• H1N1 and H3N2
  • In the absence of the immunodominant head domain, isolated portions of the HA stalk that include the FI6 epitope and have already been shown to stimulate broad, but not universal, protective effects against H1N1 and H3N2 strains in vaccinated animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • Full-scale production of a vaccine that could prevent any illness at all from the strain would require at least three months after the virus's emergence to begin, but it is hoped that vaccine production could increase until one billion doses were produced by one year after the initial identification of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza is an important cause of serious illness and death, particularly in elderly and high-risk groups. (nih.gov)
  • The virus does not cause more severe illness than other influenza viruses, and no unusual increases in influenza activity have been associated with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strain A/cal/Duschanbe/55/71 could be detected for seven days and caused an influenza-like illness in calves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1976, a novel swine influenza A (H1N1) caused severe respiratory illness in 13 soldiers with 1 death at Fort Dix, New Jersey. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2012-13 flu season is an instance of flu season, which is the time of year when people are most likely to contract influenza or any influenza-like illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • reassortment
  • Swine were considered the original "intermediate host" for influenza, because they supported reassortment of divergent subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature magazine reported that the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project, using phylogenetic analysis of 156 H3N2 genomes, "explains the appearance, during the 2003-2004 season, of the 'Fujian/411/2002'-like strain, for which the existing vaccine had limited effectiveness" as due to an epidemiologically significant reassortment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors suggest that picking up an avian flu virus PB1 gene may be a critical step in a potential flu pandemic virus arising through reassortment. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A, which is an important cause of human influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy adults, bronchitis and pneumonia (primary viral and secondary bacterial) are the most common complications of influenza. (quidel.com)
  • The influenza viruses are RNA viruses from the family Orthomyxoviridae and are classified as either type A or type B based upon the viral nucleoprotein (NP). (quidel.com)
  • The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative lengths of internal versus external branches will be affected by changes in viral population size over time (see figure 1) Rapid expansion of a virus in a population will be reflected by a "star-like" tree, in which external branches are long relative to internal branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to a phylogeny of an expanding virus, a phylogeny of a viral population that stays constant in size will have external branches that are shorter relative to branches on the interior of the tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phylogeny of hepatitis B virus (caricatured by figure 1B) instead reflects a viral population that has remained roughly constant in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of taxa on a viral phylogeny will be affected by host population structure (see figure 2) Viruses within similar hosts, such as hosts that reside in the same geographic region, are expected to be more closely related genetically if transmission occurs more commonly between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • PB1-F2 likely contributes to viral pathogenicity and might have an important role in determining the severity of pandemic influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential use of cell culture techniques in developing viral vaccines, especially for the Influenza virus, has been widely investigated in recent years as a complementary and alternative platform to the current egg-based strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • identification of influenza
  • The FluChip is a low-density DNA microarray for the identification of influenza viruses, originally developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder in the laboratory of Professor Kathy Rowlen in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to three commercial SIV vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of our samples, A/New York/269/2003 (H3N2) and A/New York/32/2003 (H3N2), show that this minor clade continued to circulate in the 2003-2004 season, when most other isolates were reassortants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the 949 influenza A (H3N2) isolates characterized, 106 (11.2%) were similar antigenically to the vaccine strain A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2), and 843 (88.8%) were similar to the drift variant, A/Fujian/411/2002 (H3N2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the A/California/7/2004 (H3N2)-like isolates have reduced titres to the A/Fujian/411/2002-like antisera, the H3N2 component of the current vaccine is still expected to provide some level of protection against this new variant. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus, specific influenza strain isolates are identified by a standard nomenclature specifying virus type, geographical location where first isolated, sequential number of isolation, year of isolation, and HA and NA subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutate
  • The possibility that these viruses may mutate and acquire the ability to be efficiently transmitted among human and cause a highly lethal pandemic, remains a serious concern among public health officials. (quidel.com)
  • Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses are able to bind to, which leads to the virus being able to evolve and mutate into different forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, this virus did not mutate to spread easily between people. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • In pre- and post-immunisation sera from children (17-120 months-old) and adults (20-59 years-old) immunised with 2010/11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, we assessed age-related patterns of sero-susceptibility and vaccine-induced cross-reactive antibodies to a representative swine H3N2 (swH3N2) and a related ancestral human H3N2 (A/Sydney/5/1997) influenza virus. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • birds
  • Infected birds can pass the virus in their faeces and saliva for as long as 10 days. (hubpages.com)
  • Some viruses bind better to alpha 2-6 glycan receptors, which are found primarily in mammals (including people), while others are better adapted to alpha 2-3 glycan receptors, found primarily in birds. (umn.edu)
  • Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. (wikipedia.org)
  • H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • This study investigated the antiviral protective effects of a heat-killed strain of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei DK128 (DK128), a promising probiotic isolated from fermented vegetables, on influenza viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • But, because the replication of the influenza virus is somewhat error-prone, the virus evolves as a quasispecies, and widespread use of antiviral drugs can lead to resistant strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory-confirmed
  • Source: Laboratory confirmed data from the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). (who.int)
  • During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. (who.int)
  • The 13 November 2009 worldwide update by the WHO stated that "[a]s of 8 November 2009, worldwide more than 206 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported [503,laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including over 6,250 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreaks
  • This report describes 6 influenza outbreaks in residential care facilities during the 2014 influenza season in the Sydney Local Health District. (health.gov.au)
  • 5 One hundred and eleven influenza outbreaks in RCFs were reported in New South Wales in 2014, the highest number in the past decade. (health.gov.au)
  • 8,10 RCFs are thus at high risk of influenza outbreaks and require robust prevention and control measures. (health.gov.au)
  • This report describes the management of influenza outbreaks in RCFs by the Sydney Local Health District Public Health Unit (PHU) during the 2014 influenza season (May to October). (health.gov.au)
  • Influenza is a scheduled medical condition in New South Wales, and RCF outbreaks are notifiable to the NSW Ministry of Health. (health.gov.au)
  • Six influenza outbreaks were notified to the PHU between 4 July and 8 September 2014 affecting 90 residents and 43 staff. (health.gov.au)
  • virulence
  • Interestingly, the current findings showed that the replacement of the PB1segment of r9706 by that of r1021 increases the virulence of the virus that replicate with higher titer in mice lungs, while the opposite is true when PB1 r9706 is introduced into r1021. (scifed.com)