• protein
  • The genome of VSIV is on a single molecule of negative-sense RNA that has 11,161 nucleotides in length, that encodes five major proteins: G protein (G), large protein (L), phosphoprotein, matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein: The VSIV G protein, aka VSVG, enables viral entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • VSIV G does not follow the same path as most vesicles because transport of the G protein from the ER to the plasma membrane is interrupted by incubation at 15 °C. Under this condition, the molecules accumulate in both the ER and a subcellular vesicle fraction of low density called the lipid-rich vesicle fraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is rich in basic amino acids and contains a highly basic amino terminal domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, attenuated VSIV with a mutation in its M protein has been found to have oncolytic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focusing on protein components found on the surface of the ribosome, they discovered a protein that some viruses depend on to make other proteins, but that the vast majority of cellular mRNAs do not need. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The team screened protein constituents of the ribosome to see which ones might be involved in specialized protein synthesis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The cytopathogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been attributed mainly to the host shut-off activity of the viral matrix (M) protein, which inhibits both nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport, thereby effectively suppressing the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The M protein from persistently VSV-infected cells was shown to harbour characteristic amino acid substitutions (M51R, V221F and S226R) implicated in IFN induction. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Accordingly, M-mutant VSV expressing a fusion-defective G protein or with a deletion of the G gene showed significantly reduced cytotoxic properties and caused long-lasting infections in Vero cells and mouse hippocampal slice cultures. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • TLRs are evolutionarily conserved receptors are homologues of the Drosophila Toll protein, discovered to be important for defense against microbial infection. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Biotinylation of these proteins and streptavidin paramagnetic particle concentration enhances titer 400- to 2,500-fold (to 10(9) CFU/ml for vesicular stomatitis virus G protein and 5 x 10(8) for amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase TBK1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TBK1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is similar to IKB kinases and can mediate NFKB activation in response to certain growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the IFNγ protein is encoded by the IFNG gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNγ suppresses osteoclast formation by rapidly degrading the RANK adaptor protein TRAF6 in the RANK-RANKL signaling pathway, which otherwise stimulates the production of NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occlusion derived virus (ODV) is present in a protein matrix (polyhedrin or granulin) and is responsible for the primary infection of the host while the budded virus (BV) is released from the infected host cells later during the secondary infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein matrix dissolves in the alkaline environment of the host midgut (stomach), releasing ODV that then fuse to the columnar epithelial cell membrane of the host intestine and are taken into the cell in endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • While BV is produced in the late phase, the ODV form is produced in the very late phase acquiring the envelope from host cell nucleus and embedded in the matrix of occlusion body protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein forms structures called peplomers on one end of the budded virus particle but is not found on ODV (although several other proteins are only associated with the ODV form). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses have complex genomic sequences, cell cycles, and replication habits that use various protein complexes to arrange in specific conformations and carry out necessary processes for survival and reproduction of their genomic sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, in her work with her husband at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, one of the vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) she studied made ribonucleic acid (RNA) from RNA instead of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which did not follow the conventional central dogma: DNA RNA Protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudotyping is combining a virus or a part of a virus (vector) with a foreign viral envelope protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • THOV and JOSV also encode the protein M-long (ML), which counters the host's innate immunity, in particular by suppressing the production of interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of action of ML is completely different from the equivalent protein in influenza viruses (NS1). (wikipedia.org)
  • virology
  • But Amy Lee, a former graduate student in the program of virology, and Sean Whelan, HMS professor of microbiology and immunobiology, now say the ribosome appears to take a more active role, regulating the translation of specific proteins and ultimately how some viruses replicate. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • He is considered "one of the seminal figures in contemporary virology and it's been that way for more than 50 years" by Arthur S. Levine, senior vice chancellor for the health sciences at University of Pittsburgh. (wikipedia.org)
