has been identified in neurons, astrocytes, and tanycytes ( 1 , 2 , 17 , 28 , 36 ). (physiology.org)
  • body
  • It follows that the additional radiation exposure due to eating a banana lasts only for a few hours after ingestion, i.e. the time it takes for the normal potassium content of the body to be restored by the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EPA conversion factor, on the other hand, is based on the mean time needed for the isotopic mix of potassium isotopes in the body to return to the natural ratio after being disturbed by the ingestion of pure 40K, which was assumed by EPA to be 30 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since copper availability in the body is hindered by an excess of iron and zinc intake, pregnant women prescribed iron supplements to treat anemia or zinc supplements to treat colds should consult physicians to be sure that the prenatal supplements they may be taking also have nutritionally-significant amounts of copper. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • The ICRP defines Committed effective dose, E(t) as the sum of the products of the committed organ or tissue equivalent doses and the appropriate tissue weighting factors WT, where t is the integration time in years following the intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • caffeine
  • Caffeine can produce a mild form of drug dependence - associated with withdrawal symptoms such as sleepiness, headache, and irritability - when an individual stops using caffeine after repeated daily intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • density
  • These foods have a low energy density, which is mainly due to the high water content and partly due to the fiber content. (wikipedia.org)
  • amount
  • When lambs were offered choices between terpene-containing diets and alfalfa, energy and protein concentrations influenced the amount of terpenes animals ingested. (springer.com)
  • differences
  • The primary objectives of this clinical report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and abuses. (aappublications.org)
  • drinks
  • Sports Drinks and Energy Drinks for Children and Adolescents: Are They Appropriate? (aappublications.org)
  • Sports and energy drinks are a large and growing beverage industry now marketed to children and adolescents for a variety of uses. (aappublications.org)
  • Marketing strategies for sports drinks suggest optimization of athletic performance and replacement of fluid and electrolytes lost in sweat during and after exercise, and marketing strategies for energy drinks purport a boost in energy, decreased fatigue, enhanced concentration, and mental alertness. (aappublications.org)
  • Stimulant-containing energy drinks have no place in the diets of children or adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • This report defines and categorizes selected popular sports and energy drinks, reviews their contents, and examines the evidence for and against the use of sports and energy drinks in children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • solid
  • Shielding: Sources of radiation can be shielded with solid or liquid material, which absorbs the energy of the radiation. (wikipedia.org)