• feline
  • The virus originated in cats, the vector of feline panleukopenia, but a mutation that changed just two amino acids in the viral capsid protein VP2 allowed it to cross the species barrier, and dogs, unlike cats, had no resistance to the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high level of similarity among the metabolisms of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats in the study of the human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers
  • The authors thank Dr. Nathaniel Hupert and his colleagues at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Preparedness Modeling Unit for guidance and useful discussions related to the 2010-2011 cholera epidemic in Haiti. (annals.org)
  • Publically available from HealthMap ( http://healthmap.org/en/ ), the MSPP of the Republic of Haiti (2) , and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (15) . (annals.org)
  • susceptible
  • This was soon followed by the work of A. G. McKendrick and W. O. Kermack, who published Kermack-McKendrick epidemic model (1927) to describe the relationship between susceptible, infected and immune individuals in a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • My lab studies genetic mechanisms that sustain structural and functional flexibility while maintaining the integrity of the organism using the model fungal system Fusarium oxysporum . (umass.edu)
  • A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Studying model organisms can be informative, but care must be taken when extrapolating from one organism to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although biological activity in a model organism does not ensure an effect in humans, many drugs, treatments and cures for human diseases are developed in part with the guidance of animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although alternative pregnancy assays have been developed, biologists continue to use Xenopus as a model organism in developmental biology because it is easy to raise in captivity and has a large and easily manipulated embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • parameters
  • The advantages of such simple models are that the underlying assumptions and effects of individual parameters are relatively clear, and the impact of uncertainty in the parametrization can be readily assessed in the early stages of an outbreak. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Throughout, our aim is to develop relatively simple models, where assumptions and parameters are transparent, and where it is feasible to rapidly perform large sweeps over parameter space. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • infections
  • This infectious individual makes β contacts per unit time producing new infections with a mean infectious period of 1/γ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, while all results are formulated based on the UK experience of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (assuming R 0 = 1.4 and a doubling time of around one week [ 16 ]), the model structure is sufficiently flexible that the qualitative results could pertain to a range of novel infections. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The viruses of vertebrates are informally distinguished between those that primarily cause infections of humans and those that infect other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreak
  • The modeling of infectious diseases is a tool which has been used to study the mechanisms by which diseases spread, to predict the future course of an outbreak and to evaluate strategies to control an epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach provides insight into outbreak characteristics with the opportunity to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although serologic evidence indicated additional human exposure during subsequent decades in parts of Africa and Asia, before the 2007 Yap Islands Zika virus outbreak, only 14 cases of human Zika virus disease had been documented. (wikipedia.org)
  • discoveries
  • Building on discoveries that Prince made as a doctoral student, VSI pioneered the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in high-risk infants through the use of monoclonal antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discoveries in the 18th and 19th centuries included Antoine Lavoisier's use of a guinea pig in a calorimeter to prove that respiration was a form of combustion, and Louis Pasteur's demonstration of the germ theory of disease in the 1880s using anthrax in sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila became one of the first, and for some time the most widely used, model organisms, and Eric Kandel wrote that Morgan's discoveries "helped transform biology into an experimental science. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The type of transmission, the relationship between host competence and community assembly, the identity of hosts contributing to transmission, and how transmission scales with area are essential factors to consider when elucidating the mechanisms driving disease risk in shrinking habitat. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The mechanisms of how these viruses cause musculoskeletal disease are ill defined. (edu.au)
  • affects
  • As biodiversity declines with anthropogenic land-use change, it is increasingly important to understand how changing biodiversity affects infectious disease risk. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Immuno-epidemiological models explore how host-level immune response affects population-level epidemiological patterns [ 13 ] and allow much finer tuning of host-behavior, compared to population-level models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetics
  • Since a large variety of coat patterns exist within the various cat breeds, the cat is an excellent animal to study the coat genetics of hair growth and coloration. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidemic
  • In a deterministic model, individuals in the population are assigned to different subgroups or compartments, each representing a specific stage of the epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • While building such models, it must be assumed that the population size in a compartment is differentiable with respect to time and that the epidemic process is deterministic. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a threshold quantity which determines whether an epidemic occurs or the disease simply dies out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surveillance data for formulating models of the epidemic are limited, but such models can aid understanding of epidemic processes and help define control strategies. (annals.org)