  • dead link] In 1949, Youngner moved to the University of Pittsburgh to pursue virology at and, subsequently, to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine for the rest of his career. (wikipedia.org)
  • David M. Knipe is the Higgins Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and interim Co-Chair in the Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology at the Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts and co-chief editor of the reference book Fields Virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • He had previously served as Chair of the Program in Virology at Harvard Medical School from 2004 through 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veterinary virology is the study of viruses in non-human animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • is an American biologist specialized in microbiology and virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme converted RNA to DNA, and became a major breakthrough in virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • virions
  • As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebola
  • MVD is a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), and the clinical symptoms are indistinguishable from Ebola virus disease (EVD). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Contrary to Ebola virus disease (EVD), which has been associated with heavy rains after long periods of dry weather, triggering factors for spillover of marburgviruses into the human population have not yet been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background -- The Ebola virus is transmitted by direct contact with bodily fluids of infected individuals, eliciting death rates as high as 90% among infected humans. (utexas.edu)
  • Another Ebola vaccine, based on an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus has shown efficacy in post-exposure treatment of nonhuman primates to Ebola infection. (utexas.edu)
  • Conclusions/Significance -- We describe an improved adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine capable of affording post-exposure protection against lethal challenge in mice. (utexas.edu)
  • The molecular modifications of the new improved vaccine also translated in the induction of significantly enhanced immune responses and complete protection at a dose 100 times lower than with the previous generation adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine. (utexas.edu)
  • Since the reemergence of Ebola virus in Central Africa, the CIRMF "Emerging Viral Disease Unit" developed diagnostic tools and epidemiologic strategies and transfers of such technology to support the response of the National Public Health System and the World Health Organization to epidemics of Ebola virus disease. (mdpi.com)
  • The Unit carries out a unique investigation program on the natural history of the filoviruses, emergence of epidemics, and Ebola virus pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • The decision to develop a high security laboratory for the study of Ebola virus disease came after a 1996 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Mayibout area, Gabon. (mdpi.com)
  • Because the unique expertise and interaction of the CIRMF team along with the international World Health Organization (WHO) teams for Ebola virus disease, the Gabonese government agreed to such a project. (mdpi.com)
  • Ebola vaccine candidates against Ebola have been developed in the decade prior to 2014, but none have yet been approved for clinical use in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2016, a study found the VSV-EBOV vaccine to be 70-100% effective against the Ebola virus, making it the first proven vaccine against the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trial used a ring vaccination protocol that first vaccinated all the closest contacts of new cases of Ebola infection either immediately or after 21 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trial will continue to assess whether the vaccine is effective in creating herd immunity to Ebola virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • In vivo, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy revealed that VSV was able to escape the midgut barrier, disseminate quickly and replicate in epithelial, neural and hemolymph cells throughout the insect. (usda.gov)
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant 1716 lacks both copies of the ICP34.5 gene, and as a result is no longer able to replicate in terminally differentiated and non-dividing cells but will infect and cause lysis very efficiently in cancer cells, and this has proved to be an effective tumour-targeting strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For such situations, the FDA has established the "Animal Efficacy Rule" allowing licensure to be approved on the basis of animal model studies that replicate human disease, combined with evidence of safety and a potentially potent immune response (antibodies in the blood) from humans given the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2014, two Phase 1 clinical trials began for the vaccine cAd3-EBO Z, which is based on an attenuated version of a chimpanzee adenovirus (cAd3) that has been genetically altered so that it is unable to replicate in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many flavivirus species can replicate in both mammalian and insect cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloid
  • Conjugation of lentivirus to paramagnetic particles via nonviral proteins allows efficient concentration and infection of primary acute myeloid leukemia cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Particle conjugation of lentivirus allows facile manipulation in vitro, resulting in the transduction of 48 to 94% of human acute myeloid leukemia blasts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • genera
