• pancreatic
  • Adiponectin also improves pancreatic β-cell function by contributing to favorable glycometabolic properties through antiapoptotic effects ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones secreted from adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreatic islets of Langerhans regulate a variety of physiological processes. (britannica.com)
  • To compensate for the increased blood glucose levels, fetal pancreatic beta cells can undergo hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • type 2 diabet
  • OBJECTIVE Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Serum FGF-21 levels were significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which may indicate a role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. (wikipedia.org)
  • excess
  • At the crux of obesity-related diseases is metabolic dysregulation characterized by insulin resistance and elevated levels of circulating insulin, glucose, and several other metabolic factors directly linked to excess adiposity. (hindawi.com)
  • Yet, too great of an excess will overburden these cells and cause a spillover into non-adipose cells, which do not have the necessary storage space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers claim that obesity has protective effects against lipotoxicity as it results in extra adipose tissue in which excess lipids can be stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal lipotoxicity occurs when excess long-chain nonesterified fatty acids are stored in the kidney and proximal tubule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several potential mechanisms of by which the excess fatty acids can cause cell death and damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipotoxicity in cardiac tissue is attributed to excess saturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • If excess weight is gained as an adult, fat cells increase in size about fourfold before dividing and increasing the absolute number of fat cells present. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is secreted as a response mechanism for counteracting the increasing excess amounts of glucose in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperinsulinemia, or hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is involved in the process by limiting fat storage through inhibition of glucose intake and interfering with other adipose metabolic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Randle cycle, also known as the glucose fatty-acid cycle, is a metabolic process involving the competition of glucose and fatty acids for substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of AMPK and SIRT1 by FGF21 in adipocytes enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as demonstrated by increases in oxygen consumption, citrate synthase activity, and induction of key metabolic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Expression of this gene is regulated by glucocorticoids, retinoic acid and insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression promoted by a diet of fat and glucose, as well as high levels of inflammation related cytokines found in the obese, can result in cells that "produce fewer and smaller mitochondria than is normal," and are thus prone to insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • impaired glucose t
  • In patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and no history of T2DM, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and undiagnosed T2DM are common and strong predictors of poor prognosis ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • inhibition
  • Some examples include inhibition of bone formation, suppression of calcium absorption (both of which can lead to osteoporosis), delayed wound healing, muscle weakness, and increased risk of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extent of inhibition increases along the glycolytic pathway, being most severe at the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase and less severe at the level of glucose uptake and 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Insulin is derived from a 74-amino-acid prohormone molecule called proinsulin . (britannica.com)
  • The energy released in this process is captured in the form of 1 GTP and 11 ATP molecules per acetyl group (or acetic acid molecule) oxidized. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • The glucose is the main energetic substrate in the brain. (ufrgs.br)
  • The cycle controls fuel selection and adapts the substrate supply and demand in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this time there is a decrease in substrate supply and an increase in the substrate demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inadequate available glucose substrate can lead to hypoglycemia, fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, or other problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipocytes
  • Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes, connective tissue, muscle or bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some reports and textbooks, the number of adipocytes can increase in childhood and adolescence, though the amount is usually constant in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the upper body fat cell response, the number of lower-body adipocytes did significantly increase during the course of experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index without a significant increase in the overall number of adipocytes in adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, adipose tissue /ˈædɪˌpoʊs/ ( listen), body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from adipocytes, which comprise the highest percentage of cells within adipose tissue, other cell types are present, collectively termed stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that these changes lead to an accumulation of cytosolic citrate, which in turn inhibits PFK-1, followed by an increase in glucose 6-phosphate, which eventually inhibits hexokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The HIF pathway plays a central role in sensing and responding to changes in cellular oxygen levels, and, since increased expression of HIF-α is observed in many human cancers, understanding how HIF-α becomes deregulated in cancer could lead to new therapeutic strategies. (jci.org)
  • levels
  • Relative to the DIO controls, both CR and EX reduced adiposity by 35-40% and serum leptin levels by 80%, but only CR increased adiponectin and insulin sensitivity. (hindawi.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Low plasma adiponectin levels are independently associated with increased risk of T2DM in patients with MI and added significantly to the predictive value of blood glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Even in nondiabetic patients, admission blood glucose levels remain an independent risk factor, in part related to impaired β-cell function ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While effective glycemic management reduces the risk of diabetes-related complications in patients with T2DM, many patients are unable to reduce their glucose levels to target goals. (jaoa.org)
  • Also, the renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and mRNA expression levels were increased. (jove.com)
  • The plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) were estimated in steroid-background rats (SBRs) and compared with those in healthy rats treated with normal saline. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The plasma levels of FFAs increased markedly in SBRs, the HOMA index was markedly higher, and glucose tolerance was impaired. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EA improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by decreasing the plasma levels of FFAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This insulin resistance can be improved by 15 Hz EA at the bilateral Zusanli acupoints, as shown by decreased plasma levels of FFAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon refeeding, transcription of PDK4 increased further, a surprising outlook, by about 50-fold over levels before fasting began. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exposure of rat Langerhans islets to glucose for 1 hour is able to remarkably induce the intracellular proinsulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mother of the infant is a diabetic, and does not properly control her blood glucose levels, the hyperglycemic maternal blood can create a hyperglycemic environment in the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following birth, the hyperglycemic maternal blood is no longer accessible to the neonate resulting in a rapid drop in the newborn's blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The insulin toxin, closer in structure to fishes' than to snails' native insulin, slows down the prey fishes by lowering their blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity
  • Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and many types of cancer [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake is a uniformly observed characteristic of the heart in these states, although changes in upstream kinase signaling are variable and dependent on the severity and duration of the associated obesity or diabetes mellitus. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sugar sweetened drinks appear to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes both through their role in obesity and potentially through a direct effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased rate of childhood obesity between the 1960s and 2000s is believed to have led to the increase in type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • In addition, we observed increased FGF21 level in serum of healthy male volunteers performing a treadmill run at 50 or 80% VO2max. (mendeley.com)
  • It is believed that these fatty acids are delivered to the kidneys via serum albumin. (wikipedia.org)