• proteins
  • This leader is followed by seven tightly arranged, longer ORFs that encode all the viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possibly more functions (See Below) ORF VII - Unknown (Appears to not be required for infection) In addition to its functions regarding translational activation and formation of inclusion bodies, P6 has been shown to interact with a number of other CaMV proteins, such as P2 and P3, suggesting that it may also contribute in some degree to viral assembly and aphid-mediated transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exceptions to the one gene one protein rule are segment 9 (Seg-9) and segment 10 (Seg-10) both of which encode two nearly identical proteins initiated from in-phase AUG codons close together near the upstream termini (VP6 and VP6a encoded by Seg-9: NS3 and NS3a encoded by Seg-10) An open reading frame spans almost the entire length of genome segment-9 and encodes VP6 (the viral helicase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription of the viral genome into mRNA occurs within the core particle and mRNA is translated into proteins using the host cell ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral proteins are synthesized 2-14 days after initial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cylindrical inclusion bodies included aggregations of virus-encoded helicase proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • CBSV is a single stranded RNA (ssRNA(+)) virus, therefore the virus must use the host cell machinery to translate the ssRNA(+) to a polyprotein which then can be processed by the viral proteases to produce RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and other structural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having oxygen-carrying proteins inside specialized cells (as opposed to oxygen carriers being dissolved in body fluid) was an important step in the evolution of vertebrates as it allows for less viscous blood, higher concentrations of oxygen, and better diffusion of oxygen from the blood to the tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Cytopathic effect or cytopathogenic effect (abbreviated CPE) refers to structural changes in host cells that are caused by viral invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with some CPEs, namely inclusion bodies, the cells must be fixed and stained then viewed under light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, the first sign of viral infections is the rounding of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inclusions are not uniformly distributed and can be found in epidermal (Figs. 1 and 2b), mesophyll (Fig. 3b), and stomatal cells (Fig. 4b). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a few snakes with signs of central nervous system disease, and with a severe encephalitis, no inclusions have been seen in any cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While cells having inclusions may show mild degenerative changes, inflammation is rarely seen in visceral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues-via blood flow through the circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells develop in the bone marrow and circulate for about 100-120 days in the body before their components are recycled by macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately a quarter of the cells in the human body are red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebrate red blood cells consist mainly of hemoglobin, a complex metalloprotein containing heme groups whose iron atoms temporarily bind to oxygen molecules (O2) in the lungs or gills and release them throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Lymphocystivirus is one of five genera of viruses within the viral family Iridoviridae, and one of three genera within this family which infect teleost fishes, along with Megalocytivirus and Ranavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • If there is massive bleeding from a wound or other lesion, the body may lose enough blood to cause severe and acute anemia, which is often accompanied by shock. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Snakes
  • Several snakes have been seen with proliferative pneumonia, while inclusions are commonly seen in the liver, kidney, and pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • This process involves a number of complex interactions and signaling events between viral and host cell factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • After entering the host cell, these single stranded "nicks" in the viral DNA are repaired, forming a supercoiled molecule that binds to histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus
  • The viroplasm formation is caused by the interactions between the virus and the infected cell, where viral products and cell elements are confined. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Viral replication causes an increase in vascular permeability, which leads to the lesions and hemorrhaging of organs, namely the liver, spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. (wikipedia.org)