• severe bacterial infections
  • Today it is more commonly used in veterinary practice to treat mild to severe bacterial infections caused by penicillin resistant and penicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus sutbtilis, Klebsiella, Clostridium diptheriae, Salmonella and Shigella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uric
  • Stone formation may occur when the urinary concentration of crystal-forming substances (calcium, oxalate, uric acid) is high and/or that of substances that inhibit stone formation (citrate) is low. (ahrq.gov)
  • glomerular filt
  • People with kidney function below 50% (i.e. a glomerular filtration rate [GFR] between 50 and 60 mL) and 30 years of age may have uremia to a degree. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • In chronic failure the blood becomes more acidic than normal and there can be loss of calcium from the bones. (britannica.com)
  • The goal of treatment usually is to slow the decline of kidney function with medication, blood pressure control, and diet. (kidshealth.org)
  • The kidney fails to release hormones that are necessary for the optimum growth of the child, maintenance of blood pressure, bone development and for the production of red blood cells (leading to anemia ). (medindia.net)
  • In some cases, tiny blood clots (microthrombi) may form in the small blood vessels, further decreasing kidney function. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Many cats in kidney failure are also anemic, meaning that they have low levels of red blood cells. (animalclinicofmorrisplains.com)
  • Complications may include blood clots, infections, and high blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other efforts include managing high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and infection risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Appropriate ADH secretion is regulated by osmoreceptors on the hypothalamic cells that synthesize and store ADH: plasma hypertonicity activates these receptors, ADH is released into the blood stream, the kidney increases solute-free water return to the circulation, and the hypertonicity is alleviated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs of established sepsis include confusion, metabolic acidosis (which may be accompanied by faster breathing and lead to a respiratory alkalosis), low blood pressure due to decreased systemic vascular resistance, higher cardiac output, and dysfunctions of blood coagulation (where clotting may lead to organ failure). (wikipedia.org)
  • serum potassium
  • However, in organic acidosis such as lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, the effect on serum potassium levels are absent possibly because of the presence of organic ion-hydrogen ion co-transporter into the cells that minimizes the displacement of potassium out of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, in respiratory acidosis, the effect on serum potassium level is small through an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • medication
  • Citric acid and potassium citrate may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. (wellspan.org)
  • Kidney transplantation involves surgically placing a kidney from someone else and then taking immunosuppressant medication to prevent rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • dietary
  • Depending on the type of kidney stone, dietary changes, medicines, and other noninvasive treatments are available. (umm.edu)
  • include
  • Serious side effects of citric acid and potassium citrate include uneven heartbeat, muscle weakness or limp feeling, severe stomach pain, and numbness or tingling in your hands, feet, or around your mouth. (wellspan.org)
  • muscle weakness seen in AIP can progress to include the muscles of breathing causing respiratory failure and can be fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measures to remove potassium from the body include furosemide, polystyrene sulfonate, and hemodialysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The symptoms of an elevated potassium level are nonspecific, and generally include malaise, palpitations, and muscle weakness. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrointestinal
  • Canine parvovirus is a sometimes fatal gastrointestinal infection that mainly affects puppies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryological link between the urinary tract, the genital system, and the gastrointestinal tract is the basis of the radiation of pain to the gonads, as well as the nausea and vomiting that are also common in urolithiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • As of 2016, the U.S. FDA recommended that "serious side effects associated with fluoroquinolone antibacterial drugs generally outweigh the benefits for patients with acute sinusitis, acute bronchitis, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections who have other treatment options. (wikipedia.org)
  • uremia
  • Both uremia and the uremic syndrome have been used interchangeably to denote a very high plasma urea concentration that is the result of renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no specific time for the onset of uremia for people with progressive loss of kidney function. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Actual urinary complaints such as haematuria or oliguria are uncommon, though these are seen commonly in nephritic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • medications
  • Both endogenous and exogenous factors can cause acute attacks, such as certain medications, alcohol, infections, low caloric intake, or changes in sex hormone balance during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medications that might worsen the condition should be stopped and a low potassium diet should be recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • This antibiotic stands in sharp contrast to various other cephalosporins and to the structurally related penicillins in undergoing little or no net secretion by the mammalian kidney. (wikipedia.org)