• viruses
  • AKU and the University of Florida are launching a pilot project in Sindh to detect arbovirus cases and in this context patients with febrile illness from Karachi, Hyderabad, Thatta, Larkana, Sukkur and Mirpurkhas will be recruited and tested for a range of viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To map mosquito infection determinants, reciprocal chimeric viruses generated from epizootic subtype IAB and enzootic IE VEEV were tested for mosquito infectivity. (jove.com)
  • delpontei with 18 strains of 4 different viruses in Chaco Province, plus its catholic feeding habits, clearly indicate for the first time the importance of this species as an arbovirus vector. (ajtmh.org)
  • During infection, viruses trigger the host cell stress response, leading to changes in RNA translation and the assembly of large aggregates of stalled translation preinitiation complexes, termed stress granules (SGs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Viruses of plants and livestock also increased, and as humans became dependent on agriculture and farming, diseases such as potyviruses of potatoes and rinderpest of cattle had devastating consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 20th century many diseases both old and new were found to be caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although scientific interest in them arose because of the diseases they cause, most viruses are beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past 50,000-100,000 years, as modern humans increased in numbers and dispersed throughout the world, new infectious diseases emerged, including those caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transmission of viruses from animals to humans can occur, but such zoonotic infections are rare and subsequent human-to-human transmission of animal viruses is even rarer, although there are notable exceptions such as influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rare epidemics of viral diseases originating in animals would have been short-lived because the viruses were not fully adapted to humans and the human populations were too small to maintain the chains of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bunyaviridae family includes a growing number of viruses that have contributed to the burden of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases around the globe. (worldwidescience.org)
  • ticks
  • What is alarming is that infections like WNV, spread by insects and ticks, are predicted to increase their distribution in the future, due to a number of factors that scientists are trying to understand i.e urbanisation, globalisation (one example being the spread of mosquito larvae with the tyre trade) and possibly climate change . (academicblogs.co.uk)
  • vector
  • Up to the present, no effective vaccine exists against the disease 7 and infection control is currently restricted to combating the vector 3 . (scielo.br)
  • Incidence, seasonal variation, and global distribution of vector-borne diseases are known to be influenced by climate ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • ZIKV
  • Many people with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection will not have symptoms or will only have mild clinical symptoms. (jbpml.org.br)
  • The laboratory investigation is more important in cases suspected of ZIKV infection that have evolved with neurological complications, in pregnant women, abortion or congenital malformations, and is a key part for diagnostic definition. (jbpml.org.br)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is the most recent emerging arbovirus with pandemic potential. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interestingly, ZIKV infection markedly impaired the phosphorylation of eIF2α triggered in Ars-treated infected cells, and the abrogation of SG assembly in ZIKV-infected cells is, at least in part, dependent on eIF2α dephosphorylation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We evaluated how ZIKV infection counteracts the assembly of dynamic aggregates of RNA and proteins called stress granules (SGs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • immunity
  • Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. (mdpi.com)
  • Contemporary humans lived in small communities, and those who succumbed to infection either died or developed immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas. (mdpi.com)
  • National Institute for Communicable Diseases, A division of the National Health Laboratory Service, South Africa. (pubfacts.com)
  • mosquito
  • The finding that the E2 envelope glycoprotein, the site of epitopes that define the enzootic and epizootic subtypes, also encodes mosquito infection determinants suggests that selection for efficient infection of epizootic mosquito vectors may mediate VEE emergence. (jove.com)
  • These underscores importance of examining the course of infection at various ambient temperatures and EIT between regions mosquito populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • virus
  • A field study on the effects of Fort Morgan virus, an arbovirus transmitted by swallow bugs, on the reproductive success of Cliff Swallows and symbiotic House Sparrows in Morgan County, Colorado, 1976. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Introduction of the PE2 gene from an enzootic subtype ID virus into an epizootic IAB or IC genetic backbone resulted in lower infection rates than those of the epizootic parent. (jove.com)
  • Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. (mdpi.com)
  • Nevertheless, serological evidence exists for human infections with a member of the VEE virus complex. (ajtmh.org)
  • clinical
  • While the diagnosis of the viral and bacterial infections must be confirmed by appropriate serological and cultural techniques, the protozoal and helminthic infections are readily recognised, if not on clinical grounds alone, then by fairly simple techniques designed to demonstrate the presence of the actual causative parasites. (medical-photographs.com)
  • subsequent
  • IL-6) and cytokine-mediated signaling (NF-kB, STAT-3) were intact in P2Y2-/- remnant livers, uncovering the importance of cytokine-independent and nucleotide-dependent early priming events critical for subsequent hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers. (jove.com)
  • temperature
  • Our findings reveal the importance of considering short-term temperature variations when studying DENV transmission dynamics. (pnas.org)
  • Among
  • Smallpox, which is the most lethal and devastating viral infection in history, first emerged among agricultural communities in India about 11,000 years ago. (wikipedia.org)