• vaccine
  • As a large animal model, the horse is also a useful species in which to evaluate the potential of new generations of influenza vaccine such as live-attenuated influenza virus engineered by reverse genetics. (blogspot.com)
  • Live attenuated influenza virus vaccine. (blogspot.com)
  • A more important clinical implication of this work is the identification of a universal neutralizing epitope in the HA stalk at the atomic level an important intellectual landmark for the development of a universal influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • with vaccine production hoped to increase until one billion doses are produced by one year after the virus is first identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The companies receiving the contracts were: GlaxoSmithKline $274.8 million MedImmune Inc $169.5 million Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics $220.5 million DynPort Vaccine Company, LLC $41 million Solvay Pharmaceuticals $298.6 million The US government purchased from Sanofi Pasteur and Chiron Corporation several million doses of vaccine meant to be used in case of an influenza pandemic due to H5N1 and is conducting clinical trials on them[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • To further understand the character of other influenza viruses of the H7 subtype, we selected two H7N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from wild birds during routine surveillance in China: A/Baer's Pochard/Hunan/414/2010 (BP/HuN/414/10) (H7N1) and A/Common Pochard/Xianghai/420/2010 (CP/XH/420/10) (H7N1). (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, it is important to monitor H7 viruses in both domestic and wild birds. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 2003, 30 million birds were culled in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany after an H7N7 subtype influenza outbreak. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, wild aquatic birds, particularly waterfowl, waders and gulls, are regarded as a major natural reservoir of LPAI viruses, and these birds generally remain healthy while carrying the viruses ( Alexander, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To date, sixteen known HA (H1-H16) and nine NA (N1-N9) subtypes of influenza A viruses have been isolated from aquatic birds, which are the reservoir of influenza A virus in nature [ 4 , 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Horse Diseases Equine encephalitesFive kinds of viruses kill horses, people and wild animals including birds.Horses are especially sensitive to all of these encephalitis viruses. (powershow.com)
  • Avian influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the World Health Organization and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, H5N1 pathogenicity is gradually continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, and so far there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza type A viruses are known to infect people, birds, pigs, horses, whales, seals and other animals, but wild birds represent the natural hosts for these viruses. (news-medical.net)
  • Human infections with avian influenza viruses have most often occurred after unprotected close contact with infected birds or the excretions/secretions of infected birds (e.g., droppings, oral fluids). (cdc.gov)
  • Infected birds shed virus in their saliva, mucous and feces. (cdc.gov)
  • Increased mortality (2.5 per cent in one shed) and a drop in egg production had been recorded two weeks before birds started dying in large numbers on June 2, leading to the diagnosis of HP H7N7 on June 4. (sinobiological.com)
  • Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Companion birds in captivity are unlikely to contract the virus and there has been no report of a companion bird with avian influenza since 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely quoted date for the beginning of recorded history of avian influenza (initially known as fowl plague) was in 1878 when it was differentiated from other diseases that caused high mortality rates in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other birds may pick up the virus through direct contact with these excretions or when they have contact with surfaces contaminated with this material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because migratory birds are among the carriers of the H5N1 virus it may spread to all parts of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian flu virus can last indefinitely at a temperature dozens of degrees below freezing, as is found in the northern most areas that migratory birds frequent. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner: Following an incubation period of usually a few days (but rarely up to 21 days), depending upon the characteristics of the isolate, the dose of inoculum, the species, and age of the bird, the clinical presentation of avian influenza in birds is variable and symptoms are fairly unspecific. (wikipedia.org)
  • In southeast Asia, millions of domestic birds have been slaughtered to prevent the spread of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Effectof maternal antibodies and age on equine influenza vaccination. (blogspot.com)
  • The antibody has been refined in order to remove any excess, unstable mutations that could negatively affect its neutralising ability, and this new version of the antibody has been termed "FI6v3" Researchers from Britain and Switzerland have found antibodies that work in Group 1 influenza A viruses or against most Group 2 viruses, but not against both. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most broadly reactive antibodies that had previously been discovered recognized either one group of HA subtypes or the other, highlighting how remarkable FI6 is in its ability to target the gamut of influenza subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuraminidase
  • Influenza viruses type A can be further subdivided in different serologically differentiated subtypes according to the structure and composition of two antigenic glycoproteins located in the surface of the virion: haemagglutinin (HA) involved in binding of the virus to host cells and neuraminidase (NA) implicated in release of virus from infected cells. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, among others, have been used to treat influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • conjunctivitis
  • H7 virus infections in people have been associated with a wide range of illness from conjunctivitis only, to influenza-like illness, to severe respiratory illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral
  • The virus achieves such mutations due to the lack of enzymes that correct errors made on the viral genome during replication. (studymode.com)
  • Although we have immunizations against many viral diseases and are adept at treating the symptoms of others, the ability of virus to replicate and mutate allow them almost impossible to stop an ongoing war for centuries. (studymode.com)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • pandemic threat
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, the H5N1 virus has recently been regarded to be the world's largest current pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • To better understand the epidemiology, geographic spread, and clinical spectrum of this virus in China, we describe the Chinese National Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance Network (CNISN) and analyze data collected since March 4, 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza spreads around the world in a yearly outbreak, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigs
  • Influenza viruses types B and C are predominantly human pathogens that have also been isolated from seals and pigs, respectively. (scielo.org.ar)
  • McCauley, J. W. 1997-05-01 00:00:00 An H1N7 influenza A virus, isolated from pigs in England in 1992, was examined genetically to determine the characteristics and probable origin of the eight gene segments. (deepdyve.com)
  • Pigs can also be infected with human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, allow for mixtures of genes (reassortment) to create a new virus, which can cause an antigenic shift to a new influenza A virus subtype which most people have little to no immune protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main hosts appear to be cattle but this virus has been reported from pigs also. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • On the basis of product type, the global flu detection device market can be further segmented into Rapid Influenza Detection Test (RIDT), Direct Fluorescence Antibody Tests (DSFA), Direct Fluorescence Antibody Test (DFA) and Point of Care Detection device. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • In 2011, researchers reported the discovery of an antibody effective against all types of the influenza A virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • FI6 is the only known antibody effective against all 16 subtypes of the influenza A virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody binds to the F domain HA trimer, and prevents the virus from attaching to the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FI6 provides scientists with a broadly neutralizing antibody that recognizes all 16 HA subtypes, including emerging ones, such as H5N1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mild
  • 4 These subtypes, however, often cause only mild to moderate disease, and only one fatal case has been reported (Netherlands in 2003). (bmj.com)
  • Type C viruses are less common and cause mild diseases in children. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • However, influenza C is less common than the other types and usually seems to cause mild disease in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • seasonal influenza
  • Therefore, before considering FI6 as long-term prophylactic or therapeutic agent against seasonal influenza, we would first have to determine whether the influenza virus could quickly mutate the epitope targeted by FI6 and escape recognition by FI6 after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic factors in distinguishing between "human flu viruses" and "avian flu viruses" include: PB2: (RNA polymerase): Amino acid (or residue) position 627 in the PB2 protein encoded by the PB2 RNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • flocks
  • One death was recorded - a veterinarian who had been testing chickens for the virus - and all infected flocks were culled. (wikipedia.org)