• social immunity
  • Social immunity is any antiparasite defence which is mounted for the benefit of individuals other than the actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • s 2007 landmark paper 'Social Immunity' in Current Biology did the topic become seriously considered as a whole, conceptually and in an evolutionary sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • Empirical and theoretical work in social immunity continues to reveal not only new mechanisms of protection but also implications for our understanding of the evolution of group living and polyandry, as well as having consequences for our more general understanding of the origin of complex regulatory systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sylvia Cremer (then at the University of Regensburg) gave the first definition of social immunity in her seminal 2007 Current Biology paper 'Social Immunity', saying that the "collective action or altruistic behaviours of infected individuals that benefit the colony" before laying out a conceptual framework for thinking about the topic using examples from primates and eusocial insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 2010, Sheena Cotter and Rebecca Kilner (both then at the University of Cambridge) proposed to widen the definition of social immunity to "any type of immune response that has been selected to increase the fitness of the challenged individual and one or more recipients", and recommended that the phenomena described by Cremer be known as collective immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They further suggested that the evolution of social immunity be seen as one of the major transitions in evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms of social immunity are often categorized by the stage of the parasite attack on a group of organisms they target. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a parasite to succeed in infecting multiple members of an insect group, it must complete three key tasks: The parasite must be taken up from the extra-nest environment into the nest The parasite must establish itself within the nest The parasite must multiply and spread to many more insect group members Mechanisms of social immunity are thus often categorized by which step(s) they hinder and/or block. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social immunity (also termed collective immunity) describes the additional level of disease protection arising in social groups from collective disease defences, performed either jointly or towards one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social immunity is a recently developed concept used to describe the evolution of an additional level of immunity in the colonies of eusocial insects (some bees and wasps, all ants and termites). (wikipedia.org)
  • Social immunity provides an integrated approach for the study of disease dynamics in societies, combining both the behaviour and physiology (including molecular-level processes) of all group members and their social interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social immunity also affects epidemiology, as it can impact both the course of an infection at the individual level, as well as the spread of disease within the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social immunity differs from similar phenomena that can occur in groups that are not truly social (e.g. herding animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, although social immunity can be achieved through behavioural, physiological or organisational defences, these components are not mutually exclusive and often overlap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, social immunity has evolved to reduce and mitigate this risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • diplomatic immunity
  • 4) diplomatic immunity which excuses foreign ambassadors from most U.S. criminal laws. (nolo.com)
  • Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity that ensures diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws, but they can still be expelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern diplomatic immunity was codified as international law in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) which has been ratified by all but a handful of nations, though the concept and custom of such immunity have a much longer history dating back thousands of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many principles of diplomatic immunity are now considered to be customary law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diplomatic immunity as an institution developed to allow for the maintenance of government relations, including during periods of difficulties and armed conflict. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, in 2002, a Colombian diplomat in London was prosecuted for manslaughter, once diplomatic immunity was waived by the Colombian government. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consular immunity offers protections similar to diplomatic immunity, but these protections are not as extensive, given the functional differences between consular and diplomatic officers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diplomatic immunity Vienna Convention on Consular Relations http://cil.nus.edu.sg/rp/il/pdf/1963%20Vienna%20Convention%20on%20Consular%20Relations-pdf.pdf http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/9_2_1963.pdf Bureau of Diplomatic Security (July 2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • The earliest recorded artificial induction of immunity in humans was by variolation or inoculation , which is the controlled infection of a subject with a less lethal natural form of smallpox (known as Variola Minor) to make him or her immune to re-infection with the more lethal natural form, Variola Major. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1796, Edward Jenner , a doctor and scientist who had practiced variolation, performed an experiment based on the folk-knowledge that infection with cowpox , a disease with minor symptoms which was never fatal, also conferred immunity to smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus toxin is so lethal that humans cannot develop immunity to a natural infection, as the amount of toxin and time required to kill a person is much less than is required by the immune system to recognize the toxin and produce antibodies against it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrinsic immunity comprises cellular proteins which are always active and have evolved to block infection by specific viruses or viral taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innate cellular immunity recognizes viral infection using toll-like receptors (TLRs), or pattern recognition receptors, which sense Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), triggering the expression of nonspecific antiviral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual immunity can be gained through recovering from a natural infection or through artificial means such as vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Community Immunity
