• feline
  • The virus originated in cats, the vector of feline panleukopenia, but a mutation that changed just two amino acids in the viral capsid protein VP2 allowed it to cross the species barrier, and dogs, unlike cats, had no resistance to the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high level of similarity among the metabolisms of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats in the study of the human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenesis
  • The precise nature of the mutation responsible for pathogenesis has not been identified, although studies have suggested sequence differences in the spike protein ( 14 ), nonstructural protein (NSP) 7b, and NSP3c ( 13 ) as disease determinants. (cdc.gov)
  • Centers
  • The authors thank Dr. Nathaniel Hupert and his colleagues at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Preparedness Modeling Unit for guidance and useful discussions related to the 2010-2011 cholera epidemic in Haiti. (annals.org)
  • Publically available from HealthMap ( http://healthmap.org/en/ ), the MSPP of the Republic of Haiti (2) , and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (15) . (annals.org)
  • measles
  • Examples of such approaches abound, from the eradication of smallpox and the virtual eradication of polio, to the long-running campaigns against childhood diseases such as measles, mumps and rubella [ 5 , 6 ], to the recently introduced schemes such as vaccination against human papillomavirus [ 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Canine distemper virus is closely related to measles virus and is the most important viral disease of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • This was soon followed by the work of A. G. McKendrick and W. O. Kermack, who published Kermack-McKendrick epidemic model (1927) to describe the relationship between susceptible, infected and immune individuals in a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidemic
  • Surveillance data for formulating models of the epidemic are limited, but such models can aid understanding of epidemic processes and help define control strategies. (annals.org)
  • Within- and between-region epidemic spread was modeled, with the latter dependent on population sizes and distance between regional centroids (a "gravity" model). (annals.org)
  • Variation in group size also increases the likelihood of an epidemic for mildly transmissible diseases, but can reduce the likelihood and expected size of an epidemic for highly transmissible diseases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Andersson H, Britton T (2000) Stochastic epidemic models and their statistical analysis. (springer.com)
  • Clancy D, O'Neill P, Pollett P (2001) Approximations for the long-term behavior of an open-population epidemic model. (springer.com)
  • The modeling of infectious diseases is a tool which has been used to study the mechanisms by which diseases spread, to predict the future course of an outbreak and to evaluate strategies to control an epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a deterministic model, individuals in the population are assigned to different subgroups or compartments, each representing a specific stage of the epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • While building such models, it must be assumed that the population size in a compartment is differentiable with respect to time and that the epidemic process is deterministic. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a threshold quantity which determines whether an epidemic occurs or the disease simply dies out. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • But Ohio State University researchers have demonstrated an entirely different mechanism in an animal model, showing that maternal antibodies bind to a specific receptor that sends a message to stop activation of an immune response to vaccination. (redorbit.com)
  • As a result, researchers around the world have consulted with Niewiesk for years, using the animals to test vaccine candidates. (redorbit.com)
  • The journal's primary audience includes infectious disease researchers and clinicians throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • discoveries
  • Building on discoveries that Prince made as a doctoral student, VSI pioneered the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in high-risk infants through the use of monoclonal antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discoveries in the 18th and 19th centuries included Antoine Lavoisier's use of a guinea pig in a calorimeter to prove that respiration was a form of combustion, and Louis Pasteur's demonstration of the germ theory of disease in the 1880s using anthrax in sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila became one of the first, and for some time the most widely used, model organisms, and Eric Kandel wrote that Morgan's discoveries "helped transform biology into an experimental science. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • parameters
  • The advantages of such simple models are that the underlying assumptions and effects of individual parameters are relatively clear, and the impact of uncertainty in the parametrization can be readily assessed in the early stages of an outbreak. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Throughout, our aim is to develop relatively simple models, where assumptions and parameters are transparent, and where it is feasible to rapidly perform large sweeps over parameter space. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Genetics
  • Since a large variety of coat patterns exist within the various cat breeds, the cat is an excellent animal to study the coat genetics of hair growth and coloration. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Therefore, while all results are formulated based on the UK experience of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (assuming R 0 = 1.4 and a doubling time of around one week [ 16 ]), the model structure is sufficiently flexible that the qualitative results could pertain to a range of novel infections. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This infectious individual makes β contacts per unit time producing new infections with a mean infectious period of 1/γ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses of vertebrates are informally distinguished between those that primarily cause infections of humans and those that infect other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • advances
  • Subsequent research in model organisms led to further medical advances, such as Frederick Banting's research in dogs, which determined that the isolates of pancreatic secretion could be used to treat dogs with diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • They illustrate the methodology used with examples from recent research literature on human and infectious disease modeling, showing how such techniques can be used in practice. (dymocks.com.au)
  • Dr. Earn: Department of Mathematics and Statistics and the M.G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. (annals.org)
  • This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. (mdpi.com)
