• H1N1 and H3N2
  • In the absence of the immunodominant head domain, isolated portions of the HA stalk that include the FI6 epitope and have already been shown to stimulate broad, but not universal, protective effects against H1N1 and H3N2 strains in vaccinated animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Tree balance will be affected by selection, most notably immune escape (see figure 3) The effect of directional selection on the shape of a viral phylogeny is exemplified by contrasting the trees of influenza virus and HIV's surface proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This attachment is required for efficient transfer of flu virus genes into cells, a process that can be blocked by antibodies that bind to the hemagglutinin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza type A viruses are categorized into subtypes based on the type of two proteins on the surface of the viral envelope: H = hemagglutinin, a protein that causes red blood cells to agglutinate. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • 4 New South Wales experienced a more severe season than other states, characterised by higher prevalence of influenza A(H3N2) than the nationally predominant A(H1N1) subtype. (health.gov.au)
  • 10 Some swine herds experience severe influenza-induced respiratory disease despite vaccination, with resulting poor growth performance and mortality. (aasv.org)
  • The virus does not cause more severe illness than other influenza viruses, and no unusual increases in influenza activity have been associated with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • While sometimes confused with the common cold, influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Spanish flu, also known as la grippe, La Gripe Española, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of swine influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1976, a novel swine influenza A (H1N1) caused severe respiratory illness in 13 soldiers with 1 death at Fort Dix, New Jersey. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and cause the most severe disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to three commercial SIV vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • This study investigated the antiviral protective effects of a heat-killed strain of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei DK128 (DK128), a promising probiotic isolated from fermented vegetables, on influenza viruses. (newswise.com)
  • and 3) had not been treated with influenza antiviral medication (e.g., oseltamivir). (cdc.gov)
  • Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, because the replication of the influenza virus is somewhat error-prone, the virus evolves as a quasispecies, and widespread use of antiviral drugs can lead to resistant strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • As of January 11, 2013, 24 states and New York City were reporting high levels of influenza-like illness, 16 states were reporting moderate levels, five states were reporting low levels, and one state was reporting minimal levels ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Strain A/cal/Duschanbe/55/71 could be detected for seven days and caused an influenza-like illness in calves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2012-13 flu season is an instance of flu season, which is the time of year when people are most likely to contract influenza or any influenza-like illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Global Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018 , provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape. (giichinese.com.tw)
  • H3N2 infections are caused by variant H3N2 virus which is an influenza virus. (giichinese.com.tw)
  • Global Markets Direct's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018 , provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (giichinese.com.tw)
  • The Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections and features dormant and discontinued projects. (giichinese.com.tw)
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (giichinese.com.tw)
  • The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease). (giichinese.com.tw)
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (giichinese.com.tw)
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (giichinese.com.tw)
  • SummaryGlobal Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape.Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human her. (bharatbook.com)
  • Our study provides evidence that heat-killed lactic acid bacteria could potentially be administered via a nasal spray as a prophylactic drug against non-specific influenza virus infections. (newswise.com)
  • The study's results suggest that pretreatment with lactic acid bacteria, specifically DK128, equips mice with the capacity to have protective immunity against a broad range of primary and secondary influenza A virus infections. (newswise.com)
  • Persons who cough or sneeze should cover their mouths People should avoid touching their eyes, nose, or mouth, as these are routes of germ transmission Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 infections have predominated in China, which since November has reported low levels of flu infection Europe reported low but increasing levels of flu infection in the first week of 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreaks
  • However, although CIRD is typically associated with mild to moderate, self-limiting upper respiratory tract (URT) infection, outbreaks of canine influenza have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in affected dogs. (americanveterinarian.com)
  • This report describes 6 influenza outbreaks in residential care facilities during the 2014 influenza season in the Sydney Local Health District. (health.gov.au)
  • 5 One hundred and eleven influenza outbreaks in RCFs were reported in New South Wales in 2014, the highest number in the past decade. (health.gov.au)
  • 8,10 RCFs are thus at high risk of influenza outbreaks and require robust prevention and control measures. (health.gov.au)
  • This report describes the management of influenza outbreaks in RCFs by the Sydney Local Health District Public Health Unit (PHU) during the 2014 influenza season (May to October). (health.gov.au)
  • Influenza is a scheduled medical condition in New South Wales, and RCF outbreaks are notifiable to the NSW Ministry of Health. (health.gov.au)
  • Six influenza outbreaks were notified to the PHU between 4 July and 8 September 2014 affecting 90 residents and 43 staff. (health.gov.au)
  • vaccination
  • CDC and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices routinely recommend that annual influenza vaccination efforts continue as long as influenza viruses are circulating ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Due to virus antigenic drift and short-lived immune responses, annual vaccination is required. (nih.gov)
  • Microneedle vaccination induced a broad spectrum of immune responses including CD4+ and CD8+ responses in the spleen and draining lymph node, a high frequency of antigen-secreting cells in the lung and induction of virus-specific memory B-cells. (nih.gov)
  • The present results show that delivery of inactivated influenza virus through the skin using metal microneedle arrays induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses capable of conferring protection against virus challenge as efficiently as intramuscular immunization, which is the standard vaccination route. (nih.gov)
  • viral
  • H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A, which is an important cause of human influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemagglutination reactions are compared among the sets of antisera and viral antigens in a test panel, and assumptions are made concerning the antigenic relatedness of the viruses on the basis of these HI reactions. (aasv.org)
  • Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative lengths of internal versus external branches will be affected by changes in viral population size over time (see figure 1) Rapid expansion of a virus in a population will be reflected by a "star-like" tree, in which external branches are long relative to internal branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to a phylogeny of an expanding virus, a phylogeny of a viral population that stays constant in size will have external branches that are shorter relative to branches on the interior of the tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phylogeny of hepatitis B virus (caricatured by figure 1B) instead reflects a viral population that has remained roughly constant in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of taxa on a viral phylogeny will be affected by host population structure (see figure 2) Viruses within similar hosts, such as hosts that reside in the same geographic region, are expected to be more closely related genetically if transmission occurs more commonly between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • PB1-F2 likely contributes to viral pathogenicity and might have an important role in determining the severity of pandemic influenza. (wikipedia.org)