• Ebola
  • Background -- The Ebola virus is transmitted by direct contact with bodily fluids of infected individuals, eliciting death rates as high as 90% among infected humans. (utexas.edu)
  • Another Ebola vaccine, based on an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus has shown efficacy in post-exposure treatment of nonhuman primates to Ebola infection. (utexas.edu)
  • Conclusions/Significance -- We describe an improved adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine capable of affording post-exposure protection against lethal challenge in mice. (utexas.edu)
  • The molecular modifications of the new improved vaccine also translated in the induction of significantly enhanced immune responses and complete protection at a dose 100 times lower than with the previous generation adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine. (utexas.edu)
  • MVD is a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), and the clinical symptoms are indistinguishable from Ebola virus disease (EVD). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Contrary to Ebola virus disease (EVD), which has been associated with heavy rains after long periods of dry weather, triggering factors for spillover of marburgviruses into the human population have not yet been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the reemergence of Ebola virus in Central Africa, the CIRMF "Emerging Viral Disease Unit" developed diagnostic tools and epidemiologic strategies and transfers of such technology to support the response of the National Public Health System and the World Health Organization to epidemics of Ebola virus disease. (mdpi.com)
  • The Unit carries out a unique investigation program on the natural history of the filoviruses, emergence of epidemics, and Ebola virus pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • The decision to develop a high security laboratory for the study of Ebola virus disease came after a 1996 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Mayibout area, Gabon. (mdpi.com)
  • Because the unique expertise and interaction of the CIRMF team along with the international World Health Organization (WHO) teams for Ebola virus disease, the Gabonese government agreed to such a project. (mdpi.com)
  • For more than 35 years, the filoviruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) have been associated with periodic episodes of hemorrhagic fever (HF) in Africa that produce severe disease in infected patients ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Ebola vaccine candidates against Ebola have been developed in the decade prior to 2014, but none have yet been approved for clinical use in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2016, a study found the VSV-EBOV vaccine to be 70-100% effective against the Ebola virus, making it the first proven vaccine against the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trial used a ring vaccination protocol that first vaccinated all the closest contacts of new cases of Ebola infection either immediately or after 21 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trial will continue to assess whether the vaccine is effective in creating herd immunity to Ebola virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • virology
  • But Amy Lee, a former graduate student in the program of virology, and Sean Whelan, HMS professor of microbiology and immunobiology, now say the ribosome appears to take a more active role, regulating the translation of specific proteins and ultimately how some viruses replicate. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • He is considered "one of the seminal figures in contemporary virology and it's been that way for more than 50 years" by Arthur S. Levine, senior vice chancellor for the health sciences at University of Pittsburgh. (wikipedia.org)
  • dead link] In 1949, Youngner moved to the University of Pittsburgh to pursue virology at and, subsequently, to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine for the rest of his career. (wikipedia.org)
  • David M. Knipe is the Higgins Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and interim Co-Chair in the Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology at the Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts and co-chief editor of the reference book Fields Virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • He had previously served as Chair of the Program in Virology at Harvard Medical School from 2004 through 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veterinary virology is the study of viruses in non-human animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • is an American biologist specialized in microbiology and virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme converted RNA to DNA, and became a major breakthrough in virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • virions
  • As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • In vivo, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy revealed that VSV was able to escape the midgut barrier, disseminate quickly and replicate in epithelial, neural and hemolymph cells throughout the insect. (usda.gov)
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant 1716 lacks both copies of the ICP34.5 gene, and as a result is no longer able to replicate in terminally differentiated and non-dividing cells but will infect and cause lysis very efficiently in cancer cells, and this has proved to be an effective tumour-targeting strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For such situations, the FDA has established the "Animal Efficacy Rule" allowing licensure to be approved on the basis of animal model studies that replicate human disease, combined with evidence of safety and a potentially potent immune response (antibodies in the blood) from humans given the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2014, two Phase 1 clinical trials began for the vaccine cAd3-EBO Z, which is based on an attenuated version of a chimpanzee adenovirus (cAd3) that has been genetically altered so that it is unable to replicate in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many flavivirus species can replicate in both mammalian and insect cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Cells were characterized for their epithelial properties such as expression of cytokeratin and tight junctions proteins and permissiveness for viral infection with Rift-Valley fever virus and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana. (jove.com)
