• H5N1
  • Within the past 30 years, and before the emergence of HPAI viruses (H5N1), 5 documented outbreaks of influenza virus infections occurred in 2 carnivore species--the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) (1-4), and the American mink (Mustela vison) (5). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The sources of most HPAI virus (H5N1) infections in carnivores were traced to infected birds eaten by the animals (12-15,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Until 2005, carnivores infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) were either wild carnivores kept in captivity or domestic carnivores that ate infected domestic or peridomestic birds (12-14,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Since 2005, and after the spread of HPAI virus (H5N1) of the Qinghai sublineage (clade 2.2) outside Southeast Asia in poultry and wild bird populations, carnivores infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) included for the first time free-living wild carnivores, which presumably ate infected wild birds (20,21). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The occurrence of HPAI viruses (H5N1) in wild bird populations is likely to result in the exposure and infection of free-living wild carnivore species. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, it may likely hunt or scavenge wild birds infected with HPAI viruses (H5N1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study, we asked 2 questions: 1) Are red foxes susceptible to infection with a wild bird isolate of HPAI virus (H5N1) from clade 2.2? (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To answer these questions, we experimentally assessed the excretion pattern (based on route, duration, and concentration of virus excretion) and pathogenicity (based on clinical signs, death rates, and distribution of lesions and virus) of a wild bird isolate of clade 2.2 HPAI virus (H5N1) in red foxes infected intratracheally and in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)