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  • cancer incidence
  • Results: Cervical cancer incidence among young women 15-24 years of age was stable during 2000-2006 from 9.5 in 2000 to 9.1 in 2006, but decreased from 6.9 in 2007 to 5.3 in 2013 (annual percentage decrease [APD] 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-10.2, significantly different from the APD during 2000-2006). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cervical cancer incidence among young females 25-34 years of age also decreased from 99.7 in 2000 to 78.2 in 2006 (APD 4.0, 95% CI 2.3-5.6), and from 78.6 in 2007 to 68.2 in 2013 (APD 2.5, 95% CI 0.5-4.5). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Surveillance of cancer incidence can help public health officials target areas for cancer control efforts ( 2 ) and track progress toward the national cancer objectives set forth in Healthy People 2020 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This report summarizes the most recent invasive cancer incidence rates by sex, age, race, ethnicity, primary site, and state of residence using data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • Cancer incidence rates were higher among men (524) than women (414), highest among blacks (473) and lowest among American Indian/Alaska Natives (273), and ranged by state from 387 to 509. (cdc.gov)
  • relation
  • An incidence structure (P, L, I) consists of a set P whose elements are called points, a disjoint set L whose elements are called lines and an incidence relation I between them, that is, a subset of P × L whose elements are called flags. (wikipedia.org)
  • An incidence structure is a triple (P, L, I) where P is a set whose elements are called points, L is a disjoint set whose elements are called lines and I ⊆ P × L is the incidence relation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence posets have been particularly studied with respect to their order dimension, and its relation to the properties of the underlying graph. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most basic incidence relation is that between a point, P, and a line, l, sometimes denoted P I l. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many expressions used in common language to describe incidence (for example, a line passes through a point, a point lies in a plane, etc.) but the term "incidence" is preferred because it does not have the additional connotations that these other terms have, and it can be used in a symmetric manner, reflecting this property of the relation. (wikipedia.org)
  • a plane is a set of points) then an incidence relation may be viewed as containment. (wikipedia.org)
  • economics
  • The Changing Incidence of Geography ," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 698, Boston College Department of Economics. (repec.org)
  • Fiscal incidence is a concept within public finance, a sub-discipline within economics, that refers to the combined overall economic impact of both government taxation and expenditures on the real economic income of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barna's conceptual framework-first developed as a doctoral candidate at the London School of Economics under Nicholas Kaldor-was influential and today serves as the essential framework for fiscal incidence studies conducted by the British government. (wikipedia.org)
  • In economics, tax incidence or tax burden is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • incident
  • The incidence matrix of an incidence structure C is a p × q matrix B, where p and q are the number of points and lines respectively, such that Bi,j = 1 if the point pi and line Lj are incident and 0 otherwise. (wikipedia.org)
  • An incidence structure is uniform if each line is incident with the same number of points. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, a partial linear space is an incidence structure that satisfies: Any two distinct points are incident with at most one common line, and Every line is incident with at least two points. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the first axiom above is replaced by the stronger: Any two distinct points are incident with exactly one common line, the incidence structure is called a linear space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The orientation of the incident light's polarization with respect to the plane of incidence has an important effect on the strength of the reflection. (wikipedia.org)
  • P-polarized light is incident linearly polarized light with polarization direction lying in the plane of incidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • taxation
  • When the economic incidence of taxation is combined with the economic incidence of government expenditures, the result is a measure of the overall increase or decrease in welfare that individuals enjoy from the state's taxing and spending policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept was brought to attention by the French Physiocrats, in particular François Quesnay, who argued that the incidence of all taxation falls ultimately on landowners and is at the expense of land rent. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasive
  • Methods: We examined trends in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by race and histology among young women (15-24 years and 25-34 years) during the prevaccine era (2000-2006) and the vaccine era (2007-2013). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 2009, a total of 1,476,504 invasive cancers were diagnosed in the United States, an annual incidence rate of 459 cases per 100,000 persons. (cdc.gov)
  • epidemiology
  • USCS includes incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Play media Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • satisfy some additional
  • Incidence structures that are most studied are those that satisfy some additional properties (axioms), such as projective planes, affine planes, generalized polygons, partial geometries and near polygons. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is typical to study incidence structures that satisfy some additional axioms. (wikipedia.org)
