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  • protein
  • Furthermore, the functionally important epitopes of the gp120 protein are masked by glycosylation, trimerisation and receptor-induced conformational changes making it difficult to block with neutralising antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research in Dr. Chen's laboratory is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 entry -- that is, how HIV-1 enters host cells and how the viral envelope protein interacts with host cellular receptors. (cavd.org)
  • Extensive immune monitoring revealed that NY-ESO-1-specific immune responses were inducible by a variety of NY-ESO-1-based vaccines such as HLA class I and/or class II-binding peptides, recombinant viruses, and recombinant protein with or without adjuvants or delivery systems, even in patients without spontaneous immunity ( 7 - 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Two agents used clinically to block the functional activity of TNFalpha protein are Remicade (an antibody) and Enbrel (a soluble TNF receptor). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • By staining with a fluorochrome conjugated antibody against CD107a, a lysosomal membrane protein that becomes expressed on the NK cell surface when the cytolytic granules fuse to the plasma membrane, we can determine what percentage of NK cells degranulate in response to target cell recognition. (jove.com)
  • The impact of parasite exposure on HIV-1 transcriptional/translational events is monitored by using single cycle pseudotyped viruses in which a luciferase reporter gene has replaced the Env gene while the effect on the quantity of virus released by the infected macrophages is determined by measuring the HIV-1 capsid protein p24 by ELISA in cell supernatants. (jove.com)
  • Elevated TIGIT levels remained sustained even among those with undetectable viral loads and a large fraction of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells simultaneously express both TIGIT and another negative checkpoint receptor, Programmed Death Protein 1 (PD-1) and retained several features of exhausted T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These particles contain Gag protein and HIV-Env surface protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-2 receptor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein also forms one of the three subunits of the IL-15 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an organism is exposed to a particular antigen (i.e. a protein on the surface of a bacterium) an immune response is stimulated and antibodies are generated to target that specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical complement pathway can be initiated by the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to the C1q protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogens
  • Several techniques for investigating the impact of HIV-1 on the phagocytosis of micro-organisms and the effect of such pathogens on HIV-1 replication have been described. (jove.com)
  • inhibit
  • This was demonstrated in in vitro studies that MLR allogeneic stimulation and the recombinant HLA molecules upregulate APOBEC 3G production in human CD4+ T cells and inhibit HIV replication. (cavd.org)
  • A critical property of DCs is that their ability to activate or inhibit immunity is linked to environmental stimuli, which determine their final differentiation or maturation status ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mucosal immunization with Vibrio cholerae outer membrane vesicles provides maternal protection mediated by antilipopolysaccharide antibodies that inhibit bacterial motility. (asmscience.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The development of novel model systems to study HCV entry and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody-mediated neutralization. (mdpi.com)
  • Defining the interaction of HIV with the mucosal barriers to gain insights into the mechanisms of sexual transmission. (asmscience.org)
  • vaccines
  • We propose to assess the quality of immunity elicited by DEC targeted vaccines in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • simplified Chinese: 王长怡), is an immunologist and astute organic chemist, best known for establishing a new platform in vaccines technology that employs designer peptide as key ingredients to be formulated into vaccines for the prevention and treatment of AIDS, HIV, Alzheimer disease, allergy and other emerging infectious diseases in both humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. (asmscience.org)
  • Since opsonization may affect the efficiency of uptake and the type of receptors utilized, we compared the interactions of DC with free HIV-1 (F-HIV) and complement opsonized HIV-1 (C-HIV). (jove.com)
  • The classical complement pathway is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes with the antibody isotypes IgG and IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the anaphylatoxin C3a interacts with its C3a receptor (C3aR) to recruit leukocytes, C3b contributes to further downstream complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunotherapies have been developed to detect and destroy cells infected by the HIV virus via classical complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • An important goal in HIV cure research is the identification of immune responses that might be induced or enhanced to promote clearance of virus-infected cells. (typepad.com)
  • The same research group has also reported that NK cell responses may have been linked to an HIV DNA decline in some participants in a trial of the latency-reversing agent panobinostat. (typepad.com)
