• conditioners
  • The phrase "whole-house weatherization" extends the traditional definition of weatherization to include installation of modern, energy-saving heating and cooling equipment, or repair of old, inefficient equipment (furnaces, boilers, water heaters, programmable thermostats, air conditioners, and so on). (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • Extremes of age, obesity, and underlying respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders (diabetes) seem to increase vulnerability and susceptibility to the harmful effects of air pollution ( 7 ), and the systemic inflammatory response may further worsen the disease state ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our approach accounts for global transport of air pollution, future population and economic growth, and increases in susceptibility of the global population to the health effects of air pollution," said West, "This is what led us to see higher co-benefits than previous estimates. (nih.gov)
  • Hotter, drier weather could increase wildfires and the susceptibility of pine forests to pine bark beetles and other pests, which would reduce forests and expand grasslands and arid shrublands. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • SHANGHAI: China's Hebei province was the location of six of the country's 10 smoggiest cities in 2017, the same as the previous year, despite a campaign to improve air quality during the winter when smog levels peak, according to environment ministry data published on Thursday (Jan 18). (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Based on data from 2016, the Environmental group Air Clean Taiwan claimed in 2017 that Kaohsiung's Zuoying District, Yunlin's Lunbei Township and Pingtung were amongst the worst affected city (districts) in the country, with Lunbei topping the list regarding high levels of PM2.5, often prompting the red and purple alerts issued by the EPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • PM2.5
  • They found that when smokers were observed, at an average distance of 2.6 metres, there was an average 70% more fine particulates in the air (PM2.5 or less than 2.5mm in diameter) than when there were no smokers around. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Air Quality and Premature Death: Brown areas indicate estimated average annual number of premature deaths per 1,000 square kilometers due to PM2.5 air pollution produced by human activities. (nih.gov)
  • By November 2015, it was claimed that the EPA's PM2.5 Index indicated poor air qualities for almost one-third of Taiwan's cities for more than one hundred days that year, with Nantou topping the list at 147 such days. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Based on the conclusions of this report, the ARB adopted a regulatory amendment that identified secondhand smoke as a toxic air contaminant - an outdoor air pollutant that may cause or contribute to an increase in deaths or in serious illness, or which may pose a present or potential hazard to human health. (no-smoke.org)
  • Many of the Chinese citizens started to wonder if air pollution is the cause of the increase of lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that inhaled particles and gaseous air pollutants cause the release of reactive oxygen species from cells in the lung and circulating immune cells ( 4 ), which in turn trigger the release of inflammatory mediators into the systemic circulation to affect other body organs ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In dogs air pollution shows to cause damage to the CNS by altering the blood-brain barrier, causing neurons in the cerebral cortex to degenerate, destroying glial cells found in white matter, and by causing neurofibrillary tangles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weatherization generally does not cause indoor air problems by adding new pollutants to the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • environmental
  • In recent years, there has been increased citizens' activism against government decisions that are perceived as environmentally damaging, and a retired Chinese Communist Party official has reported that the year of 2012 saw over 50,000 environmental protests in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increasing population and rapid economic growth as well as lax environmental oversight have increased water demand and pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to research published by environmental group Greenpeace last week, Beijing, Hebei and other parts of northern China saw dramatic improvements in air quality over the winter as a result of the crackdown as well as more favourable weather conditions, but progress stalled in other parts of the country. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Various forms of pollution have increased as China has industrialised, which has caused widespread environmental and health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • As China's waste production increases, insufficient efforts to develop capable recycling systems have been attributed to a lack of environmental awareness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to high temperatures, prolonged heat, and excessive amounts of precipitation, humid subtropical regions of the United States receive the greatest environmental benefits provided by SCV roofs, which are: reduced rainwater input into storm water retention systems during rainfall and increased energy performance ratings in buildings. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • These particles - suspended in the air by wind action and human activities - can be stirred up by the strong northeastern winds occurring in winter, also known as the northeastern monsoon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels of other hazardous suspended particles such as silicon and iron were equally found to be significantly lower when increasing altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2100
  • The researchers then used global models to evaluate how these scenarios would affect air quality and human health in 2030, 2050, and 2100. (nih.gov)
  • levels
  • As people enjoy the health benefits of smokefree air indoors, it is only natural to want to enjoy those same benefits in outdoor areas, especially those where people gather or work and have high levels of exposure. (no-smoke.org)
