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  • severe
  • Some individuals will not have received ongoing treatment or have an ongoing relationship with the medical community, despite the existence of a severe impairment(s). (ssa.gov)
  • Progressive damage to the respiratory system is common, including progressive bronchiectasis beginning in early childhood, and sinus disease (sometimes becoming severe in adults). (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of cerebral palsy fall on a continuum of motor dysfunction, which may range from slight clumsiness at the mild end of the spectrum to impairments so severe that they render coordinated movement virtually impossible at the other end of the spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly used classification is as follows: The most severe form of SMA type I is sometimes termed SMA type 0 (or, severe infantile SMA) and is diagnosed in babies that are born so weak that they can survive only a few weeks even with intensive respiratory support. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, diagnostic literature fails to provide a clear distinction between severe obstructive hydrocephalus and hydranencephaly, leaving some children with an unsettled diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tract
  • Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also called immotile ciliary syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes defects in the action of cilia lining the respiratory tract (lower and upper, sinuses, Eustachian tube, middle ear), fallopian tube, and flagella of sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory epithelial motile cilia, which resemble microscopic "hairs" (although structurally and biologically unrelated to hair), are complex organelles that beat synchronously in the respiratory tract, moving mucus toward the throat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have an increased number of respiratory tract infections (ear infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia). (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Hyperammonemia, elevated level of ammonia in blood (including cerebral edema/intracranial pressure) Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome, due to elevated protein levels Foster Kennedy syndrome (FKS) Chiari malformation Tumors of the frontal lobe Acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral edema Lyme disease (Lyme meningitis specifically, when the bacterial infection is in the central nervous system, causing increased intracranial pressure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another major limitation is the fact that many intermittent or mild asthmatics have normal spirometry between acute exacerbation, limiting spirometry's usefulness as a diagnostic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the terminology of "adult respiratory distress syndrome" has at times been used to differentiate ARDS from "infant respiratory distress syndrome" in newborns, the international consensus is that "acute respiratory distress syndrome" is the best term because ARDS can affect people of all ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to generally broadening the diagnostic thresholds, other notable changes from the prior 1994 consensus criteria include discouraging the term "acute lung injury," and defining grades of ARDS severity according to degree of decrease in the oxygen content of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • This technique is based on the assumptions that a known volume and concentration of helium in air begin in the closed spirometer, that the patient has no helium in their lungs, and that an equilibration of helium can occur between the spirometer and the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique is based on the assumptions that the nitrogen concentration in the lungs is 78% and in equilibrium with the atmosphere, that the patient inhales 100% oxygen and that the oxygen replaces all of the nitrogen in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory arrest is caused by apnea (cessation of breathing) due to failure of the lungs to function effectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hallmark of ARDS is diffuse injury to cells which form the barrier of the microscopic air sacs of the lungs, surfactant dysfunction, activation of the innate immune system response, and dysfunction of the body's regulation of clotting and bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • severity
  • Evidence must be provided in sufficient detail to permit an independent reviewer to evaluate the severity of the impairment. (ssa.gov)
  • Whenever there is evidence of such treatment, the longitudinal clinical record must include a description of the treatment prescribed by the treating source and response in addition to information about the nature and severity of the impairment. (ssa.gov)
  • Even if an individual does not show that his or her impairment meets the criteria of these listings, the individual may have an impairment(s) equivalent in severity to one of the listed impairments or be disabled because of a limited residual functional capacity. (ssa.gov)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy manifests in various degrees of severity, which all have in common progressive muscle wasting and mobility impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • evaluate
  • In order to evaluate the efficacy of NPC-based strategies on respiratory function in these animal models of ALS and SCI, cellular interventions must be specifically directed to regions containing therapeutically relevant targets such as phrenic motor neurons. (jove.com)
  • diagnosis
  • 2 Effective diagnosis of pulmonary TB requires the availability - on a global scale - of standardized, easy-to-use, and robust diagnostic tools that would allow the direct detection of both the MTB complex and resistance to key antibiotics, such as rifampicin (RIF). (jove.com)
  • Consequently, the split hand index appears to be a novel diagnostic biomarker for ALS, perhaps facilitating an earlier diagnosis. (jove.com)
  • While original definitions of ARDS specified that correlative chest X-ray findings were required for diagnosis, the diagnostic criteria have been expanded over time to accept CT and ultrasound findings as equally contributory. (wikipedia.org)
  • cough