  • The researchers were studying differences between how viruses and the host cells they infect carry out the process of translating messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into proteins. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Because certain viruses are very sensitive to the presence and absence of these ribosomal proteins, it might be a useful way for us to think about targeting ribosomes for therapeutic purposes from an antiviral standpoint," says Whelan. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Conjugation of lentivirus to paramagnetic particles via nonviral proteins allows efficient concentration and infection of primary acute myeloid leukemia cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The NF-kappa-B (NFKB) complex of proteins is inhibited by I-kappa-B (IKB) proteins, which inactivate NFKB by trapping it in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in contrast to many other heparan sulfate binding proteins, where binding promotes biological activity, the binding of IFNγ to HS inhibits its biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has also defined the cellular proteins that recognize herpesviral DNA in the nucleus and initiate innate signaling and restrict viral gene expression and identified viral proteins that block host innate responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1990s they have been utilized for producing complex eukaryotic proteins in insect cell cultures (see Sf21, High Five cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourth, the early studies with the monkeys using the killed simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine showed some optimism but it turned out that the protection was attributable to responses to both the cellular proteins on the SIV vaccine and on the challenge virus grown not in monkey cells but in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins can reorganize in the nucleus, by increasing number of dispersion in response to different stress (stimulation or heat shock, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the nuclear dot proteins appears to be involved in transcriptional active regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • nonhuman primates
  • Another risk factor is contact with nonhuman primates, although only one outbreak of MVD (in 1967) was due to contact with infected monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are no vaccines or drugs approved for human use, and no postexposure treatment has completely protected nonhuman primates against MARV-Angola, the strain associated with the highest rate of mortality in naturally occurring human outbreaks. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results represent the successful demonstration of therapeutic anti-MARV-Angola efficacy in nonhuman primates and highlight the substantial impact of an LNP-delivered siRNA therapeutic as a countermeasure against this highly lethal human disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Several promising vaccine candidates have been shown to protect nonhuman primates (usually macaques) against lethal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloid
  • Particle conjugation of lentivirus allows facile manipulation in vitro, resulting in the transduction of 48 to 94% of human acute myeloid leukemia blasts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • influenza virus
  • Calu-3 cells, derived from a human bronchial adenocarcinoma, are an alternative model for examining the response of proximal airway epithelial cells to respiratory insult 1 , pharmacological compounds 2-6 , and bacterial 7-9 and viral pathogens, including influenza virus, rhinovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome - associated coronavirus 10-14 . (jove.com)
  • genera
  • About 2000 described species are in over 160 genera distributed worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species in the genera Hippelates and Siphunculina (S. funicola being quite well known in Asia) are called eye gnats or eye flies for their habit of being attracted to eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long orbital bristles on the head are present only in a few genera.The verrtical triangle is often large, (occupying almost all of the frons), and glossy, or matt (making it almost imperceptible). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prominent examples include the eye gnat genera: Liohippelates in the Americas and Siphunculina in parts of Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently 49 species in this family, divided among 4 genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lutzomyia is one of the two genera of the subfamily Phlebotominae to transmit the Leishmania parasite, with the other being Phlebotomus, found only in the Old World. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thogotovirus is a genus of enveloped RNA viruses, one of seven genera in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • The apical and basolateral surfaces of airway epithelial cells demonstrate directional responses to pathogen exposure in vivo . (jove.com)
  • The female can transmit the virus to its offspring via its ovaries, so the juvenile flies can emerge already carrying the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • measles
  • A number of viruses including adenovirus, reovirus, measles, herpes simplex, Newcastle disease virus and vaccinia have now been clinically tested as oncolytic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also observed at higher frequencies in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in these instances antibodies to measles shows expression and localization to the bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • single-stranded