  • Community Immunity MacDonald's debut on trumpeter Dave Douglas b.1963 trumpet " data-original-title="" title=""> Dave Douglas ' Greenleaf Music highlights Macdonald's unique compositional voice and showcases a fearless artist who is willing to break free of the shackles of expectations. (allaboutjazz.com)
  • His saxophone can be a beacon of clarity ("Community Immunity") or a bird of prey ("Second Guessing"), depending on his mood, but his ideas are always intriguing. (allaboutjazz.com)
  • With Community Immunity , Curtis Macdonald establishes himself as one who stands apart from the rest but, with a such a unique musical statement, he just might be embraced by the jazz community at large. (allaboutjazz.com)
  • 1971
  • Play media Qualified immunity is a doctrine in United States federal law that arises in cases brought against state officials under 42 U.S.C Section 1983 and against federal officials under Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents, 403 U.S. 388 (1971). (wikipedia.org)
  • doctrine
  • In Canadian Constitutional law, interjurisdictional immunity is the legal doctrine that determines which legislation arising from one level of jurisdiction may be applicable to matters covered at another level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interjurisdictional immunity is an exception to the pith and substance doctrine, as it stipulates that there is a core to each federal subject matter that cannot be reached by provincial laws. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the interjurisdictional immunity doctrine is activated even if there is no meeting of legislation or contradiction between federal and provincial statutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opponents of judicial immunity argue that this doctrine is not adequately justified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charitable immunity is a legal doctrine which holds that a charitable organization is not liable under tort law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the 1940s and 1992, almost every state in the United States had abrogated or limited the charitable immunity doctrine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the charitable immunity doctrine, it was still possible to sue employees or volunteers of charitable institutions, so the doctrine's existence encouraged other legal arguments, such as the "captain of the ship" argument that a surgeon is responsible for everything that happens in an operating room. (wikipedia.org)
  • defense
  • books.google.com - The defense of immunity which protects public officials from personal liability in federal civil rights suits, and the government from monetary liability, is discussed. (google.com)
  • It is limited in scope to the immunity defense to damages liability. (google.com)
  • It is limited in scope to the immunity defense to damages liability and does not treat the many other defenses asserted in section 1983 actions. (google.com)
  • Intrinsic immunity refers to a set of recently discovered cellular-based anti-viral defense mechanisms, notably genetically encoded proteins which specifically target eukaryotic retroviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Procedurally, official acts immunity is raised as an affirmative defense. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The defense of qualified immunity was created by the U.S. Supreme Court, replacing a court's inquiry into a defendant's subjective state of mind with an inquiry into the objective reasonableness of the contested action. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, the US Supreme Court in Saucier v. Katz[citation needed] established a rigid order in which courts must decide the merits of a defendant's qualified immunity defense. (wikipedia.org)
  • prosecute
  • If immunity is waived by a government so that a diplomat (or their family members) can be prosecuted, it must be because there is a case to answer and it is in the public interest to prosecute them. (wikipedia.org)
  • waive
  • A state entity may waive its immunity by: prior written agreement instituting proceedings without claiming immunity submitting to jurisdiction as a defendant in a suit intervening in or taking any steps in any suit (other than for the purpose of claiming immunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals have no authority to waive their own immunity (except perhaps in cases of defection). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • Vaccines are typically imperfect as some individuals' immune systems may not generate an adequate immune response to vaccines to confer long-term immunity, so a portion of those who are vaccinated may lack immunity.Lastly, vaccine contraindications may prevent certain individuals from becoming immune. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravascular immunity describes the immune response in the bloodstream, and its role is to fight and prevent the spread of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • exploits
  • Vif actually exploits our intrinsic immunity, titrating the degree of APOBEC3G polyubiquitination in order to augment the genetic variability already present in HIV-1 (owing to its mutation-happy reverse transcriptase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Exemption
  • The modern word "immunity" derives from the Latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Analyzing immunologic changes of germ-free (GF) mice with reconstituted gut microbiota showed a recovery of Il-17A and IFN-γ levels up to those observed in the gastrointestinal tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) mice but gut microbiome restoration did not affect skin immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • extend
  • However, since this complete immunity does not extend to conduct clearly outside the scope of the official's authority, his error in so acting is implicitly treated as culpable by the imposition of liability. (google.com)
  • But immunity generally does extend to all judicial decisions in which the judge has proper jurisdiction, even if a decision is made with "corrupt or malicious intent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impairment
  • In response to this more classical approach to settling matters of constitutional law, the necessary degree of infringement was revisited in Canadian Western Bank in 2007, where the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that, in the absence of outright impairment of the "vital or essential part", interjurisdictional immunity would not apply. (wikipedia.org)
  • courts
  • It is organized in terms of broad categories of officials and the legal principles which have been developed by the federal courts with respect to immunity claims. (google.com)