  • adjacent
  • The two incidences (v,e) and (u,f) are said to be adjacent if one of the given conditions holds: v = u, e ≠ f e = f, v ≠ u e = {v, u}, f = {u, w} and v ≠ w. (wikipedia.org)
  • An incidence coloring of G can be defined as a function c: I(G) → N such that c((v, e)) ≠ c((u,f)) for any incidences (v, e) and (u, f) that are adjacent. (wikipedia.org)
  • algebra
  • The members of the incidence algebra are the functions f assigning to each nonempty interval [a, b] a scalar f(a, b), which is taken from the ring of scalars, a commutative ring with unity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a subalgebra of the incidence algebra, and it clearly contains the incidence algebra's identity element and zeta function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any element of the reduced incidence algebra that is invertible in the larger incidence algebra has its inverse in the reduced incidence algebra. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The concept of an incidence structure is very simple and has arisen in several disciplines, each introducing its own vocabulary and specifying the types of questions that are typically asked about these structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the tax incidence falls on the farmer, this burden will typically flow back to owners of the relevant factors of production, including agricultural land and employee wages. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • The 'incidence' of pediatric dysphagia refers to the number of new cases identified in a specified time period. (asha.org)
  • proportion
  • Where the period of time considered is an entire lifetime, the incidence proportion is called lifetime risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is sometimes also referred to as the incidence proportion. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a population initially contains 1,000 non-diseased persons and 28 develop a condition over two years of observation, the incidence proportion is 28 cases per 1,000 persons per two years, i.e. 2.8% per two years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same example as above, the incidence rate is 14 cases per 1000 person-years, because the incidence proportion (28 per 1,000) is divided by the number of years (two). (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • It sometimes happens that authors blur the distinction between a study and the objects of that study, so it is not surprising to find that some authors refer to incidence structures as incidence geometries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very general incidence structures can be obtained by imposing "mild" conditions, such as: A partial linear space is an incidence structure for which the following axioms are true: Every pair of distinct points determines at most one line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence structures are most often considered in the geometrical context where they are abstracted from, and hence generalize, planes (such as affine, projective, and Möbius planes), but the concept is very broad and not limited to geometric settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence structures of this type are called set-theoretic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence structures use a geometric terminology, but in graph theoretic terms they are called hypergraphs and in design theoretic terms they are called block designs. (wikipedia.org)
  • implies
  • Use of this measure implies the assumption that the incidence rate is constant over different periods of time, such that for an incidence rate of 14 per 1000 persons-years, 14 cases would be expected for 1000 persons observed for 1 year or 50 persons observed for 20 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100,000
  • Of all population groups, the incidence per 100,000 people was 0.52. (news-medical.net)
  • Some particular population groups, such as women aged between 13 and 25 years, were more likely to be affected by the syndrome, with an incidence of 1.41 per 100,000. (news-medical.net)
  • These studies include incidence values ranging to a maximum of 17 per 100,000 women. (news-medical.net)
  • Annual incidence rates per 100,000 population were age-adjusted by the direct method to the 2000 U.S. standard population. (cdc.gov)
  • The age-adjusted annual incidence for all cancers was 459 per 100,000 population (524 per 100,000 in males and 414 per 100,000 in females). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2006, TB incidence rates in the 51 reporting areas ranged from 0.8 (Wyoming) to 12.6 (DC) cases per 100,000 population (median: 3.4 cases). (cdc.gov)
  • decrease
  • A significance decrease in the incidence was only observed in Whites, but not in Blacks, Hispanics, or Asians/Pacific Islanders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A significance decrease was observed in the incidence of non-squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rather than SCC among young females 15-24 years from 3 in 2007 to 1.5 in 2013 (APD 9.1, 95% CI 3.1-14.7). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conclusion: A significance decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer during the vaccine era among young females 15-24 years may indicate early effects of HPV vaccination. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When the association between tampons with higher absorbency and toxic shock syndrome became clear, public health interventions were initiated to decrease the incidence of the condition. (news-medical.net)
  • This public health initiative is largely to account for the decrease in incidence of toxic shock syndrome since the 1980s and its relative rarity today. (news-medical.net)
  • optics