  • The 23 nucleotide single-stranded miR-155, which is harbored in exon 3, is subsequently processed from the parent RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hart Park virus, or HP virus, is a single-stranded RNA arbovirus that is primarily transmitted through mosquitoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circoviruses are small single-stranded DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flaviviruses constitute a family of linear, single-stranded RNA(+) viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (-)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses negative sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexity of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses carries into its ability to suppress the innate immune response of the cells it infects and the construction of a capsid, which is unique to the varying classifications of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Thus, ideal in vitro models for examining cellular responses to respiratory pathogens polarize, forming apical and basolateral surfaces. (jove.com)
  • The in vitro model, in which cultured monolayers of corneal epithelial cells are infected in a Petri dish, offers simplicity, high level of replicability, fast experiments, and relatively low costs. (jove.com)
  • In vitro, Culicoides cells were susceptible and permissive. (usda.gov)
  • Knipe first separated and translated the VSV mRNAs in vitro to identify their coding potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • Furthermore, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 ( SOCS1 ), a canonical negative regulator of type I IFN signaling, is targeted by miR-155 in macrophages, and SOCS1 knockdown mediates the enhancing effect of miR-155 on type I IFN-mediated antiviral response. (jimmunol.org)
  • strains
  • Studies performed with other MARV strains assessed candidate treatments at times shortly after virus exposure, before signs of disease are detectable. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some strains can cause death of animals within as little as a week after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • the genus also contains the species Dhori virus (DHOV) and its subtype Batken virus, as well as the species or strains Araguari virus, Aransas Bay virus (ABV), Bourbon virus, Jos virus (JOSV) and Upolu virus (UPOV), which have yet to be confirmed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (wikipedia.org)
  • For the research, she isolated a rabies type of virus which produced mutant strains interfering with viral growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • In a wide range of in vivo cancer models, the HSV1716 virus has induced tumour regression and increased survival times. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • We assessed the efficacy of lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery of anti-MARV nucleoprotein (NP)-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA) at several time points after virus exposure, including after the onset of detectable disease in a uniformly lethal nonhuman primate model of MARV-Angola HF. (sciencemag.org)
  • genes
  • Marburgvirus genomes are approximately 19 kb long and contain seven genes in the order 3'-UTR-NP-VP35-VP40-GP-VP30-VP24-L-5'-UTR. (wikipedia.org)
  • It alters transcription in up to 30 genes producing a variety of physiological and cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the viral latency-associated transcript promotes heterochromatin modifications on viral chromatin and silencing of lytic genes in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • No measurable antibodies were formed to Cocal virus, a recently described new VSV serotype. (ajtmh.org)
  • safety testing for batches of vaccine and anti-polio antibodies in test subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measurement developed by youngner for safely and quickly testing batches of vaccine and also antibodies to the virus after application were important advancements necessary for vaccine success. (wikipedia.org)
  • Youngner identified that a difference in pH, as indicated by metabolic activity by other researchers, could be used to identify cell cultures infected with virus and also cultures with antibodies to virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of anti-yellow fever (YF) virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies following YF vaccination is unknown, making it difficult to interpret positive IgM antibody results in previously vaccinated travelers. (ajtmh.org)
  • Detection of YF IgM antibodies several years postvaccination might reflect remote YF vaccination rather than recent YF vaccination or YF virus infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • The study was completed in August 2013 and reported no serious adverse effects while boosting antibodies in the volunteers injected with SAV001-H vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, broadly neutralizing antibodies were found in some blood samples of the participants. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Type I IFN plays critical roles in antiviral immune response mainly through induction of cellular resistance to viral infection and apoptosis of virus-infected cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using genetic approaches, miR-155 has been demonstrated to have an indispensable role in humeral and cellular immunity ( 9 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In a combined decision, members of the FDA's Oncology Drug Advisory Committee and Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee voted 22-1 to recommend approval of the oncolytic immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers reported that the therapeutic vaccine induced robust cellular immune responses in animal tests recently conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate and adaptive immune responses
  • It has been demonstrated that miRNAs participate in various biological processes, including innate and adaptive immune responses ( 6 - 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Define the broader relevance of hsp70 to enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses to viruses affecting other organ systems, with emphasis on the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. (osu.edu)
  • vaccine