  • About 2000 described species are in over 160 genera distributed worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species in the genera Hippelates and Siphunculina (S. funicola being quite well known in Asia) are called eye gnats or eye flies for their habit of being attracted to eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long orbital bristles on the head are present only in a few genera.The verrtical triangle is often large, (occupying almost all of the frons), and glossy, or matt (making it almost imperceptible). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prominent examples include the eye gnat genera: Liohippelates in the Americas and Siphunculina in parts of Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently 49 species in this family, divided among 4 genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lutzomyia is one of the two genera of the subfamily Phlebotominae to transmit the Leishmania parasite, with the other being Phlebotomus, found only in the Old World. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thogotovirus is a genus of enveloped RNA viruses, one of seven genera in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Thus, ideal in vitro models for examining cellular responses to respiratory pathogens polarize, forming apical and basolateral surfaces. (jove.com)
  • The in vitro model, in which cultured monolayers of corneal epithelial cells are infected in a Petri dish, offers simplicity, high level of replicability, fast experiments, and relatively low costs. (jove.com)
  • In vitro, Culicoides cells were susceptible and permissive. (usda.gov)
  • Knipe first separated and translated the VSV mRNAs in vitro to identify their coding potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • Furthermore, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 ( SOCS1 ), a canonical negative regulator of type I IFN signaling, is targeted by miR-155 in macrophages, and SOCS1 knockdown mediates the enhancing effect of miR-155 on type I IFN-mediated antiviral response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Acute
  • Calu-3 cells, derived from a human bronchial adenocarcinoma, are an alternative model for examining the response of proximal airway epithelial cells to respiratory insult 1 , pharmacological compounds 2-6 , and bacterial 7-9 and viral pathogens, including influenza virus, rhinovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome - associated coronavirus 10-14 . (jove.com)
  • Mucosal disease is a distinct, chronic persistent infection, whereas BVD is an acute infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease associated with Bas-Congo virus is a severe acute hemorrhagic fever characterized by rapid disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • nonhuman primates
  • Another risk factor is contact with nonhuman primates, although only one outbreak of MVD (in 1967) was due to contact with infected monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several promising vaccine candidates have been shown to protect nonhuman primates (usually macaques) against lethal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Exogenous molecular control in vivo of miR-155 expression may inhibit malignant growth, viral infections, and enhance the progression of cardiovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a wide range of in vivo cancer models, the HSV1716 virus has induced tumour regression and increased survival times. (wikipedia.org)
  • measles
  • Abs generated by routine vaccinations to measles, mumps, tetanus, diphtheria, and smallpox can persist and remain protective for 25 y or longer in people ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A number of viruses including adenovirus, reovirus, measles, herpes simplex, Newcastle disease virus and vaccinia have now been clinically tested as oncolytic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Type I IFN plays critical roles in antiviral immune response mainly through induction of cellular resistance to viral infection and apoptosis of virus-infected cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using genetic approaches, miR-155 has been demonstrated to have an indispensable role in humeral and cellular immunity ( 9 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It alters transcription in up to 30 genes producing a variety of physiological and cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a combined decision, members of the FDA's Oncology Drug Advisory Committee and Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee voted 22-1 to recommend approval of the oncolytic immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has also defined the cellular proteins that recognize herpesviral DNA in the nucleus and initiate innate signaling and restrict viral gene expression and identified viral proteins that block host innate responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers reported that the therapeutic vaccine induced robust cellular immune responses in animal tests recently conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourth, the early studies with the monkeys using the killed simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine showed some optimism but it turned out that the protection was attributable to responses to both the cellular proteins on the SIV vaccine and on the challenge virus grown not in monkey cells but in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • insects
  • In insects, infections are noncytolytic persistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral growth curves were determined for each virus, and blood meal DPI were selected to include the normal optimal blood feeding time point (2 DPI) and peak virus titer in the insects. (usda.gov)
  • Many larvae are saprophages living in rotting or dying wood, usually in association with other insects, and in dead parts of herbaceous plants damaged by other insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate and adaptive immune responses
  • It has been demonstrated that miRNAs participate in various biological processes, including innate and adaptive immune responses ( 6 - 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Define the broader relevance of hsp70 to enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses to viruses affecting other organ systems, with emphasis on the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. (osu.edu)