  • Within- and between-region epidemic spread was modeled, with the latter dependent on population sizes and distance between regional centroids (a "gravity" model). (annals.org)
  • Variation in group size also increases the likelihood of an epidemic for mildly transmissible diseases, but can reduce the likelihood and expected size of an epidemic for highly transmissible diseases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • advances
  • Subsequent research in model organisms led to further medical advances, such as Frederick Banting's research in dogs, which determined that the isolates of pancreatic secretion could be used to treat dogs with diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • They illustrate the methodology used with examples from recent research literature on human and infectious disease modeling, showing how such techniques can be used in practice. (dymocks.com.au)
  • Dr. Earn: Department of Mathematics and Statistics and the M.G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. (annals.org)
  • This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. (mdpi.com)
  • The college opened a $10.5 million, 16,000-square-foot Infectious Disease Research Facility in November 2011 and completed a $14.1 million, 30,000-square-foot Veterinary Medicine Instruction Addition in the fall of 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cat Genome Project, sponsored by the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity at the U.S. National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center in Frederick, Maryland, aims to help the development of the cat as an animal model for human hereditary and infectious diseases, as well as contributing to the understanding of the evolution of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congress events include plenary speakers, symposia, meet-the-expert and poster sessions, all of which provide a platform to network, exchange research findings, and collaborate on problem-solving strategies in the area of global infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many questions and research that needs to be further done to find out if these environmental resistomes play a big role in the antibiotics resistance that is occurring in humans, animals, and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of animals in research dates back to ancient Greece, with Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304-258 BCE) among the first to perform experiments on living animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research using animal models has been central to most of the achievements of modern medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Each promising investigator has limited animal experimental experience, but needs to verify in vitro findings in vivo. (okstate.edu)
  • novel
  • In project 3, using a novel mouse model of acute lung injury, challenged mice will be used to mechanistically explore the exciting and potential therapeutic role of a unique protein on acute bacterial lung injury. (okstate.edu)
  • and dissect virulence factors that contribute to emerging infectious disease using Fusarium-animal model systems for the development of novel therapeutics. (umass.edu)
  • important
  • The broad and long term goal of the Animal Models Core is to provide consistent care, experimental procedures, and husbandry that are important to the success of projects. (okstate.edu)
  • In project 2, influenza infected mice will be used to validate important host factors in an innovative in vitro respiratory model. (okstate.edu)
  • this is a key structural characteristic of social networks with important implications for disease transmission and control efficacy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Collectively, members within this species complex cause destructive and intractable wilt diseases across a diverse spectrum of plant hosts, including numerous economically important crops: e.g., cotton, canola, melons, and tomato. (umass.edu)
  • At least nine types of rhabdovirus cause economically important diseases in species including salmon, pike, perch, sea bass, carp and cod. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • In addition to the study of infectious diseases, cotton rats have been used to study toxins in the environment and recently also as a tumor model. (osu.edu)
  • Although partially explored in individual-based simulations [ 1 , 18 ], a previous study [ 19 ] introduced a model to investigate the behaviour of influenza evolution when mutation affected the ability of a virus to transmit between hosts. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • assumptions
  • Models are only as good as the assumptions on which they are based. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lack of detailed quantitative information has generally necessitated a range of simplifying assumptions regarding the structure of contact networks, such as power-law (or scale-free) distributions for the number of contacts and configuration models for generating connections between individuals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • genes
  • The genes responsible for this defect are unknown, but the disease is studied in the hope that it may shed light on the causes of hereditary deafness in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of a draft genome has led to the discovery of several cat disease genes, and even allowed the development of cat genetic fingerprinting for use in forensics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, or the ability of lentiviruses to transfer genes to animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • livestock
  • The first transgenic livestock were produced in 1985 and the first animal to synthesise transgenic proteins in their milk were mice, engineered to produce human tissue plasminogen activator in 1987. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • It is one of 28 colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States and is accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education and the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, she became an assistant professor in the Food Animal Production Medicine Group of the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • A stochastic model is a tool for estimating probability distributions of potential outcomes by allowing for random variation in one or more inputs over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for a range of infectious diseases and potential control measures (e.g. contact-tracing), information about social mixing, contacts and related behaviours is required at the individual scale. (royalsocietypublishing.org)