• hepatic
  • These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipotoxicity affects the pancreas when excess free fatty acids are found in beta cells, causing their dysfunction and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the beta-cells of the pancreas, glucose enters through the GLUT 2 receptors (process described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucose that goes in the bloodstream after food consumption also enters the beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Adiponectin also improves pancreatic β-cell function by contributing to favorable glycometabolic properties through antiapoptotic effects ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hormones secreted from adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreatic islets of Langerhans regulate a variety of physiological processes. (britannica.com)
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • type 2 diabet
  • OBJECTIVE Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Serum FGF-21 levels were significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which may indicate a role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • The released fatty acids activate UCP1 and are oxidized in mitochondria to serve as an energy source of thermogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • HMGCS2 activity has also been shown to be increased by deacetylation of lysines 310, 447, and 473 via SIRT3 in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression promoted by a diet of fat and glucose, as well as high levels of inflammation related cytokines found in the obese, can result in cells that "produce fewer and smaller mitochondria than is normal," and are thus prone to insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids are very high energy fuels, and are taken up by all metabolizing cells which have mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because fatty acids can only be metabolized in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • excess
  • Yet, too great of an excess will overburden these cells and cause a spillover into non-adipose cells, which do not have the necessary storage space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers claim that obesity has protective effects against lipotoxicity as it results in extra adipose tissue in which excess lipids can be stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal lipotoxicity occurs when excess long-chain nonesterified fatty acids are stored in the kidney and proximal tubule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several potential mechanisms of by which the excess fatty acids can cause cell death and damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipotoxicity in cardiac tissue is attributed to excess saturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • If excess weight is gained as an adult, fat cells increase in size about fourfold before dividing and increasing the absolute number of fat cells present. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is secreted as a response mechanism for counteracting the increasing excess amounts of glucose in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperinsulinemia, or hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • NE also increased the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) in BAT of WT but not UCP1-KO mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Bacteria such as Clostridium do so by using the enzyme to dissolve collagen and hyaluronic acid, the protein and saccharides, respectively, that hold tissues together. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and adipogenesis by fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, fatty acids can be converted to lipid intermediates like diacylglycerol, ceramides and fatty acyl-CoAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of WAT exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as MAT volume as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • adipocytes
  • In agreement with this in vivo observation, Marette and Bukowiecki ( 11 , 12 ) demonstrated in isolated brown adipocytes that NE could enhance glucose transport predominantly via a β-adrenergic pathway even in the absence of insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 13 ) reported that NE-induced glucose transport in mouse brown adipocytes was suppressed by a phosphatidyinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002), suggesting significant involvement of a same downstream signal transduction pathway stimulated by insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes, connective tissue, muscle or bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some reports and textbooks, the number of adipocytes can increase in childhood and adolescence, though the amount is usually constant in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the upper body fat cell response, the number of lower-body adipocytes did significantly increase during the course of experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index without a significant increase in the overall number of adipocytes in adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes but not in other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, adipose tissue /ˈædɪˌpoʊs/ ( listen), body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from adipocytes, which comprise the highest percentage of cells within adipose tissue, other cell types are present, collectively termed stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • impaired glucose t
  • In patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and no history of T2DM, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and undiagnosed T2DM are common and strong predictors of poor prognosis ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • The cellular events associated with sympathetic activation of BAT thermogenesis are the binding of norepinephrine (NE) released from sympathetic nerve terminal to β-adrenergic receptor, the activation of adenylate cyclase, and increased hydrolysis of triglyceride. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Its primary enzymatic function is to catalyze the preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholines at the sn-2 position, generating free fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycogen
  • The glucose that is not oxidized is then rerouted to glycogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This rerouting to glycogen explains the rapid resynthesis of muscle glycogen after exercise as well as the increased glycogen content in muscles found in starvation or diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • hyperglycemia
  • However, Umpierrez, Isaacs, Bazargan, You, Thaler, and Kitabchi (2002) suggested that non-diabetic patients with hyperglycemia had a 18.3-fold increased mortality rate, as compared with a 2.7-fold increase in diabetic patients. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • molecule
  • The energy released in this process is captured in the form of 1 GTP and 11 ATP molecules per acetyl group (or acetic acid molecule) oxidized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity
  • Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and many types of cancer [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake is a uniformly observed characteristic of the heart in these states, although changes in upstream kinase signaling are variable and dependent on the severity and duration of the associated obesity or diabetes mellitus. (ahajournals.org)
  • The global increase in prevalence of the MS that is rampant in both industrialized and developing countries is associated with an increase in obesity. (hindawi.com)
  • FGF21 also protects animals from diet-induced obesity when overexpressed in transgenic mice and lowers blood glucose and triglyceride levels when administered to diabetic rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar sweetened drinks appear to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes both through their role in obesity and potentially through a direct effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic obesity leads to increased insulin resistance that can develop into type 2 diabetes, most likely because adipose tissue (especially that in the abdomen around internal organs) is a source of several chemical signals, hormones and cytokines, to other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased rate of childhood obesity between the 1960s and 2000s is believed to have led to the increase in type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that these changes lead to an accumulation of cytosolic citrate, which in turn inhibits PFK-1, followed by an increase in glucose 6-phosphate, which eventually inhibits hexokinase. (wikipedia.org)