• glomerular filt
  • People with kidney function below 50% (i.e. a glomerular filtration rate [GFR] between 50 and 60 mL) and 30 years of age may have uremia to a degree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Kidney Foundation states that the normal range for glomerular filtration rate is 90 to 120 milliliters per minute divided by 1.73 per meters s. (reference.com)
  • bacterial infections
  • Today it is more commonly used in veterinary practice to treat mild to severe bacterial infections caused by penicillin resistant and penicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus sutbtilis, Klebsiella, Clostridium diptheriae, Salmonella and Shigella. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are used in human and veterinary medicine to treat bacterial infections, as well as in animal husbandry. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubules
  • 40 males) (g) Vesicoureteral reflux (h) Asymptomatic bacteriuria (i) Pre-existing renal dzs, especially kidney stones (j) Not urininating when you need to, not drinking enough water 2) PMN's infiltrate the interstitium and tubules. (scribd.com)
  • creatinine
  • The acute part of AoCRF may be reversible, and the goal of treatment, as with AKI, is to return the patient to baseline kidney function, typically measured by serum creatinine. (wikipedia.org)
  • medication
  • Citric acid and potassium citrate may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. (wellspan.org)
  • The goal of treatment usually is to slow the decline of kidney function with medication, blood pressure control, and diet. (kidshealth.org)
  • 160), history of congestive heart failure, and history of chronic respiratory distress requiring home oxygen or chronic medication or with acute exacerbation and progression within past 6 months. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Kidney transplantation involves surgically placing a kidney from someone else and then taking immunosuppressant medication to prevent rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • stones
  • A CT scan is usually the best way to diagnose kidney stones and to pinpoint their location, size, and number. (umm.edu)
  • Painful kidney stones require treatment. (umm.edu)
  • Eventually these crystals become large enough to form stones in the kidney, a condition called nephrolithiasis . (umm.edu)
  • About 80% of all kidney stones contain calcium, usually combined with oxalate, or oxalic acid. (umm.edu)
  • Worldwide, they account for up to 30% of all kidney stones. (umm.edu)
  • The rate of these stones may be declining in America, perhaps because of better control of urinary tract infections. (umm.edu)
  • Other kidney stones are composed of xanthine, a nitrogen compound. (umm.edu)
  • The key process in the development of kidney stones is supersaturation . (umm.edu)
  • It can cause kidney stones and affect a child's growth, but usually can be treated with medications. (kidshealth.org)
  • Between 1% and 15% of people globally are affected by kidney stones at some point in their life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kidney stones have affected humans throughout history with descriptions of surgery to remove them dating from as early as 600 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3-20% of people who form kidney stones have medullary sponge kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggest people who take calcium or vitamin D as a dietary supplement have a higher risk of developing kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 1990s, a study conducted for the Women's Health Initiative in the US found that postmenopausal women who consumed 1000 mg of supplemental calcium and 400 international units of vitamin D per day for seven years had a 17% higher risk of developing kidney stones than subjects taking a placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • dietary
  • Depending on the type of kidney stone, dietary changes, medicines, and other noninvasive treatments are available. (umm.edu)
  • antibiotic
  • This antibiotic stands in sharp contrast to various other cephalosporins and to the structurally related penicillins in undergoing little or no net secretion by the mammalian kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • In community-acquired infections, they are recommended only when risk factors for multidrug resistance are present or after other antibiotic regimens have failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum potassium
  • However, in organic acidosis such as lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, the effect on serum potassium levels are absent possibly because of the presence of organic ion-hydrogen ion co-transporter into the cells that minimizes the displacement of potassium out of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, in respiratory acidosis, the effect on serum potassium level is small through an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic acidosis
  • Signs of established sepsis include confusion, metabolic acidosis (which may be accompanied by faster breathing and lead to a respiratory alkalosis), low blood pressure due to decreased systemic vascular resistance, higher cardiac output, and dysfunctions of blood coagulation (where clotting may lead to organ failure). (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • In chronic failure the blood becomes more acidic than normal and there can be loss of calcium from the bones. (britannica.com)
  • The kidney fails to release hormones that are necessary for the optimum growth of the child, maintenance of blood pressure, bone development and for the production of red blood cells (leading to anemia ). (medindia.net)
  • In some cases, tiny blood clots (microthrombi) may form in the small blood vessels, further decreasing kidney function. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Other efforts include managing high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and infection risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Appropriate ADH secretion is regulated by osmoreceptors on the hypothalamic cells that synthesize and store ADH: plasma hypertonicity activates these receptors, ADH is released into the blood stream, the kidney increases solute-free water return to the circulation, and the hypertonicity is alleviated. (wikipedia.org)
  • urea
  • Both uremia and the uremic syndrome have been used interchangeably to denote a very high plasma urea concentration that is the result of renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrointestinal
  • Canine parvovirus is a sometimes fatal gastrointestinal infection that mainly affects puppies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryological link between the urinary tract, the genital system, and the gastrointestinal tract is the basis of the radiation of pain to the gonads, as well as the nausea and vomiting that are also common in urolithiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • As of 2016, the U.S. FDA recommended that "serious side effects associated with fluoroquinolone antibacterial drugs generally outweigh the benefits for patients with acute sinusitis, acute bronchitis, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections who have other treatment options. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Actual urinary complaints such as haematuria or oliguria are uncommon, though these are seen commonly in nephritic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Serious side effects of citric acid and potassium citrate include uneven heartbeat, muscle weakness or limp feeling, severe stomach pain, and numbness or tingling in your hands, feet, or around your mouth. (wellspan.org)
  • muscle weakness seen in AIP can progress to include the muscles of breathing causing respiratory failure and can be fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • medications
  • Both endogenous and exogenous factors can cause acute attacks, such as certain medications, alcohol, infections, low caloric intake, or changes in sex hormone balance during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medications that might worsen the condition should be stopped and a low potassium diet should be recommended. (wikipedia.org)