  • Receptor-specific delivery of NY-ESO-1 to APC appears to be a promising vaccination strategy to efficiently generate integrated and broad Ag-specific immune responses against NY-ESO-1 in cancer patients. (jimmunol.org)
  • The physiologic consequences of cell-bound IgG and immune complexes are modulated by a balance between activating and inhibitory Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) and include immune regulatory and inflammatory responses ( 7 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Humoral immune responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected children with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) are poorly understood. (jove.com)
  • Early studies evaluating NK cell cytolytic responses to primary HIV-infected cells failed to show significant killing of the infected cells 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Blocking these pathways with novel targeted monoclonal antibodies synergistically rejuvenated HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccination
  • This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • This and other observations of acquired immunity were later exploited by Louis Pasteur in his development of vaccination and his proposed germ theory of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the results of the adenoviral based STEP trial suggested a higher susceptibility due to high levels of non-neutralizing poly-functional antibodies and helper T cell proliferation induced by vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mouse models antibodies from the IgG1 subclass, which were mostly induced by vaccination, were seen to possess a relatively low functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • HAART allows the stabilization of the patient's symptoms and viremia, but they do not cure the patient of HIV, nor of the symptoms of AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients seen at NIH under research protocols have a wide variety of disorders, including allergic diseases, asthma, inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies, mast cell disorders (including mastocytosis), idiopathic eosinophilias, autoimmune diseases, and HIV/AIDS. (nih.gov)
  • In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2 million annual deaths due to AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV is an acronym for human immunodeficiency virus, which is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • While this virus is the underlying cause of AIDS, not all HIV-positive individuals have AIDS, as HIV can remain in a latent state for many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luc Montagnier, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and colleagues discovered the two HIV viruses that cause AIDS, in 1983 and 1985, was honored by the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine The biggest mistake by the Institute was ignoring a dissertation by Ernest Duchesne on the use of Penicillium glaucum to cure infections in 1897. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timothy Ray Brown (born 1966) is an American considered to be the first person cured of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2012, Brown announced the formation of the Timothy Ray Brown Foundation in Washington, DC, a foundation dedicated to fighting HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.aidsmeds.com/articles/hiv_aids_stemcell_2042_14199.shtml Levy JA (2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • Current HIV/AIDS Reports. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of AIDS-related topics, many of which were originally taken from the public domain U.S. Department of Health Glossary of HIV/AIDS-Related Terms, 4th Edition. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the same pathogen tries to re-infect the same host the antibodies will act rapidly to target the pathogen for destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will allow the pathogen to re-infect the host while the immune system generates new antibodies to target the newly identified antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • FcγRIIb blockade of DCs loaded with tumor cells led to increased tumor-specific T cell immunity without the need for exogenous stimuli other than human plasma. (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest an approach for modifying this balance to enhance immunity to immune complexes and antibody-coated tumor cells and to silence DC activation by immune complexes in autoimmune states. (pnas.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), an important inflammatory mediator in tuberculosis, has been implicated in causing accelerated HIV disease progression in HIV-associated tuberculosis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • cells
  • humoral (antibody-mediated) and cellular (mediated by T cells) immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional analyses found that these differences were associated with an increased frequency of NK cells expressing CXCR5 (a receptor governing homing into follicles) and localized production of the cytokine IL-15 in the follicles of AGMs. (typepad.com)
  • The role of IL-15 was further confirmed by administration of an anti-IL-15 antibody, which depleted NK cells from the lymph nodes of the AGMs and led to a significant increase in SIV replication. (typepad.com)
  • In sum, after a long period in the shadow of the better-known components of the adaptive immune system, NK cells are now emerging as potentially important players in HIV cure research. (typepad.com)
  • One of the holy grails in cure research is the discovery of markers that would allow the specific targeting of cells harboring latent HIV. (typepad.com)