  • genes
  • Marburgvirus genomes are approximately 19 kb long and contain seven genes in the order 3'-UTR-NP-VP35-VP40-GP-VP30-VP24-L-5'-UTR. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004) Human microRNA genes are frequently located at fragile sites and genomic regions involved in cancers. (iupui.edu)
  • 2002) Frequent deletions and down-regulation of micro- RNA genes miR15 and miR16 at 13q14 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (iupui.edu)
  • and the viral latency-associated transcript promotes heterochromatin modifications on viral chromatin and silencing of lytic genes in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Julius S. Youngner (24 October 1920 - 27 April 2017) was an American Distinguished Service Professor in the School of Medicine and Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at University of Pittsburgh responsible for advances necessary for development of a vaccine for poliomyelitis and the first intranasal equine influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a member of the Jonas Salk research team, Youngner contributed in the development of polio vaccine, including techniques for large scale production of poliovirus and the rapid color test measurement of polio virus in living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Youngner was an important early pioneer in vaccine development, testing, and government licensing of drugs before allowing them to market. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was critical of Cutter Laboratories virus manufacturing prior to deaths resulting from Cutter inactivated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working on polio prevention, he was responsible for three key advancements in poliomyelitis vaccine development. (wikipedia.org)
  • safety testing for batches of vaccine and anti-polio antibodies in test subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This advance in production of virus raw material directly led to vaccine viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measurement developed by youngner for safely and quickly testing batches of vaccine and also antibodies to the virus after application were important advancements necessary for vaccine success. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Salk vaccine is based upon formalin inactivated wild type virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • From Youngner's work, formalin application for six days was projected to produce only "one live virus particle in 100 million doses of vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine was proven safe at multiple sites in North America, Europe, and Africa, but several volunteers at one trial site in Geneva, Switzerland, developed vaccine-related arthritis after about 2 weeks, and about 20-30% of volunteers at reporting sites developed low-grade post-vaccine fever, which resolved within a day or two. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 31 July 2015, preliminary results of a Phase 3 trial in Guinea indicated that the vaccine appears to be "highly efficacious and safe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2014, University of Oxford expanded the trial to include a booster vaccine based on MVA-BN, a strain of Modified vaccinia Ankara, developed by Bavarian Nordic, to investigate whether it can help increase immune responses further. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAV001-H is the first preventive HIV vaccine using a killed or "dead version" of HIV-1 virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine is developed by Dr. Chil-Yong Kang and his research team at Western University's Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the moment, there are 16 animal vaccine based on this killed virus method including the feline immunodeficiency virus (which is closely related to HIV) vaccine for cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, to date many scientists and researchers insist on a belief that the killed whole virus strategy is a feasible option for an HIV vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, Jonas Salk developed a therapeutic HIV vaccine in 1987, called Remune now being developed by Immune Response BioPharma, Inc., is based on the killed whole virus approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remune vaccine has completed over 25 clinical studies to date and showed a robust mechanism of action restoring white blood cell counts in CD4 & CD8 T cells by reducing viral load and increasing immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Additionally, Ad-CAGoptZGP afforded full protections in mice against lethal challenge at a dose 100 times lower than the dose required for Ad-CMVZGP. (utexas.edu)
  • 2007) Hypersusceptibility to vesicular stomatitis virus infection in Dicer1-deficient mice is due to impaired miR24 and miR93 expression. (iupui.edu)
  • Much of the work supporting this viewpoint stems from studies focused on germinal center-derived plasma cells secreting high-affinity isotype-switched Abs in mice immunized with T cell-dependent Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Once generated, some plasma cells survive for months or years in mice, and perhaps even decades in people. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several longitudinal studies in both mice and people illustrate the advantages of inducing and maintaining effective concentrations of serum Abs. (jimmunol.org)