  • As of 2013, Beijing, which lies in a topographic bowl, has significant industry, and heats with coal, is subject to air inversions resulting in extremely high levels of pollution in winter months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we will take advantage of a HUD-sponsored inner-city home intervention study to determine if a home environment intervention will reduce home endotoxin levels and improve asthma. (epa.gov)
  • High levels of air pollution are associated with increased risk of strokes and heart attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study from 2008 compared children and dogs raised in Mexico City (a location known for high pollution levels) with children and dogs raised in Polotitlán, Mexico (a city whose pollution levels meet the current US National Ambient Air Quality Standards). (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of pollution in urban areas can also increase the UHI, as many forms of pollution change the radiative properties of the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1966 New York City smog was an air-pollution event, with damaging levels of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, smoke, and haze. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The five week long study by public health researchers used a sensitive air monitor to measure air quality in the Lower Hutt shopping centre as they passed 284 people who were smoking on the footpaths. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To study the degree of the problem, researchers must conduct surveys of the air exchange rates in many houses. (mdpi.com)
  • The researchers hypothesized that air pollutants increase epilepsy risk by increasing inflammatory mediators, and by providing a source of oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk
  • The annual global welfare (non-market) costs of these premature deaths from outdoor air pollution, calculated using estimates of the individual willingness-to-pay to reduce the risk of premature death, are projected to be USD 18-25 trillion in 2060. (oecd.org)
  • Low birthweight infants are at increased risk of dying in the first year of life, as well at risk for serious disability. (nih.gov)
  • Living in these areas during childhood and adolescence can lead to diminished mental capacity and an increased risk of brain damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • People of all ages who live in high pollution areas for extended periods place themselves at increased risk of various neurological disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus, the sequence of events provides a plausible mechanism by which pollution may increase epilepsy risk in individuals who are genetically vulnerable to the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avoidance of risk factors, including smoking and air pollution, is the primary method of prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • As more damage accumulates, the risk of cancer increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies from the US, Europe and the UK have consistently shown a significantly increased risk among those exposed to passive smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Hay fever, asthma: In hay fever and asthma, inner lining in bronchioles become inflamed and create an excess amount of phlegm that can clog up air pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • ambient air pollution
  • CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate, for the first time, a possible contribution of ambient air pollution to systemic inflammation in Indian type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ambient air pollution has been shown to be associated with several acute and chronic adverse effects on human health, especially those involving the respiratory and cardiovascular system ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The World Health Organization estimated that ∼865,000 premature deaths occur every year due to the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution and that China and India are the most affected countries ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Every year, ambient air pollution alone killed hundreds of thousands of citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • China has responded by measures such as rapidly building out the water infrastructure and increased regulation as well as exploring a number of further technological solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, he said, "the co-benefits for air quality and human health are felt locally and rapidly, which could motivate countries to pursue a low-carbon future. (nih.gov)
  • quality
  • The study is the first use of a global model and realistic future scenarios to estimate benefits for air quality and human health. (nih.gov)
  • Reducing these co-emitted air pollutants improves air quality and benefits human health. (nih.gov)
  • Blue areas indicate improved air quality and reduced premature deaths since 1850. (nih.gov)
  • Weatherization can have a negative impact on indoor air quality, especially among occupants with respiratory illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prompted by the smog, President Lyndon B. Johnson and members of Congress worked to pass federal legislation regulating air pollution in the United States, culminating in the 1967 Air Quality Act and the 1970 Clean Air Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 2014, Taiwanese legislators and the Taiwan Healthy Air Action Alliance claimed, based on reports by the World Health Organization, that the air quality in Taiwan is generally the worst of all of the Four Asian Tigers, in particularly drawing attention to the annual mean PM10 level of Taiwan (54 micrograms per cubic meter). (wikipedia.org)
  • premature deaths
  • In particular, premature deaths from outdoor air pollution in 2010 amounted to around 3 million people, while they are projected to be 6-9 million in 2060. (oecd.org)
  • The report stated that "hundreds of thousands of premature deaths and incidents of serious respiratory illness have been caused by exposure to industrial air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • smog