  • Julius S. Youngner (24 October 1920 - 27 April 2017) was an American Distinguished Service Professor in the School of Medicine and Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at University of Pittsburgh responsible for advances necessary for development of a vaccine for poliomyelitis and the first intranasal equine influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a member of the Jonas Salk research team, Youngner contributed in the development of polio vaccine, including techniques for large scale production of poliovirus and the rapid color test measurement of polio virus in living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Youngner was an important early pioneer in vaccine development, testing, and government licensing of drugs before allowing them to market. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was critical of Cutter Laboratories virus manufacturing prior to deaths resulting from Cutter inactivated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working on polio prevention, he was responsible for three key advancements in poliomyelitis vaccine development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This advance in production of virus raw material directly led to vaccine viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Salk vaccine is based upon formalin inactivated wild type virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • From Youngner's work, formalin application for six days was projected to produce only "one live virus particle in 100 million doses of vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine was proven safe at multiple sites in North America, Europe, and Africa, but several volunteers at one trial site in Geneva, Switzerland, developed vaccine-related arthritis after about 2 weeks, and about 20-30% of volunteers at reporting sites developed low-grade post-vaccine fever, which resolved within a day or two. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 31 July 2015, preliminary results of a Phase 3 trial in Guinea indicated that the vaccine appears to be "highly efficacious and safe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2014, University of Oxford expanded the trial to include a booster vaccine based on MVA-BN, a strain of Modified vaccinia Ankara, developed by Bavarian Nordic, to investigate whether it can help increase immune responses further. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAV001-H is the first preventive HIV vaccine using a killed or "dead version" of HIV-1 virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine is developed by Dr. Chil-Yong Kang and his research team at Western University's Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, to date many scientists and researchers insist on a belief that the killed whole virus strategy is a feasible option for an HIV vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, Jonas Salk developed a therapeutic HIV vaccine in 1987, called Remune now being developed by Immune Response BioPharma, Inc., is based on the killed whole virus approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remune vaccine has completed over 25 clinical studies to date and showed a robust mechanism of action restoring white blood cell counts in CD4 & CD8 T cells by reducing viral load and increasing immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukemia
  • With continued researched and publications from other researchers, along with help from Dr. Huang, Dr. Baltimore discovered an enzyme, reverse transcriptase (in a mouse leukemia retrovirus), that converts RNA to DNA (involved in a process now known as reverse transcription). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear bodies (NBs) were first seen as prominent interchromatin structures in the nuclei of malignant or hyperstimulated animal cells identified using anti-sp100 autoantibodies from primary biliary cirrhosis and subsequently the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) factor, but appear also to be elevated in many autoimmune and cancerous diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) the oncogenic PML-RARalpha chimera disrupts normal concentration of PML into nuclear bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • competent
  • M-mutant VSV containing all four amino acid substitutions retained cytotoxic properties in both Vero cells and IFN-competent primary fibroblasts. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • strain
  • Clinical and serological responses to accidental human inoculation of a strain of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana serotype, are described. (ajtmh.org)
  • Mortality rates in outbreaks have ranged from 23 to 90% depending on the strain or species of filovirus. (sciencemag.org)
  • The first oncolytic virus approved by a national regulatory agency is genetically not modified ECHO-7 strain enterovirus RIGVIR, approved in Latvia in 2004 for treatment of skin melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Dr. Kang, HIV-1 strain is genetically engineered such that first, "the gene responsible for pathogenicity, known as nef" is removed to make it non-pathogenic and then the signal peptide gene is replaced with a honey bee toxin (melittin) signal peptide to make the virus production much higher and faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Lutzomyia shannoni is a species of fly in the subfamily Phlebotominae, the phlebotomine sand flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States it is common in the hollows of tree species such as laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia) and southern live oak (Q. virginiana). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a small number of species the larvae are predators and live in the egg cocoons of spiders, praying mantis, or the nests of locusts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flies of most of the species of Chloropidae commonly in grass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species will assemble in large numbers on trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, sometimes on plants in flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larvae of many species in temperate regions will hibernate in winter diapause and in some species the imago also hibernates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species that occur in large numbers and are attracted to animal secretions such as tears and dung, sometimes cause serious irritation and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature (larval) forms of moth species are the most common hosts, but these viruses have also been found infecting sawflies, mosquitoes, and shrimp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of the genus Lutzomyia are found only in the New World, distributed in southern areas of the Nearctic and throughout the Neotropic zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus, named after Adolfo Lutz, is known from the extinct Burdigalian (20-15 mya) species Lutzomyia adiketis found as a fossil in Dominican amber on the island of Hispaniola. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that species in the genus Lutzomyia all originated in the lowland forests to the east of the Andes mountain range, and that their radiation throughout the Neotropics was sparked by dry periods of the Pleistocene, driving colonisation further north and west to areas of higher humidity and leading to reproductive isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has begun in an attempt to resolve evolutionary relationships between species in the genus, using molecular methods to create phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are examples of anthropophillic species that will attack in the daytime. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of anthropohillic Lutzomyia species in the Americas are exophillic, which means that they favour biting outside of homes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lutzomyia sand flies generally rest outdoors, with the type of resting site varying between species and in response to the seasons and the availability of particular microhabitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common reservoirs in the Americas include a number of rodent species, as well as dogs, sloths and armadillos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human-sand fly-human cycle of transmission, known as anthroponotic, is limited to two Leishmania species endemic in the Old World and so does not involve Lutzomyia sand flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The New World Leishmania species transmitted by Lutzomyia sand flies are often classified in the subgenus, Viannia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally viruses are transmitted from this reservoir to other species and may then cause devastating outbreaks in domestic poultry or give rise to human influenza pandemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other species, the virus causes no obvious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also has some similarity with the haemagglutinin of Quaranfil virus, the type species of a new genus of tick-transmitted orthomyxoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • J:200017 Barritt LC, Miller JM, Scheetz LR, Gardner K, Pierce ML, Soukup GA, Rocha-Sanchez SM, Conditional deletion of the human ortholog gene Dicer1 in Pax2-Cre expression domain impairs orofacial development. (jax.org)
  • J:182094 Huang ZP, Chen JF, Regan JN, Maguire CT, Tang RH, Dong XR, Majesky MW, Wang DZ, Loss of microRNAs in neural crest leads to cardiovascular syndromes resembling human congenital heart defects. (jax.org)
  • Marburg virus disease (MVD) is the official name listed in the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 (ICD-10) for the human disease caused by any of the two marburgviruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells can serve as suitable models for the study of bat-borne viruses and complement cell culture models for virus infection in human airway epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • In healthy human cells the virus cannot reproduce, probably because of the interferon response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern blot analysis found that miR-155 pri-miRNA was abundantly expressed in the human spleen and thymus and detectable in the liver, lung, and kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, PCR analyses found that while miR-155-3p was detectable in a number of human tissues the expression levels of this miRNA were 20-200 fold less when compared to miR-155-5p levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloropidae are not of importance in human medicine in the same way as blood sucking parasites such as mosquitoes or Simuliidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 virus with nef negative, vpu negative and signal peptide gene replaced with honey bee's) grown in human T-lymphocytes (A3.01 cell line) are collected and purified before inactivating them by AT-2 (aldrithiol-2 or 2,2'-Dipyridyldisulfide) chemical treatment and gamma irradiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • markedly
  • These genetically distinct parasites show markedly different patterns of development within the New World sand flies when compared to those seen in the Old World Phlebotomus sand flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • Define the broader role of extracellular hsp70 in mediating central nervous system inflammation in non-infectious diseases (e.g., immune mediated). (osu.edu)
  • In 2009, the successful isolation of infectious MARV and RAVV was reported from healthy Egyptian rousettes (Rousettus aegyptiacus) caught in caves. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine whether infection with VSV or BTV affects blood feeding, midges were injected with VSV, BTV, or virus-free cell lysate and held 2, 3, or 4 days post inoculation (DPI) for VSV or 2, 4, or 7 DPI for BTV before being offered a non-infectious blood meal. (usda.gov)
  • To determine effects of infection on feeding, midges were offered a non-infectious artificial blood meal for a short (10 minutes) or long period (60 minutes) and proportions of fed midges were compared using a generalized linear mixed model. (usda.gov)
  • Youngner survived many infections as a young child which left him with a lifelong interest in infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Youngner demonstrated the separation of monkey kidney cells using the pancreatic enzyme trypsin, a technique previously proven by the Rockefeller Institute could be applied to high titer virus stocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • cattle