  • The principle of immunity as it is now interpreted by the courts maintains that there should be no liability without fault to the public official who is required to make decisions and act upon them in an arena in which the rights of citizens are frequently affected. (google.com)
  • Immunity from suit means a state is immune from the jurisdiction of another state in its courts. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • In 1890, filtrates of diphtheria, later named diphtheria toxins, were used to vaccinate animals in an attempt to demonstrate that immunized serum contained an antitoxin that could neutralize the activity of the toxin and could transfer immunity to non-immune animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • privileges
  • Originally, these privileges and immunities were granted on a bilateral, ad hoc basis, which led to misunderstandings and conflict, pressure on weaker states, and an inability for other states to judge which party was at fault. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • These collective defences complement the individual immunity of all group members and constitute an extra layer of protection at the group level, combining behavioural, physiological and organisational adaptations. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Individuals who are immunodeficient due to HIV/AIDS, lymphoma, leukemia, bone marrow cancer, an impaired spleen, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy may have lost any immunity that they previously had and vaccines may not be of any use for them because of their immunodeficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • components
  • Adoptive immunity acts in a host after their immunological components are withdrawn, their immunological activity is modified extracorporeally, and then reinfused into the same host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogens-specific immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • concept
  • The concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens: "the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the concept of immunity had no sooner crept into English law than it was decisively repudiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • legal
  • In legal terminology, immunity is a grant by the court, which assures someone will not face prosecution in return for providing criminal evidence. (conservapedia.com)
  • Supreme Court
  • Although this was entirely unprofessional and possibly criminal, the judge was held, by the Supreme Court, to have absolute immunity from a lawsuit arising from the resulting beating, because done entirely within his activities as a judge presiding over a court. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • It is hoped that further understanding of the molecular basis of immunity will translate to improved clinical practice in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease causing organism is probably Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah ('A Treatise on Smallpox and Measles', translated 1848) written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • enforcement
  • Immunity from enforcement means that even if a state successfully brings another state to court and wins in the case, the judgment cannot be enforced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diplomatic and Consular Immunity: Guidance for Law Enforcement and Judicial Authorities" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • While Harlow did not involve a law enforcement officers' actions, the decision is significant because law enforcement officers are government officials who perform discretionary functions and may be protected by qualified immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • constitutional
  • Qualified immunity, when applicable, shields government officials from liability, unless their actions are found to violate an individual's federal constitutional rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, gut microbiome does not affect skin immunity significantly, instead, skin immunity is modulated by skin microflora according to the results obtained by Naik et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • absolute
  • This analysis does not apply literally to the official shielded by absolute immunity since even wrongfully motivated actions will not incur liability in his case. (google.com)
  • Prosecutorial immunity is the absolute immunity that prosecutors in the United States have in initiating a prosecution and presenting the state's case. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prosecutors, Immunity and Conflicts of Interests : Absolute Immunity" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, consular officers are not accorded absolute immunity from a host country's criminal jurisdiction, they may be tried for certain local crimes upon action by a local court, and are immune from local jurisdiction only in cases directly relating to consular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liability
  • Immunity would have no significance if it did not mean that the public official is more protected from liability than is a private citizen. (google.com)
  • clearly
  • The Senate as a whole clearly wants the immunity provision to pass, including a majority of Democrats, which means Reid should hardly be held up for any special opprobrium. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • After all, as Russ Feingold points out, under current law "companies already get immunity for cooperating with government requests for information - as long as the requests follow requirements that are clearly laid out in the law. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • In some circumstances this can create ambiguity as to the applicability of legislation where there is no clearly established Crown immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, mono-association of GF mice with S. epidermidis clearly restored immunity function which in the case of skin is mediated by IL-1 which is key for the restoration of IL-17A and IFN-γ levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given
  • Given a choice of two FISA bills, one that provided retroactive immunity to telecoms companies that illegally cooperated with the NSA after 9/11 and one that didn't, Harry Reid decided to bring to the floor the bill that provided immunity. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • Democrats, meanwhile, quickly shot around a comment Flynn made last year on MSNBC , that "when you are given immunity, that means you probably committed a crime. (cnn.com)
  • traditional Hindu dating: 3000 BC), where messengers and diplomats were given immunity from capital punishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Envoys with this right of passage were given immunity of person and property. (wikipedia.org)