  • The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Lutzomyia shannoni is a species of fly in the subfamily Phlebotominae, the phlebotomine sand flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States it is common in the hollows of tree species such as laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia) and southern live oak (Q. virginiana). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a small number of species the larvae are predators and live in the egg cocoons of spiders, praying mantis, or the nests of locusts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flies of most of the species of Chloropidae commonly in grass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species will assemble in large numbers on trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, sometimes on plants in flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larvae of many species in temperate regions will hibernate in winter diapause and in some species the imago also hibernates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species that occur in large numbers and are attracted to animal secretions such as tears and dung, sometimes cause serious irritation and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature (larval) forms of moth species are the most common hosts, but these viruses have also been found infecting sawflies, mosquitoes, and shrimp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of the genus Lutzomyia are found only in the New World, distributed in southern areas of the Nearctic and throughout the Neotropic zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus, named after Adolfo Lutz, is known from the extinct Burdigalian (20-15 mya) species Lutzomyia adiketis found as a fossil in Dominican amber on the island of Hispaniola. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that species in the genus Lutzomyia all originated in the lowland forests to the east of the Andes mountain range, and that their radiation throughout the Neotropics was sparked by dry periods of the Pleistocene, driving colonisation further north and west to areas of higher humidity and leading to reproductive isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has begun in an attempt to resolve evolutionary relationships between species in the genus, using molecular methods to create phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are examples of anthropophillic species that will attack in the daytime. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of anthropohillic Lutzomyia species in the Americas are exophillic, which means that they favour biting outside of homes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lutzomyia sand flies generally rest outdoors, with the type of resting site varying between species and in response to the seasons and the availability of particular microhabitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common reservoirs in the Americas include a number of rodent species, as well as dogs, sloths and armadillos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human-sand fly-human cycle of transmission, known as anthroponotic, is limited to two Leishmania species endemic in the Old World and so does not involve Lutzomyia sand flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The New World Leishmania species transmitted by Lutzomyia sand flies are often classified in the subgenus, Viannia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally viruses are transmitted from this reservoir to other species and may then cause devastating outbreaks in domestic poultry or give rise to human influenza pandemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other species, the virus causes no obvious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • the genus also contains the species Dhori virus (DHOV) and its subtype Batken virus, as well as the species or strains Araguari virus, Aransas Bay virus (ABV), Bourbon virus, Jos virus (JOSV) and Upolu virus (UPOV), which have yet to be confirmed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (wikipedia.org)
  • It also has some similarity with the haemagglutinin of Quaranfil virus, the type species of a new genus of tick-transmitted orthomyxoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • markedly
  • These genetically distinct parasites show markedly different patterns of development within the New World sand flies when compared to those seen in the Old World Phlebotomus sand flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Clinical and serological responses to accidental human inoculation of a strain of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana serotype, are described. (ajtmh.org)
  • J:200017 Barritt LC, Miller JM, Scheetz LR, Gardner K, Pierce ML, Soukup GA, Rocha-Sanchez SM, Conditional deletion of the human ortholog gene Dicer1 in Pax2-Cre expression domain impairs orofacial development. (jax.org)
  • J:182094 Huang ZP, Chen JF, Regan JN, Maguire CT, Tang RH, Dong XR, Majesky MW, Wang DZ, Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects. (jax.org)
  • In healthy human cells the virus cannot reproduce, probably because of the interferon response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marburg virus disease (MVD) is the official name listed in the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 (ICD-10) for the human disease caused by any of the two marburgviruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the causes of microRNA deregulation in various human diseases? (iupui.edu)
  • For instance, in normal conditions, the putative promoter region of let -7a -3 gene is heavily methylated in normal human tissues, but hypo-methylated in lung adenocarcinomas. (iupui.edu)
  • Northern blot analysis found that miR-155 pri-miRNA was abundantly expressed in the human spleen and thymus and detectable in the liver, lung, and kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, PCR analyses found that while miR-155-3p was detectable in a number of human tissues the expression levels of this miRNA were 20-200 fold less when compared to miR-155-5p levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloropidae are not of importance in human medicine in the same way as blood sucking parasites such as mosquitoes or Simuliidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 virus with nef negative, vpu negative and signal peptide gene replaced with honey bee's) grown in human T-lymphocytes (A3.01 cell line) are collected and purified before inactivating them by AT-2 (aldrithiol-2 or 2,2'-Dipyridyldisulfide) chemical treatment and gamma irradiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the early innate immune response to invading pathogens by sensing microorganism and are involved in sensing endogenous danger signals. (medchemexpress.com)
