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  • Zika
  • Importantly, in countries where Zika is reported as endemic, caution is advised in planning to conceive a baby until such time as the apparent association between infection with the virus and microcephaly is either confirmed or refuted. (springer.com)
  • Many people with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection will not have symptoms or will only have mild clinical symptoms. (jbpml.org.br)
  • Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. (cdc.gov)
  • Historically, symptomatic Zika virus infections were limited to sporadic cases or small clusters of patients ( Technical Appendix Table 2). (cdc.gov)
  • This pattern changed in 2007, when the first major outbreak of Zika virus infection occurred in Yap (Federated States of Micronesia), where ≈73% of the population were infected and symptomatic disease developed in ≈18% of infected persons ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Since then, Zika virus infection has spread rapidly. (cdc.gov)
  • arthropods
  • Other arthropods, like ticks, are also susceptible to WNV infection, and the virus has been repeatedly isolated from both soft and hard ticks [ 9 ], although their role as vectors of WNV transmission is still uncertain. (mdpi.com)
  • viruses
  • AKU and the University of Florida are launching a pilot project in Sindh to detect arbovirus cases and in this context patients with febrile illness from Karachi, Hyderabad, Thatta, Larkana, Sukkur and Mirpurkhas will be recruited and tested for a range of viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • delpontei with 18 strains of 4 different viruses in Chaco Province, plus its catholic feeding habits, clearly indicate for the first time the importance of this species as an arbovirus vector. (ajtmh.org)
  • Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus's vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses of plants and livestock also increased, and as humans became dependent on agriculture and farming, diseases such as potyviruses of potatoes and rinderpest of cattle had devastating consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 20th century many diseases both old and new were found to be caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although scientific interest in them arose because of the diseases they cause, most viruses are beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past 50,000-100,000 years, as modern humans increased in numbers and dispersed throughout the world, new infectious diseases emerged, including those caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • midgut infection
  • Large DTR (20 °C) decreased the probability of midgut infection, but not duration of the virus extrinsic incubation period (EIP), compared with moderate DTR (10 °C) or constant temperature. (pnas.org)
  • ZIKV
  • It should be noted that this association, whilst compelling still requires extensive scientific study to be proven as attributable to congenital ZIKV infection. (springer.com)
  • The laboratory investigation is more important in cases suspected of ZIKV infection that have evolved with neurological complications, in pregnant women, abortion or congenital malformations, and is a key part for diagnostic definition. (jbpml.org.br)
  • Transmission
  • Our findings reveal the importance of considering short-term temperature variations when studying DENV transmission dynamics. (pnas.org)
  • Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. (mdpi.com)
  • Tropical Medicine
  • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board and increased support for developing country authors. (plos.org)
  • virus
  • Arbovirus surveillance from 1990 to 1995 in the Barkedji area (Ferlo) of Senegal, a possible natural focus of Rift Valley fever virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A field study on the effects of Fort Morgan virus, an arbovirus transmitted by swallow bugs, on the reproductive success of Cliff Swallows and symbiotic House Sparrows in Morgan County, Colorado, 1976. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Introduction of the PE2 gene from an enzootic subtype ID virus into an epizootic IAB or IC genetic backbone resulted in lower infection rates than those of the epizootic parent. (jove.com)
  • Such findings may be particularly useful in the development of future prevention and care strategies for this emerging virus infection. (plos.org)
  • disease
  • South American trypano-somiasis (Chagas' disease) extends through much of the sub-continent and appears to be responsible for considerable morbidity in parts of its distribution. (medical-photographs.com)
  • variations
  • Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. (mdpi.com)
  • vectors
  • Her research has mainly focused on molecular epidemiology of: fascioliasis and its lymnaeid snail vectors worldwide, planorbid snail vectors of schistosomiasis, triatomine insects transmitting Chagas disease in Latin America, culicid vectors of medical importance, and malaria transmission risk and spread in Europe and the likely impact of environment, human behaviour and climate changes on these parasitic diseases. (tropicalmedicine2016.com)
  • The finding that the E2 envelope glycoprotein, the site of epitopes that define the enzootic and epizootic subtypes, also encodes mosquito infection determinants suggests that selection for efficient infection of epizootic mosquito vectors may mediate VEE emergence. (jove.com)
  • malaria
  • Understanding the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of residual malaria transmission will be essential to adjust intervention strategies, as frontline tactics shift importance from primary to presently-secondary sources of transmission as the programme approaches elimination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cause
  • 1 It is a commensal organism which, with the right conditions and pathogenic factors, can invade the host and cause a range of diseases from minor skin and soft tissue infections to osteomyelitis, endocarditis and life-threatening septicaemia. (health.gov.au)
  • It is prevalent as a cause of infection both in the community and in hospital practice, and is one of the most common species found in positive blood cultures. (health.gov.au)
  • rates
  • Introduction of the PE2 gene from an enzootic subtype ID virus into an epizootic IAB or IC genetic backbone resulted in lower infection rates than those of the epizootic parent. (jove.com)
  • range
  • For many diseases these lie in the range 14 18 °C at the lower end and about 35 40 °C at the upper end. (scielosp.org)
  • among
  • October-December) of 2012-2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Smallpox, which is the most lethal and devastating viral infection in history, first emerged among agricultural communities in India about 11,000 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • region
  • Chimeras containing the IAB epizootic structural gene region and, more specifically, the IAB PE2 envelope glycoprotein E2 precursor gene demonstrated an efficient infection phenotype. (jove.com)
  • especially
  • Melioidosis is a well-recognised infection caused by the bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei , which is a free-living organism present in the soil, especially mud, and surface water. (health.gov.au)