  • Involvement of respiratory muscles results in poor ability to cough and decreased ability to breathe well and leads to collapse of part or all of the lung leading to impaired gas exchange and an overall insufficiency in lung strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • Lower levels of the protein results in loss of function of neuronal cells in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and subsequent system-wide atrophy of skeletal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proximal muscles, arm and leg muscles that are closer to the torso and respiratory muscles are affected first. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involvement
  • Because of the frequent involvement of heart, eyes and peripheral nervous system, several authors prefer to call it Wernicke disease rather than simply encephalopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthma
  • Particular breeds tend to have increased rates of certain respiratory disease, including asthma in Siamese breed felines. (vin.com)
  • therapeutic
  • Because protein variants play critical roles in many diseases including TDP-43 in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and beta-amyloid and tau in Alzheimer's disease, it is critically important to develop morphology specific reagents that can selectively target these disease-specific protein variants to study the role of these variants in disease pathology and for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (jove.com)
  • subsequent
  • Normally, cilia beat 7 to 22 times per second, and any impairment can result in poor mucociliary clearance, with subsequent upper and lower respiratory infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, papilledema was a potential contraindication to lumbar puncture, as it indicates a risk for tentorial herniation and subsequent death via cerebral herniation, however newer imaging techniques have been more useful at determining when and when not to conduct a lumbar puncture. (wikipedia.org)
  • confusion
  • Korsakoff's syndrome, characterised by memory impairment, confabulation, confusion and personality changes, has a strong and recognised link with WE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accurate
  • Accurate history taking is probably the single most important diagnostic test the clinician can perform in veterinary pulmonology. (vin.com)
  • Through thorough clinical evaluation, via physical findings, detailed patient history, and advanced imaging techniques, such as angiogram, computerized tomography (CT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or more rarely transillumination after birth are the most accurate diagnostic techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebral
  • Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques provide information on the microstructural processes of the cerebral white matter (WM) in vivo . (jove.com)
  • Made up of a system of acetylcholine-producing neurons, the ascending track, or ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), works to arouse and wake up the brain, from the RF, through the thalamus, and then finally to the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • This is thought to occur through two mechanisms, a direct effect on the medulla that leads to activation of the descending sympathetic nervous system and a local release of inflammatory mediators that circulate to the peripheral circulation where they activate the sympathetic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • COPD
  • The primary role of measuring ABGs in individuals that are healthy and stable is to confirm hypoventilation when it is suspected on the basis of medical history, such as respiratory muscle weakness or advanced COPD. (wikipedia.org)
  • chest
  • Respiratory impairments usually can be evaluated under these listings on the basis of a complete medical history, physical examination, a chest x-ray or other appropriate imaging techniques, and spirometric pulmonary function tests. (ssa.gov)
  • Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is a complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical examinations, chest x-ray examinations, arterial blood gas analysis, and tests of pulmonary function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with various chest physiotherapy techniques has been observed to reduce the incidence of lung infection and to slow the progression of bronchiectasis dramatically. (wikipedia.org)
  • vocal
  • The technique described here gives the experimenter precise control over auditory feedback errors in singing birds, allowing the introduction of arbitrary sensory errors that can be used to drive vocal learning. (jove.com)
  • disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. (jove.com)
  • We have developed novel atomic force microscopy (AFM) based biopanning techniques that enable isolation of reagents that selectively recognize disease-specific protein variants. (jove.com)
  • measurement
  • Unlike other 3D measurement methods, DFP techniques lead to systems that tend to be faster, lower in equipment cost, more flexible, and easier to develop. (jove.com)
  • DFP systems can also achieve the same measurement resolution as the camera. (jove.com)
  • Taking advantage of DFP, the graphics processing unit, and optimized algorithms, we have developed a system capable of 30 Hz 3D video data acquisition, reconstruction, and display for over 300,000 measurement points per frame 6,7 . (jove.com)
  • organ systems
  • However, a sneezing but otherwise seemingly healthy animal should have a comprehensive examination during which all organ systems are thoroughly evaluated. (vin.com)
  • treatment
  • An individual who does not receive treatment may or may not be able to show the existence of an impairment that meets the criteria of these listings. (ssa.gov)
  • molecular
  • The development of molecular diagnostic techniques is changing the understanding of the microbiology of VAP, with an increasing appreciation of the role of hard to culture bacteria and the change in the lung microbiome. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • We intend here to provide a demonstration of two techniques that allow isolation and characterization of intracellular pathogens present in clinical or environmental samples: the amoebal coculture and the amoebal enrichment. (jove.com)
  • biochemical
  • Nevertheless, the general approach significantly streamlines microarray workflow for the end user by reducing the number of manually intensive and time-consuming processing steps, and provides a simplified biochemical and microfluidic path for translating microarray-based diagnostics into routine clinical practice. (jove.com)
  • result
  • Incorporating on-chip wash steps is feasible, which will result in an entirely closed amplicon method and system. (jove.com)