  • In contrast, less attention has been devoted to understanding Ab responses to T cell-independent Ags and pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
  • Consequently, these long-lived plasma cells play a key role in maintaining serum Ab levels to various pathogens, and therefore they are essential components of long-lasting protective humoral immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • infectious
  • Define the broader role of extracellular hsp70 in mediating central nervous system inflammation in non-infectious diseases (e.g., immune mediated). (osu.edu)
  • In 2009, the successful isolation of infectious MARV and RAVV was reported from healthy Egyptian rousettes (Rousettus aegyptiacus) caught in caves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Youngner survived many infections as a young child which left him with a lifelong interest in infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine whether infection with VSV or BTV affects blood feeding, midges were injected with VSV, BTV, or virus-free cell lysate and held 2, 3, or 4 days post inoculation (DPI) for VSV or 2, 4, or 7 DPI for BTV before being offered a non-infectious blood meal. (usda.gov)
  • To determine effects of infection on feeding, midges were offered a non-infectious artificial blood meal for a short (10 minutes) or long period (60 minutes) and proportions of fed midges were compared using a generalized linear mixed model. (usda.gov)
  • disease
  • My laboratory is focused upon the role of HSPs in modulating virus-mediated disease in the central nervous system (i.e., neurovirulence). (osu.edu)
  • This is because its clinical presentation is identical to the very important foot and mouth disease virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main sign in animals is oral disease appearing as mucosal vesicles and ulcers in the mouth, but also on the udder and around the coronary band. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the scientific literature, Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) is often used as an unofficial alternative name for the same disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease caused by Bordetella pertussis persists with rates increasing over the past decade in industrialized countries. (utexas.edu)
  • Not all relationships of microRNA in disease are equally valid. (iupui.edu)
  • The disease in cattle and pigs is impossible to distinguish from foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fly feeds on feral Ossabaw Island Hogs and spreads the virus widely, though clinical disease is rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some Chloropidae are troublesome in that they act as purely mechanical agents of disease transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest records of baculoviruses can be found in the literature from as early as the sixteenth century in reports of "wilting disease" infecting silk-producing larva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, there is no known disease affiliated with the Hart Park virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hart Park virus does not currently have a disease related to its infection in other animals, but its transmission through feral birds is a cause for concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is in endemic in 22 countries of tropical and subtropical America, where it is generally considered a zoonosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family and is the cause of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. (wikipedia.org)
  • and circovirus, which includes porcine circovirus types 1 and 2, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, pigeon circovirus, canary circovirus goose circovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus causes a lethal haemorraghic disease in domestic pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include canine distemper virus (dogs), phocine distemper virus (seals), cetacean morbillivirus (dolphins and porpoises) Newcastle disease virus (birds) and rinderpest virus (cattle). (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA copies of BASV were found in the serum of the patient who survived the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleedings appear very early in the course of the disease, including nose bleeding, mouth bleeding and hematemesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A male nurse working in the local health center visited by the first victims showed signs of the disease 9 days after the girl's death. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Youngner demonstrated the separation of monkey kidney cells using the pancreatic enzyme trypsin, a technique previously proven by the Rockefeller Institute could be applied to high titer virus stocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • With continued researched and publications from other researchers, along with help from Dr. Huang, Dr. Baltimore discovered an enzyme, reverse transcriptase (in a mouse leukemia retrovirus), that converts RNA to DNA (involved in a process now known as reverse transcription). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune responses