  • The college opened a $10.5 million, 16,000-square-foot Infectious Disease Research Facility in November 2011 and completed a $14.1 million, 30,000-square-foot Veterinary Medicine Instruction Addition in the fall of 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cat Genome Project, sponsored by the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity at the U.S. National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center in Frederick, Maryland, aims to help the development of the cat as an animal model for human hereditary and infectious diseases, as well as contributing to the understanding of the evolution of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) was established in 1983 as a scientific assembly for the exchange of research and clinical information of infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congress events include plenary speakers, symposia, meet-the-expert and poster sessions, all of which provide a platform to network, exchange research findings, and collaborate on problem-solving strategies in the area of global infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many questions and research that needs to be further done to find out if these environmental resistomes play a big role in the antibiotics resistance that is occurring in humans, animals, and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of animals in research dates back to ancient Greece, with Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304-258 BCE) among the first to perform experiments on living animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research using animal models has been central to most of the achievements of modern medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Each promising investigator has limited animal experimental experience, but needs to verify in vitro findings in vivo. (okstate.edu)
  • organism
  • page needed] Studying model organisms can be informative, but care must be taken when extrapolating from one organism to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although biological activity in a model organism does not ensure an effect in humans, many drugs, treatments and cures for human diseases are developed in part with the guidance of animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although alternative pregnancy assays have been developed, biologists continue to use Xenopus as a model organism in developmental biology because it is easy to raise in captivity and has a large and easily manipulated embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmission
  • The type of transmission, the relationship between host competence and community assembly, the identity of hosts contributing to transmission, and how transmission scales with area are essential factors to consider when elucidating the mechanisms driving disease risk in shrinking habitat. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It is clear that habitat loss leads to biodiversity loss [ 2 - 4 ], but it remains uncertain how declining habitat and diversity affect the transmission of infectious diseases [ 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Our results not only highlight the importance of considering both transmission and fitness constraints when modelling influenza evolution, but may also help in understanding the differences between the emergence of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We will use such a model to examine the role that transmission plays in the emergence of new strains. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, the development of fully mechanistic models of transmission requires a quantitative understanding of social interactions and collective properties of social networks. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • this is a key structural characteristic of social networks with important implications for disease transmission and control efficacy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Network models have been used extensively to explore the impact of wildlife contact patterns on disease transmission [ 8 , 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Such models ignore both within-group connectivity and variation in group size, both of which can influence disease transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • If the transmission probability between two connected groups is assumed to be positively correlated with the sizes of the groups, then larger mean group sizes are expected to facilitate disease transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • typically
  • They typically arise as approximations of exact but computationally expensive individual-based stochastic models. (springer.com)
  • assumptions
  • A lack of detailed quantitative information has generally necessitated a range of simplifying assumptions regarding the structure of contact networks, such as power-law (or scale-free) distributions for the number of contacts and configuration models for generating connections between individuals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The type of assumptions made can have a profound impact on model predictions [ 2 , 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Models are only as good as the assumptions on which they are based. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a model makes predictions which are out of line with observed results and the mathematics is correct, the initial assumptions must change to make the model useful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral
  • Gog [ 19 ] developed a simple model of these processes to show that a high-level fitness loss could in fact stop viral evolution ('strain lock'), and that vaccination could also nudge the system into this state. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • It is one of 28 colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States and is accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education and the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, she became an assistant professor in the Food Animal Production Medicine Group of the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively simple
  • Here, we use three relatively simple models to address three issues of primary concern in the targeting of any vaccine. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we extend a relatively simple model for vaccination (of previously unvaccinated individuals) at a constant rate in three main directions to consider how different forms of heterogeneity can impact optimal vaccination. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • study
  • In addition to the study of infectious diseases, cotton rats have been used to study toxins in the environment and recently also as a tumor model. (osu.edu)
  • Although partially explored in individual-based simulations [ 1 , 18 ], a previous study [ 19 ] introduced a model to investigate the behaviour of influenza evolution when mutation affected the ability of a virus to transmit between hosts. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • often
  • The structure of animal and human societies is often hierarchical. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Network models have provided important insights into the epidemiological effects of contact heterogeneity, but are often limited to a single layer of connectivity. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Viruses infect all cellular life and although viruses infect every animal, plant and protist species, each has their own specific range of viruses that often infect only that species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hatcheries the diseases are often controlled by increasing the temperature to 15-18 °C. Like all vertebrates, fish suffer from herpes viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • In project 3, using a novel mouse model of acute lung injury, challenged mice will be used to mechanistically explore the exciting and potential therapeutic role of a unique protein on acute bacterial lung injury. (okstate.edu)
  • However, for a range of infectious diseases and potential control measures (e.g. contact-tracing), information about social mixing, contacts and related behaviours is required at the individual scale. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • infants
  • The antibodies protect infants against disease in the first months of life, but that protection comes at a cost: Their presence also interferes with the generation of a natural immune response to vaccination. (redorbit.com)