  • It has particular importance to farmers in certain regions of the world where it can infect cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease in cattle and pigs is impossible to distinguish from foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family and is the cause of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include canine distemper virus (dogs), phocine distemper virus (seals), cetacean morbillivirus (dolphins and porpoises) Newcastle disease virus (birds) and rinderpest virus (cattle). (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • My laboratory is focused upon the role of HSPs in modulating virus-mediated disease in the central nervous system (i.e., neurovirulence). (osu.edu)
  • Disease caused by Bordetella pertussis persists with rates increasing over the past decade in industrialized countries. (utexas.edu)
  • In the scientific literature, Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) is often used as an unofficial alternative name for the same disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because its clinical presentation is identical to the very important foot and mouth disease virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main sign in animals is oral disease appearing as mucosal vesicles and ulcers in the mouth, but also on the udder and around the coronary band. (wikipedia.org)
  • All 16 macaques that received LNP-encapsulated anti-MARV NP siRNA survived infection, whereas the untreated or mock-treated control subjects succumbed to disease between days 7 and 9 after infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • The fly feeds on feral Ossabaw Island Hogs and spreads the virus widely, though clinical disease is rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some Chloropidae are troublesome in that they act as purely mechanical agents of disease transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest records of baculoviruses can be found in the literature from as early as the sixteenth century in reports of "wilting disease" infecting silk-producing larva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, there is no known disease affiliated with the Hart Park virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hart Park virus does not currently have a disease related to its infection in other animals, but its transmission through feral birds is a cause for concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is in endemic in 22 countries of tropical and subtropical America, where it is generally considered a zoonosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • and circovirus, which includes porcine circovirus types 1 and 2, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, pigeon circovirus, canary circovirus goose circovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus causes a lethal haemorraghic disease in domestic pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Most current oncolytic viruses are engineered for tumour selectivity, although there are naturally occurring examples such as reovirus and the senecavirus, resulting in clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1996, the first approval was given in Europe for a clinical trial using the oncolytic virus HSV1716. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of the US FDA Phase I clinical trial completed in August 2013 showed no serious adverse effects in 33 participants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase I clinical trial (NCT01546818) Funded by Sumagen Canada, the government of Canada and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it started in March 2012 to assess its safety, tolerability, and immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase II clinical trial The Phase II clinical trial is expected to begin in fall 2017 in the United States to measure immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • lethal
  • Additionally, Ad-CAGoptZGP afforded full protections in mice against lethal challenge at a dose 100 times lower than the dose required for Ad-CMVZGP. (utexas.edu)
  • responses
  • Effective recognition of viral infection and subsequent triggering of antiviral innate immune responses are essential for the host antiviral defense, which is tightly regulated by multiple regulators, including microRNAs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the fact that miR-155 expression is induced by stimulation of poly(I:C) or IFN-β implies the involvement of miR-155 in antiviral responses, there is no report by now about the regulation and underlying mechanism of type I IFN signaling and subsequent type I IFN-mediated antiviral innate immunity by the inducible miR-155. (jimmunol.org)
  • Balanced induction of proinflammatory and type I IFN responses upon activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) determines the outcome of microbial infections and the pathogenesis of autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we show that in response to TLR activation by Gram-positive and -negative bacteria or their components, mast cells elicit proinflammatory but not type I IFN responses. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thus, the fact that mast cells, although endowed with the capacity to elicit type I IFNs in response to viral infection, elicit only proinflammatory responses upon bacterial infection shows that mast cells, key effector cells of the innate immune system, are well adjusted for optimal antibacterial and antiviral responses. (diva-portal.org)
  • Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • This relationship supports a protective role of fever, a potent physiological stimulus for hsp70 induction that is a common accompaniment of microbial infections. (osu.edu)
  • pathogens
  • Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the early innate immune response to invading pathogens by sensing microorganism and are involved in sensing endogenous danger signals. (medchemexpress.com)
  • subfamily
  • In the subfamily Oscinellinae the hypopygium usually has well developed cerci and edites.The cerci in subfamily Chloropinae usually fused and for the most part reduced, and edites are reduced in size, pushed under the epandrium, and sometimes fused with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Define the mechanism(s) of virus-induced hsp70 secretion from viable cells, with particular emphasis on exosomal release. (osu.edu)
  • Here, we detail the establishment of a polarized, liquid-covered culture (LCC) of Calu-3 cells, focusing on the technical details of growing and culturing Calu-3 cells, maintaining cells that have been cultured into LCC, and we present the method for performing respiratory virus infection of polarized Calu-3 cells. (jove.com)
