• Sahel
  • The southern limit of the Sahara is indicated botanically by the southern limit of Cornulaca monacantha (a drought-tolerant member of the Chenopodiaceae), or northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus, a grass typical of the Sahel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabic is also spoken as a trade language across the Sahara as far as the Sahel, including parts of Mali, Chad and Borno State in Nigeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sahara at this time was like the Sahel today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algeria
  • The Romans interacted with and later conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, and the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maghreb
  • According to the botanical criteria of Frank White and geographer Robert Capot-Rey, the northern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the northern limit of date palm cultivation and the southern limit of the range of esparto, a grass typical of the Mediterranean climate portion of the Maghreb and Iberia. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • The Maritime Union of Australia expressed concern about some Australian companies shipment of phosphate from the occupied territories of Western Sahara, the Union stressed in a written statement of which UPES received a copy yesterday. (awsa.org.au)
  • In the statement signed last September by its WA Branch Secretary, Mr. Chris Cain, and his assistants, the Australian union considered its concerns "legitimate as the phosphate mined in Western Sahara and subsequently shipped to the Fermantle Ports do not belong to the beneficiaries of the trade but is a resource belonging to the Saharawi people, not the foreign occupiers of Western Sahara", referring to Morocco. (awsa.org.au)
  • It is also campaigning against the Australian companies that export Saharawi phosphate to convince them give up these dubious trade. (awsa.org.au)
  • As the Margiris super trawler arrives in Australian amid controversy, another ship, the bulk carrier, Maple Crystal is due at Lascelles wharf in North Shore Geelong on Wednesday 5 September, bringing a stolen cargo of phosphate rock from Western Sahara for the Australian Fertiliser company, Incitec Pivot (IPL). (awsa.org.au)
  • peoples
  • Christian Missions to the indigenous peoples ran hand-in-hand with the colonial efforts of Catholic nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1226 Chao Jukua, commissioner of foreign trade at Quanzhou in the Fujian province of China, completed his Chu-fan-chih (Description of Barbarous Peoples) which discusses Zanzibar (Ts'ong-pa) and Somalia (Pi-P'a-Lo). (wikipedia.org)
  • slave trade
  • Far more consequential for the eventual abolition of slavery in the Western Hemisphere was the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade passed by the British parliament in 1807, and put into effect in 1808, outlawing the transatlantic slave trade. (blogspot.com)
  • The law also authorized the British navy to suppress the slave trade among all slave traffickers, making Britain, in effect, the policeman of the high seas. (blogspot.com)
  • Three years later, the British parliament made participation in the slave trade a felony. (blogspot.com)
  • Some historians have emphasized the rise of a religion and Enlightenment inspired antislavery and humanitarian impulse among Quakers, evangelical Methodists, Unitarians, and others in providing the impetus behind the British abolition of the slave trade. (blogspot.com)
  • Ironically, while the 1807 law made Britain the first nation to outlaw the transatlantic slave trade, from the mid-1600s leading British economic interests had also been one of the main motors behind, and beneficiaries of, the slave trade. (blogspot.com)
  • settlements
  • Spanish prehistory extends to the pre-Roman Iron Age cultures that controlled most of Iberia: those of the Iberians, Celtiberians, Tartessians, Lusitanians, and Vascones and trading settlements of Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks on the Mediterranean coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seafaring Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks successively established trading settlements along the eastern and southern coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Portuguese established the first firm post-Middle Ages European settlements, trade posts, permanent fortifications and ports of call along the coast of the African continent, from the beginning of the Age of Discovery during the 15th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonial
  • You can purchase crafts in markets, venture into the Sahara with a Tuareg caravan, visit pygmy villages, hike through jungle to watch gorillas, relax on tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, experience arguably the world's best wildlife safaris, snack on exotic treats, travel down a river in a dugout "pirogue", travel across savannah on a colonial-era railway, and much more. (wikitravel.org)
  • and the role of various individuals and groups-including merchants, planters, bureaucrats, and colonial, national, and imperial governments, and slaves themselves-in retarding or accelerating the process. (blogspot.com)
  • people
  • Berdoa possibly corresponded to the Toubou, a Nilo-Saharan speaking tribal people indigenous to the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaeologists have found that evidence of trade in luxury items like metals and shells across the entirety of the continent were the main trades of the Berber people, lived in dry areas and became nomadic herders, while in the savannah grasslands, cultivated crops and thus permanent settlement were possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • In so doing, the indigenous business people will be more of a "˜ comprador bourgeoisie' for global capital, no matter whether it is coming from the West, the Chinese or the South Africans. (africanarguments.org)
  • The Catholic Church during the Age of Discovery inaugurated a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people. (wikipedia.org)
