• bacteria
  • Mice with a homozygous deletion of the gene encoding the IL-17RA (IL-17 receptor A) and mice that do not produce IL-22 are susceptible to lung infection by the Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Mycoplasm pulmonis ( 15 - 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, in the case of human medicine, the costs associated with the treatment of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria represent a serious public health burden in hospital and community settings [ 10 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Although staph bacteria are usually harmless, when injury or a break in the skin enables the organisms to invade the body and overcome the body's natural defenses, consequences can range from minor discomfort to death. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A localized staph infection is confined to a ring of dead and dying white blood cells and bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An easy remedy for nasal infections than can completely eradicate the presence of the bacteria in less than 7 days. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Once below the skin, the bacteria can spread rapidly, entering the lymph nodes and the bloodstream and spreading throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Necrotizing fasciitis, also called by the media "flesh-eating bacteria", is an example of a deep-layer infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opportunistic infection may be caused by microbes ordinarily in contact with the host, such as pathogenic bacteria or fungi in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory tract, and they may also result from (otherwise innocuous) microbes acquired from other hosts (as in Clostridium difficile colitis) or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction (as in surgical wound infections or compound fractures). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of them are bacteria of which there are around 1000 species upon human skin from 19 phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The benefits bacteria can offer include preventing transient pathogenic organisms from colonizing the skin surface, either by competing for nutrients, secreting chemicals against them, or stimulating the skin's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • However 16S ribosomal RNA research finds that while common, these species make up only 5% of skin bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, skin variety provides a rich and diverse habitat for bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The umbilicus, or navel, is an area of the body that is rarely exposed to UV light, soaps, or bodily secretions (the navel does not produce any secretions or oils) and because it is an almost undisturbed community of bacteria it is an excellent part of the skin microbiome to study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally the cause is bacteria such as staphylococci that are present on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Leiner's Disease may also be accompanied by a systemic reaction that is most evident in its gastrointestinal manifestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the skin reaction is an allergic one, people may develop progressively stronger reactions after repeated exposures, or have no immune response on their first exposure but show sensitivity on subsequent exposures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people are so sensitive that it only takes a trace of urushiol (two micrograms, or less than one ten-millionth of an ounce) on the skin to initiate an allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burning plant material is commonly said to create urushiol-laden smoke that causes a systemic reaction, as well as a rash in the throat and eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • boils
  • Boils can be caused by other skin conditions that cause the person to scratch and damage the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common complications of boils are scarring and infection or abscess of the skin, spinal cord, brain, kidneys, or other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squeezing or cutting boils in the danger triangle of the face can be particularly dangerous if done outside a medical setting, as blood vessels in this area drain into the brain and can carry serious infections there. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Before making a diagnosis, more serious infections such as an underlying bone infection or necrotizing fasciitis should be ruled out. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appearance of the skin assists a doctor in determining a diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is based on a skin biopsy and involvement of more than 30% of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis of many conditions often also requires a skin biopsy which yields histologic information that can be correlated with the clinical presentation and any laboratory data. (wikipedia.org)
  • microorganisms
  • The identification of Th17 cells as a third subset of helper T cells has illuminated the fact that distinct subsets of helper T cells have been evolved to protect our body from infections by various types of microorganisms and are involved differently in the induction and exacerbation of various immunological disorders. (rupress.org)
  • colonization
  • A colonization is the usual presence of non-pathogenic and even potentially pathogenic microbes on the skin, in the nose, mouth, bowel, penile or vaginal mucosa, as a part of normal human flora , in the amount not harmful for the body - this is not an infection. (healthhype.com)
  • To get around the usage annoyance, it is common for health professionals to speak of colonization (rather than infection) when they mean that some of the pathogens are present but that no clinically apparent infection (no disease) is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is still one of the five most common causes of hospital-acquired infections and is often the cause of wound infections following surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, however, the condition is often a hidden infection, due in part to not being visible on most dental X-rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word infection can denote any presence of a particular pathogen at all (no matter how little) but also is often used in a sense implying a clinically apparent infection (in other words, a case of infectious disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, pulmonary tuberculosis is often a primary infection, but an infection that happened only because a burn or penetrating trauma (the root cause) allowed unusual access to deep tissues is a secondary infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections can be localized or systemic, and are often associated with the insertion of medical devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Styes often result from a Staphylococcal infection in the eye, and can be secondary to blepharitis or a deficiency in immunoglobulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • An infection is an invasion and multiplying of pathogenic microbes in the body tissues in which they are not usually present ( 1 ). (healthhype.com)
  • Skin flora is usually non-pathogenic, and either commensal (are not harmful to their host) or mutualistic (offer a benefit). (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes
  • Other causes include infection of nearby structures, trauma and previous surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clothing or other materials that touch the plant and then, before being washed, touch the skin are common causes of exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major non-human skin flora is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid and non-hyphal zoosporic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease thought to be responsible for the decline in amphibian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other causes can include infections such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and cytomegalovirus or the cause may remain unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • necrosis
  • TEN ultimately results in extensive skin involvement with redness, necrosis, and detachment of the top (epidermal) layer of the skin and mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The area becomes dusky and a deep open sore forms as the skin around the bite dies (necrosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Candida
  • Administration of anti-IL-17A neutralizing antibodies impairs both the intraabdominal abscess formation in response to Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli ( 19 - 21 ) and the host defense against systemic infection by the fungus Candida albicans ( 22 ). (rupress.org)
  • epidermis
  • Keratinocytes are the cells found lower in the epidermis and specialize in holding the surrounding skin cells together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin weighs an average of four kilograms, covers an area of two square meters, and is made of three distinct layers: the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidermis is the most superficial layer of skin, a squamous epithelium with several strata: the stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dermis is the layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue, and comprises two sections, the papillary dermis and the reticular dermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • It is part of the skin flora of humans, and its largest populations are usually found at the axillae, perineum, and inguinal areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Pus may later be visible, which exudes from around the necks of teeth, from an open socket, or from other sites within the mouth or on the skin over the involved bone. (wikipedia.org)