• receptors
  • It was in the 1960's and 70's that researchers in pioneering studies demonstrated the presence of high affinity and specific hormone binding sites, called receptors, on the cell surface and postulated that GTP-binding proteins were important in the signal transmission process across the plasma membrane ( Gilman, 1987 ). (rupress.org)
  • For example, one of the most intensively studied systems for understanding hormone actions on target tissues has been the receptors for progesterone and estrogens (hormones secreted by the gonads) from the oviducts of chickens. (britannica.com)
  • This may lead to cell type-specific responses that include rapid non-genomic effects or slower genomic [ disambiguation needed ] responses where the hormones acting through their receptors activate gene transcription resulting in increased expression of target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In addition to the sixth FMO discovered as of 2002, the laboratories of Dr. Ian Philips and Elizabeth Sheppard discovered a second gene cluster in humans that consists of 5 additional pseudogenes for FMO on human chromosome 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • meaning that a phenotypically similar gene evolved in invertebrates which was not inherited from a common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterisation of this gene is important because it is the first echinoderm neuropeptide precursor sequence to be identified and, more specifically, it provides our first insight into the structure and organisation of a SALMFamide gene in an echinoderm. (biologists.org)
  • The luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene is localized in the LHB/CGB gene cluster on chromosome 19q13.32. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine
  • that is, primitive animals have served as relatively simple, sensitive indicators of the amount of hormone activity in extracts prepared from mammalian endocrine glands. (britannica.com)
  • Note that the thymus is no longer considered part of the endocrine system, as it does not produce hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Special features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless nature, their vascularity, and commonly the presence of intracellular vacuoles or granules that store their hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Leydig cells produce testosterone (T) under the control of LH, which regulates the expression of the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that is used to convert androstenedione, the hormone produced by the testes, to testosterone, an androgen that exerts both endocrine activity and intratesticular activity on spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • In view of these alterations of the defense mechanisms of aquatic invertebrates, which consist of cellular and humoral responses, the aim of this study was to determine the effect on survival, clotting time, hemocyanin, number of hemocytes, and phenoloxidase activity of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles exposed to four sublethal concentrations of cadmium. (hindawi.com)
  • substances
  • this involves excretion (getting rid of metabolic nitrogen wastes and other substances such as hormones that would be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the blood) through organs such as the skin and the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • larvae
  • The larvae of the last (fifth) instar have to reach a critical mass of about 5 g before specific hormones trigger the onset of metamorphosis, which involves a larval-to-pupal (metamorphic) molt. (biologists.org)
  • Knowing that the larvae can undergo additional larval-to-larval molts when they don't reach the critical mass for their metamorphic moult as a result of an insufficient supply of food, the team hypothesized that a positive regulator that drives molting regardless of body size must exist. (biologists.org)
  • autocrine
  • The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell ( autocrine or intracrine signalling ) or nearby cells ( paracrine signalling ). (wikipedia.org)
  • insects
  • The timing of this molting process is tightly controlled by hormones, which ensures that the insects have built up sufficient energy reserves during their larval stages to fuel molting and metamorphosis (the transformation from juvenile into adult forms). (biologists.org)
  • proteins
  • PLC- ε is primarily controlled by small GTP-binding proteins, whereas less is known about the regulatory features of additional PLC isoforms, although all PLCs are stimulated by Ca 2+ ions ( Harden and Sondek, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
  • immune
  • The gastrointestinal tract contains thousands of different bacteria in its gut flora, that play an important role in the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively simple
  • The universality of this system is best showcased by its fundamental role in both relatively simple processes, such as egg fertilization or invertebrate photosensing, as well as in those with the highest complexity, such as cellular communication between neurons in the brain. (rupress.org)
  • isoforms
  • Instead of requiring additional cells to revert between the two isoforms, from all-trans-retinal back into 11-cis-retinal before it can undergo another phototransduction, like the photoreceptor cones which rely on müller cells and retinal pigment epithelium cells for this conversion, melanopsin is able to isomerize all-trans-retinal into 11-cis-retinal when stimulated with light without help from additional cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The phototransduction mechanism in these cells is not fully understood, but seems likely to resemble that in invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells help to resist infections, and platelets are important in the clotting of blood. (wikidoc.org)
  • steroid hormones , being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells (both cytoplasmic and nuclear ) to act within their nuclei . (wikipedia.org)
  • LH acts upon the Leydig cells of the testis and is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons, however, are usually considered the most important cells in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • The important role of thyroid hormones during embryonic development was first studied thoroughly in tadpoles during the early 1900s. (britannica.com)
  • There is increasing awareness that farmers have an important role to play as custodians of the British countryside and wildlife. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venom plays an important role in the ant's life as it is used to capture prey or for defence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • Some of these molecules are even synthesized and employed as chemical regulators, similar to hormones in higher animals, by unicellular animals and plants. (britannica.com)
  • The majority of small invertebrate animals belong to Phylum Arthropoda, which consists of organisms with external skeletons and jointed legs. (ct.gov)
  • small
  • Prouroguanylin is a peptide secreted primarily from the small intestine and is cleaved to the active hormone uroguanylin at the site of action ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The suspensory muscle is an important anatomical landmark which shows the formal division between the duodenum and the jejunum, the first and second parts of the small intestine, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small invertebrate predators are less efficient than large fish in catching D. lumholtzi. (wikipedia.org)
  • reservoir
  • Furthermore, the crop may also act not only to store food prior to digestion but to provide an additional reservoir for water and sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • While there are no specific osmoregulatory organs in higher plants, the stomata are important in regulating water loss through evapotranspiration, and on the cellular level the vacuole is crucial in regulating the concentration of solutes in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • Its structure is similar to that of the other glycoprotein hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (wikipedia.org)
  • If pregnancy occurs, LH levels will decrease, and luteal function will instead be maintained by the action of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), a hormone very similar to LH but secreted from the new placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • support
  • The coastal environments of the Mexican Pacific receive metal contaminants from multiple sources, such as the several rivers flowing from important mining districts [ 1 ] and the waterways and canals draining the fertile coastal plains of the states of Sonora and Sinaloa, which support highly intensive agricultural activities [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • large
  • Swamp vervain can, however, interere with blood pressure medication and hormone therapy, and large doses cause vomiting and diarrhea. (wildflower.org)
  • Thus
  • Vitellogenin levels are important during the nest stage and thus influence honey bee worker division of labor. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Various types of information such as nutritional status or immunocompetence can be transmitted with auditory and visual begging signals and the behavior can be modulated by several factors such as brood size and hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • queen
  • The glycolipoprotein vitellogenin has additional functionality as it acts as an antioxidant to prolong Queen bee and forager lifespan as well as a hormone that affects future foraging behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • Important borers include longhorned beetles (roundheaded borers), metallic wood boring beetles (flatheaded borers), engraver beetles, clearwing moths, American plum borer (a moth), and a few less commonly encountered moths. (ct.gov)