  • To consistently obtain polarized Calu-3 LCC, Calu-3 cells must be carefully subcultured before culturing in Transwell inserts. (jove.com)
  • Rather than target RNA viruses themselves, aiming at the host cells they invade could hold promise, but any such strategy would have to be harmless to the host. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • blocking it would disable certain viruses while leaving normal cells largely unaffected. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Mast cells, key components of the innate immune system, are known for their debilitating role in allergy and autoimmunity. (diva-portal.org)
  • We demonstrate that in mast cells, bound bacteria and TLR ligands remain trapped at the cell surface and do not undergo internalization, a prerequisite for type I IFN induction. (diva-portal.org)
  • They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed in sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. (medchemexpress.com)
  • However, PTEN induced a G 1 cell cycle arrest specifically in endometrial carcinoma cells that lack endogenous wild-type PTEN. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although PTEN signaling directly regulates p27 KIP1 levels in some settings, in endometrial carcinoma cells, PTEN expression indirectly regulated p27 KIP1 activity by modulating levels of cyclin D3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PTEN induced cell cycle arrest in endometrial carcinoma cells lacking endogenous PTEN but not in a cell line containing wild-type PTEN. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In Step 2, individuals will stop taking their HAART medication and their viral load, CD4 counts and the number of VRX496 in T cells will be monitored. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All subjects who receive VRX496 T cells will enroll in a Long-Term Follow-up study to monitor subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If the VRX496 T cells are no longer found in the blood after five years, then subjects will be contacted yearly for the next 10 years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If the VRX496 T cells are found in the blood at five years after the 1st infusion of T cells, then the subjects will continue to be seen once a year until the VRX496 T cells are no longer found in the blood for a maximum of 15 years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Specifically, 4 of 5 subjects had stable or increased CD4 counts, and viral loads were stable in 4 of 5 patients, and decreased by 1.7 log in 1 of 5 subjects following a single infusion of VRX496 T cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the present trial, subjects will receive up to 6 infusions of VRX496 modified CD4 T cells, and then undergo a series of tests, including rectal mucosal biopsies, to determine the longevity and trafficking of the VRX496 T cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • established that expression levels of this miRNA was very low in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the function of miR-155-3p has been largely ignored, several studies now suggest that, in some cases (astrocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells), both miR-155-5p and -3p can be functionally matured from pre-mir-155. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNγ is also produced by non-cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells (ILC), a family of immune cells first discovered in the early 2010s. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well understood, easy to manipulate and relatively harmless in its natural state (merely causing cold sores) so likely to pose fewer risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • At CWRU, he conducted research with Dr. Robert D. Goldman and showed that microfilaments in mammalian cells were actin filaments through the binding of purified heavy meromyosin to decorate the microfilaments in permeabilized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These occlusion bodies are released when cells lyse to further spread baculovirus infection to next host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear dots (also known as Nuclear bodies, nuclear domains, or PML bodies) are punctate structures found in the nuclei of certain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines
  • Despite the fact that this killed whole virus strategy is widely exercised to prevent diseases like polio, influenza, cholera, mumps, rabies, typhoid fever and hepatitis A in the past, it failed to receive any serious attention in the effort to develop vaccines against HIV for various scientific, economical and technical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, there are risks associated with inadequately inactivated or not killed HIV remained in vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • We have shown that the predominant inducible 70kDa HSP (hsp70) in neurons protects against viral neurovirulence in mouse models, despite the stimulatory effect of hsp70 on virus gene expression. (osu.edu)
  • Virus infection of neurons stimulates a secretory release of hsp70, and the greater the levels of hsp70 within the virus-infected cell, the greater the level of extracellular release. (osu.edu)
  • He defined the structure of viral chromatin during latent infection of neurons and the mechanisms by which viral DNA is kept silenced during latent infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Extracellular hsp70 activates uninfected macrophages through Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, activating antigen presentation functions and stimulating robust induction of type 1 interferon that in turn supports an enhanced adaptive immune response and viral clearance. (osu.edu)
  • Hsp70, released from the cell, thus serves as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that signals the presence of virus infection to the immune system. (osu.edu)
  • or in the words of his colleague: ""Juli figured out how to grow the virus, how to inactivate it, and then he figured how to test the immune response to see if it worked. (wikipedia.org)
  • the very frequent development of an immune response, while harmless to the patient, destroyed the virus and thus prevented it from destroying the cancer. (wikipedia.org)