  • The smog catalyzed greater national awareness of air pollution as a serious health problem and political issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "smog" (a portmanteau of "smoke" and "fog") is used to describe several forms of air pollution commonly found in urban and industrialized areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time of the 1966 smog and in the two decades prior, air pollution in New York City was caused by both stationary sources such as industrial coal-burning and mobile sources such as motor vehicles, and as such, combined the characteristics of both London smog and Los Angeles smog. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even before the 1966 smog episode in New York City, it was known by scientists, city officials, and the general public that the city-and most major American cities-had serious air-pollution problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • The increase in the percentage of children living with a working parent is welcome news," said Duane Alexander, M.D., Director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • This follows many features in national broadcasters that highlight the increase in health problems attributed to air pollutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Government organisations have increased their promotion of clean air policies in the hope lower health care costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • deaths
  • In Dallas, one study projects that by 2050 heat-related deaths during a typical summer could triple, from about 35 heat-related deaths per summer to over 100 (although increased air conditioning used during these periods may not have been accounted for). (wikipedia.org)
  • outdoor
  • Public demand and support for working on outdoor areas often increases once communities are smokefree indoors. (no-smoke.org)
  • In Santa Monica, CA, a Fresh Air Dining smokefree dining campaign encouraged restaurants to voluntarily make their outdoor dining areas smokefree and publicized those restaurants that make a smokefree commitment. (no-smoke.org)
  • Later, the city adopted a law to bring smokefree air to all outdoor dining areas of restaurants and bars. (no-smoke.org)
  • Whether children who live in poverty are more heavily exposed to indoor and outdoor air pollutants than are children who do not live in poverty is not known. (aappublications.org)
  • 16 - 19 Specific outdoor air pollutants linked to clusters of asthma are described in the following paragraphs. (aappublications.org)
  • Furthermore, useful data would be obtained if the device could separately measure the rates of exfiltration and infiltration between the indoor and outdoor environments ( i.e. , the indoor-outdoor air exchange rates) and also those between the individual rooms (inter-room air exchange rates) over a period of time while the occupants continue with their usual life. (mdpi.com)
  • The projections thus reflect the costs of inaction of outdoor air pollution. (oecd.org)
  • This report seeks to address this gap through a detailed economic modelling framework that links outdoor air pollution to economic growth and welfare. (oecd.org)
  • However, measures such as installing storm windows, weather stripping, caulking, and blown-in wall insulation can reduce the amount of outdoor air infiltrating into a home. (wikipedia.org)
  • amount
  • Analysis of the data showed that the amount of air pollutant exposure at any of the collection times had no effect on either of the pregnancy problems. (healthcanal.com)
  • The annual amount is expected to increase as the Chinese economy grows. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of precipitation on extreme wet or snowy days in winter is likely to decrease, and the amount of precipitation on extreme wet days in summer is likely to increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • children
  • The first is that the proportion of children in whom asthma has been diagnosed is increasing. (aappublications.org)
  • The second component of the asthma problem is the increase in asthma attacks among children who already have asthma. (aappublications.org)
  • Compared to national statistics for the previous year, there has been an increase in the percentage of children living with at least one working parent and the percentage of children living in households classified as food insecure has declined. (nih.gov)
  • Increasing were: the percentage of children served by community water systems that did not meet all applicable standards for healthy drinking water, and the percentage of children living in physically inadequate or crowded housing or housing that cost more than 30 percent of household income. (nih.gov)
  • temperature
  • As a population center grows, it tends to expand its area and increase its average temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1.8-5.4 °F (1.0-3.0 °C) warmer than its surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • A description of the very first report of the UHI by Luke Howard in the late 1810s said that the urban center of London was warmer at night than the surrounding countryside by 3.7 °F (2.1 °C). Though the warmer air temperature within the UHI is generally most apparent at night, urban heat islands exhibit significant and somewhat paradoxical diurnal behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • emission
  • There is an increasing focus on the emission of air pollutants by shipping. (tno.nl)
  • The results of the research are used to improve the precision of emission estimates. (tno.nl)
  • A modified procedure was developed for the measurement of the effective air exchange rate, which represents the relationship between the pollutants emitted from indoor sources and the residents' level of exposure, by placing the dosers of tracer gas at locations that resemble indoor emission sources. (mdpi.com)
  • colleagues
  • citation needed] Dr. Haddad and his colleagues noticed a sharp increase in congenital defects and infertility in Fallujah after it had been bombed by the Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • affect
  • This project and future comparative studies will show how air pollutants affect topical scorching on plant leaf and stunted growth as measured on cytokinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of pollutants to affect the neurophysiology of individuals after the structure of the CNS has become mostly stabilized is an example of negative neuroplasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution is known to affect small and large blood vessels throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)