  • Effective recognition of viral infection and subsequent triggering of antiviral innate immune responses are essential for the host antiviral defense, which is tightly regulated by multiple regulators, including microRNAs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase I clinical trial (NCT01546818) Funded by Sumagen Canada, the government of Canada and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it started in March 2012 to assess its safety, tolerability, and immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase II clinical trial The Phase II clinical trial is expected to begin in fall 2017 in the United States to measure immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Most current oncolytic viruses are engineered for tumour selectivity, although there are naturally occurring examples such as reovirus and the senecavirus, resulting in clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1996, the first approval was given in Europe for a clinical trial using the oncolytic virus HSV1716. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of the US FDA Phase I clinical trial completed in August 2013 showed no serious adverse effects in 33 participants. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • No measurable antibodies were formed to Cocal virus, a recently described new VSV serotype. (ajtmh.org)
  • Youngner identified that a difference in pH, as indicated by metabolic activity by other researchers, could be used to identify cell cultures infected with virus and also cultures with antibodies to virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study was completed in August 2013 and reported no serious adverse effects while boosting antibodies in the volunteers injected with SAV001-H vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, broadly neutralizing antibodies were found in some blood samples of the participants. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • We have shown that the predominant inducible 70kDa HSP (hsp70) in neurons protects against viral neurovirulence in mouse models, despite the stimulatory effect of hsp70 on virus gene expression. (osu.edu)
  • The material in the lipid-rich vesicle fraction appears to be a post-ER intermediate in the transport process to the plasma membrane (PM). After infection, the VSIV G gene is expressed and is commonly studied as a model for N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inactivating mutations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene occur in approximately 30-50% of endometrial carcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The MIR155HG was initially identified as a gene that was transcriptionally activated by promoter insertion at a common retroviral integration site in B-cell lymphomas and was formerly called BIC (B-cell Integration Cluster). (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Dr. Kang, HIV-1 strain is genetically engineered such that first, "the gene responsible for pathogenicity, known as nef" is removed to make it non-pathogenic and then the signal peptide gene is replaced with a honey bee toxin (melittin) signal peptide to make the virus production much higher and faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the signal peptide exchange process, another gene called vpu is lost due to an overlapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • This relationship supports a protective role of fever, a potent physiological stimulus for hsp70 induction that is a common accompaniment of microbial infections. (osu.edu)
  • Balanced induction of proinflammatory and type I IFN responses upon activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) determines the outcome of microbial infections and the pathogenesis of autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • subfamily
  • In the subfamily Oscinellinae the hypopygium usually has well developed cerci and edites.The cerci in subfamily Chloropinae usually fused and for the most part reduced, and edites are reduced in size, pushed under the epandrium, and sometimes fused with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • The first oncolytic virus approved by a national regulatory agency is genetically not modified ECHO-7 strain enterovirus RIGVIR, approved in Latvia in 2004 for treatment of skin melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Define the mechanism(s) of virus-induced hsp70 secretion from viable cells, with particular emphasis on exosomal release. (osu.edu)
  • Here, we detail the establishment of a polarized, liquid-covered culture (LCC) of Calu-3 cells, focusing on the technical details of growing and culturing Calu-3 cells, maintaining cells that have been cultured into LCC, and we present the method for performing respiratory virus infection of polarized Calu-3 cells. (jove.com)
  • To consistently obtain polarized Calu-3 LCC, Calu-3 cells must be carefully subcultured before culturing in Transwell inserts. (jove.com)
  • Rather than target RNA viruses themselves, aiming at the host cells they invade could hold promise, but any such strategy would have to be harmless to the host. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The researchers were studying differences between how viruses and the host cells they infect carry out the process of translating messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into proteins. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • blocking it would disable certain viruses while leaving normal cells largely unaffected. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Mast cells, key components of the innate immune system, are known for their debilitating role in allergy and autoimmunity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we show that in response to TLR activation by Gram-positive and -negative bacteria or their components, mast cells elicit proinflammatory but not type I IFN responses. (diva-portal.org)
  • We demonstrate that in mast cells, bound bacteria and TLR ligands remain trapped at the cell surface and do not undergo internalization, a prerequisite for type I IFN induction. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thus, the fact that mast cells, although endowed with the capacity to elicit type I IFNs in response to viral infection, elicit only proinflammatory responses upon bacterial infection shows that mast cells, key effector cells of the innate immune system, are well adjusted for optimal antibacterial and antiviral responses. (diva-portal.org)