  • countries
  • According to the UN, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few Western countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, have raised concerns over the political, economic and military roles China is playing in the African continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • routes
  • Following the 'discovery' of the New World in 1492 by Christopher Columbus and the first circumnavigation of the world by Juan Sebastián Elcano and Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 (both voyages promoted by the Spanish Crown of Castile), expeditions led by conquistadors in the 16th century established trading routes linking Europe with all these areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zimbabwe
  • prominent foreign operators included Morocco and Zimbabwe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first interview which appeared in the Sunday Mail seemed to be less rehearsed while the second one which appeared on the state controlled Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC) television seemed to be a bit more cautious and diplomatic particularly with regards to his counterpart political parties in the inclusive government. (africanarguments.org)
  • Ethiopia
  • In Nubia and Ethiopia, iron, trade, and agricultural surpluses lead to the establishment of cities and civilizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • parts
  • It is usually considered to include the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel, and in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nigeria
  • Shaw's excavations at Igbo-Ukwu, Nigeria revealed a 9th-century indigenous culture that created highly sophisticated work in bronze metalworking, independent of any Arab or European influence and centuries before other sites that were better known at the time of discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • In the south, hunting and gathering gave way to subsistence farming around the same time, relying more on the indigenous yam and oil palm than on the cereals important in the North. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other matters that relate to elections, the constitution and his colleagues in the inclusive government, the President's views have been known for some time now. (africanarguments.org)
  • justice
  • The International Court Justice declared Morocco has no claim to this territory and no country - including Australia - recognises its claim. (awsa.org.au)
  • African
  • Consequently, the companies involved in tropical African commerce were relatively small, apart from Cecil Rhodes's De Beers Mining Company. (wikipedia.org)
  • African pluvial periods are associated with a "wet Sahara" phase during which larger lakes and more rivers existed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Panhard's initial licensing contract with the South African government extended to the local assembly or manufacture of up to 1,000 AMLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morocco is an African nation and we need to have relations with them," Zuma told City Press in the interview. (businesstimesafrica.net)
  • The decision to re-establish ties with Morocco is likely to go down badly with some members of South Africa's ruling African National Congress (ANC), of which Zuma is leader. (businesstimesafrica.net)
  • Portuguese ventures were intended to compete with the Muslim trans-Sahara caravans, which held a monopoly on West African gold and ivory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little is known about ancient relations between China and the African continent, though there is some evidence of early trade connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spanish
  • Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • According to climatic criteria, the southern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the 150 mm (5.9 in) isohyet of annual precipitation (this is a long-term average, since precipitation varies annually). (wikipedia.org)
  • Even then there was considerable trade that could cover long distances. (wikipedia.org)
  • areas
  • If all areas with a mean annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara would be 11 million square kilometres (4,200,000 sq mi). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sahara is mainly rocky hamada (stone plateaus), Ergs (sand seas - large areas covered with sand dunes) form only a minor part, but many of the sand dunes are over 180 metres (590 ft) high. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substantial deposits of iron ore have been found and exploration for oil and gas has brought some success and is continuing, particularly in the off-shore areas of Western Sahara. (awsa.org.au)
  • early
  • By the early 15th century, a new power had arisen in western Anatolia, the Ottoman emirs, linguistically Turkic and religiously Islamic, who in 1453 captured the Christian Byzantine capital of Constantinople and made themselves sultans. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Agriculture supported large towns, and eventually large trade networks developed between the towns. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Archaeologists have found that evidence of trade in luxury items like precious metals and shells across the entirety of the continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • coast
  • In 1415, the Portuguese captured the city of Ceuta and continued to expand their control along the coast of Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • state
  • The first formal abolition of slavery in the Western Hemisphere came not from a national government but from state legislatures in New England and the Mid-Atlantic states of the not-yet-independent United States of America. (blogspot.com)
  • national
  • MUA, and the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU), the statement indicated are lobbying the Australian government to convince it carry out he policies adopted on Western Sahara by the Australian Labour Party in three previous National Conference. (awsa.org.au)