  • In describing reflection and refraction in optics, the plane of incidence (also called the meridional plane[citation needed]) is the plane which contains the surface normal and the propagation vector of the incoming radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interval
  • The interval incidence coloring number of G is the minimum number of colors used for the interval incidence coloring of G. It is denoted by IIC(G). If only IIC(G) colors are used for the interval incidence coloring, then it is said to be minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • wings
  • Early types incorporating one or more variable-incidence wings included the Zerbe Air Sedan, a tandem quadruplane of 1919, and the tandem-wing Flying Flea which was popular during the 1930s. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • Data from research conducted over the period from 2000-2006, reported that the incidence of toxic shock syndrome now remains low and stable. (news-medical.net)
  • An incidence structure is what is obtained when all other concepts are removed and all that remains is the data about which points lie on which lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • equivalent
  • It is equivalent to the incidence, calculated using a period of time during which all of the individuals in the population are considered to be at risk for the outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variable
  • these are called variable incidence wing s. (britannica.com)
  • An early patent for the variable-incidence wing was lodged in France on 20 May 1912 by Bulgarian inventor George Boginoff. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without a variable-incidence wing (or other high-lift device), the pilot must pitch up the entire aircraft to maintain lift at the slow approach speed required, and this can restrict forward vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the earlier designs to have variable incidence for this purpose was the Supermarine Type 322 prototype carrier-borne aircraft of 1943. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only production aircraft to incorporate variable incidence was the American F-8 Crusader carrier-borne jet fighter, while other prototype designs to have flown include the Martin XB-51. (wikipedia.org)
  • trends
  • Comparing trends and incidence of cervical cancer before and during the vaccine era among vaccine-eligible young women (15-34 years) may provide valuable insight about potential vaccine impact. (aacrjournals.org)
  • case
  • This conjecture was disproved by Guiduli, who showed that incidence coloring concept is a directed star arboricity case, introduced by Alon and Algor. (wikipedia.org)
  • He showed that in case of outerplanar graph of maximum degree 4, the incidence chromatic number is not 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • concept
  • There is no natural concept of distance (a metric) in an incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key concept is that the tax incidence or tax burden does not depend on where the revenue is collected, but on the price elasticity of demand and price elasticity of supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • The incidence of toxic shock syndrome rose significantly in the following decade until it reached a peak in the 1980s and declined from that point until today and is now seen as a relatively rare condition. (news-medical.net)
  • The incidence of open marriage has remained relatively stable over the last two generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Sellers' incidence falls over time due to specialization, despite constant gravity coefficients. (repec.org)
  • Another way to define a distance again uses a graph-theoretic notion in a related structure, this time the collinearity graph of the incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • For each mesh, the incidence colors can be made in the linear time with the least number of colors. (wikipedia.org)
  • rates
  • Incidence rates (per 1,000,000) were age-adjusted to the 2010 US standard population by the direct method, using SEER*Stat software. (aacrjournals.org)
  • structure
  • The distance between two points of the incidence structure can then be defined as their distance in the collinearity graph. (wikipedia.org)
  • When distance is considered in an incidence structure, it is necessary to mention how it is being defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is an incidence structure in which the lines fall into k parallel classes, so that two lines in the same parallel class have no common points, but two lines in different classes have exactly one common point, and each point belongs to exactly one line from each parallel class. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fano plane above is a self-dual incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an incidence structure, X is the set of points and F is the set of lines, usually called blocks in this context (repeated blocks must have distinct names, so F is actually a set and not a multiset). (wikipedia.org)
  • higher
  • Women who are menstruating and use tampons are at a greater risk of suffering from toxic shock syndrome and, for this reason, the incidence in this population is higher. (news-medical.net)
  • Some research has indicated a significantly higher incidence when considering at risk populations of women that use tampons regularly. (news-medical.net)
  • For Canada's provinces, 1992-2003, incidence is on average some five times higher for sellers than for buyers. (repec.org)
  • Studies that define open marriage by agreement alone will tend to report a higher incidence than studies that define open marriage by agreement and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • In these types, varying the incidence of one wing while leaving another fixed was used as a substitute for the more conventional elevator control surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • measure
  • To measure incidence you must take into account how many years each person contributed to the study, and when they developed HIV. (wikipedia.org)