  • They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed in sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. (medchemexpress.com)
  • However, PTEN induced a G 1 cell cycle arrest specifically in endometrial carcinoma cells that lack endogenous wild-type PTEN. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although PTEN signaling directly regulates p27 KIP1 levels in some settings, in endometrial carcinoma cells, PTEN expression indirectly regulated p27 KIP1 activity by modulating levels of cyclin D3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PTEN induced cell cycle arrest in endometrial carcinoma cells lacking endogenous PTEN but not in a cell line containing wild-type PTEN. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is well accepted that Ag-induced B cell differentiation often results in the generation of exceptionally long-lived plasma cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we review recent work showing that T cell-independent Ags consisting of either polysaccharides or LPSs also induce the formation of long-lived plasma cells, despite their general inability to sustain germinal center responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Long-lived plasma cells may also function as a key source of pathogenic Abs, including self-reactive Abs in various autoimmune diseases, and for IgE Abs in type I hypersensitivity reactions. (jimmunol.org)
  • Indeed, plasma cells appear to consist of at least two distinct pools characterized by key differences in half-life and physical location: short-lived cells found in extrafollicular locales such as the red pulp of the spleen or in medullary chords of lymph nodes, and long-lived cells found mainly in the bone marrow ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • High-affinity Ab responses to T cell-dependent Ags typically require the generation of germinal centers (GCs), unique anatomic structures in peripheral lymphoid tissues enriched for B cells undergoing somatic hypermutation, Ig class switch recombination, and Ag-mediated selection and clonal expansion ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because plasma cells secreting high-affinity class-switched Abs are readily found in the bone marrow, and because long-lived plasma cells are also typically found in this location, it is often assumed that long-lived bone marrow plasma cells derive mainly from GCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • established that expression levels of this miRNA was very low in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the function of miR-155-3p has been largely ignored, several studies now suggest that, in some cases (astrocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells), both miR-155-5p and -3p can be functionally matured from pre-mir-155. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNγ is also produced by non-cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells (ILC), a family of immune cells first discovered in the early 2010s. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well understood, easy to manipulate and relatively harmless in its natural state (merely causing cold sores) so likely to pose fewer risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1990s they have been utilized for producing complex eukaryotic proteins in insect cell cultures (see Sf21, High Five cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • These occlusion bodies are released when cells lyse to further spread baculovirus infection to next host. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Blood feeding success of midges intrathoracically inoculated with either virus-infected or virus-free cell lysate was measured at 2, 3, and 4 days post inoculation (DPI) for a study of VSV and at 2, 4, and 7 DPI for a study of BTV. (usda.gov)
  • In a previous study, however, the authors found that although most techniques used to polymerize NIPAM yield biocompatible films, some formulations from commercially-available NIPAM (cpNIPAM) can be cytotoxic. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of lipids in the life cycle of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (deepdyve.com)
  • In 1979, Knipe joined the faculty at Harvard Medical School as an assistant professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and established his own lab to study HSV. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of April 2015, a Phase 3 trial with a single dose of VSV-EBOV began in Liberia after a successful Phase 2 study in the West Africa country. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of April 2015, Phase 3 trial with a single dose of cAd3-EBO Z begins in Sierra Leone after a successful Phase 2 study in West Africa countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • This cell-releasing behavior in a physiologically relevant temperature range has led to NIPAM's use for engineered tissues and other devices. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Although the fact that miR-155 expression is induced by stimulation of poly(I:C) or IFN-β implies the involvement of miR-155 in antiviral responses, there is no report by now about the regulation and underlying mechanism of type I IFN signaling and subsequent type I IFN-mediated antiviral innate immunity by the inducible miR-155. (jimmunol.org)
  • This review charts plasma cell differentiation in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent Ab responses while also addressing current knowledge of the environmental cues governing life and death decisions in the plasma cell lineage. (jimmunol.org)
  • Vaccines
  • Despite the fact that this killed whole virus strategy is widely exercised to prevent diseases like polio, influenza, cholera, mumps, rabies, typhoid fever and hepatitis A in the past, it failed to receive any serious attention in the effort to develop vaccines against HIV for various scientific, economical and technical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, there are risks associated with inadequately inactivated or not killed HIV remained in vaccines. (wikipedia.org)