  • In addition, both mannose receptor and DEC-205 targeting elicited specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells from PBLs of cancer patients. (jimmunol.org)
  • The term auto-inflammatory disorders has been coined to describe a group of conditions characterized by spontaneously relapsing and remitting bouts of systemic inflammation without apparent involvement of antigen-specific T cells or significant production of auto-antibodies. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In addition, in vivo models, particularly those engineered to knock in or knock out effector cells or effector molecules, are excellent tools for understanding antibody functions. (asmscience.org)
  • HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate viral entry into target cells and are essential to the infectious cycle. (jove.com)
  • Following expression of HIV-1 trimeric Env at the surface of transfected cells, conformation specific anti-Env antibodies are incubated with the cells. (jove.com)
  • It is important to understand the ability of NK cells to recognize and lyse HIV-1 infected cells because identifying any aberrancy in NK cell function against HIV-infected cells could potentially lead to therapies that would enhance their cytolytic activity. (jove.com)
  • However, using HIV-1 infected primary T-cells as target cells in NK cell functional assays has been difficult due the presence of contaminating uninfected cells 3 . (jove.com)
  • Here we demonstrate the isolation of a highly purified population of HIV-1 infected cells by taking advantage of HIV-1's ability to down-modulate CD4 on infected cells and the availability of commercial kits to remove dead or dying cells 3-6 . (jove.com)
  • Some cells do not have the usual receptors on their surfaces that viruses use to gain entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • This could be due to the preferential survival of long-lived memory B cells producing homotypic antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro experiments showed that the inflammatory cytokines and Type 1 IFN production was reduced when the ADE-DENV complexe bound to the Fc receptor of THP-1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIGIT (also called T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains) is an immune receptor present on some T cells and Natural Killer Cells(NK). (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway can potentially be targeted to enhance killing of HIV infected cells during "Shock and Kill" HIV curative approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the gene rearrangement leads to an irreversible change in the DNA of each cell, all progeny (offspring) of that cell inherit genes that encode the same receptor specificity, including the memory B cells and memory T cells that are the keys to long-lived specific immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of HIV, T cells specific for the group specific antigen (Gag) are stimulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was shown to lead to a strong activation of the B-cells and ultimately to the production of Env-specific antibodies by the activated B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • only one of them had received CCR5 mutant stem cells, so it appears that when a transplant recipient has graft-versus-host disease the transplanted cells may kill off the host's HIV-infected immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADCC requires an effector cell which classically is known to be natural killer (NK) cells that typically interact with IgG antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coating of target cells with antibodies is sometimes referred to as opsonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The typical ADCC involves activation of NK cells by antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several laboratory methods exist for determining the efficacy of antibodies or effector cells in eliciting ADCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • After washing, effector cells expressing Fc receptor CD16 are co-incubated with the antibody-labelled target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Further research is needed to determine if these in vitro-characterised activities have relevance in vivo, and if some of the undesirable effects of non-neutralising antibodies can be avoided or the beneficial effects harnessed. (nih.gov)
  • Prior studies by Kalergis and Ravetch ( 25 ) have shown that targeting immune complexes to DCs from mice genetically lacking inhibitory FcγRIIb can lead to enhanced generation of antigen-specific CD8 + T cell immunity in vitro and in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • First in vitro and immunization experiments conducted with Simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV), showed a 10-50 fold increase in Env-specific antibodies of treated mice compared to exosome vaccinated ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • HIV), 2) cytokine induction and cell differentiation, and 3) cellular response to cancer therapies. (activemotif.com)
  • The effects of the cytokine alpha interferon on HIV persistence are a major topic of interest at the newly-funded BEAT-HIV Collaboratory led by Luis Montaner at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia. (typepad.com)
  • Dramatic clinical success in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases has resulted from the use of anti-cytokine therapies including specific blocking antibodies, soluble receptors and traps to silence the actions of inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • genetic
  • HIV can be categorized into multiple clades and subtypes with a high degree of genetic divergence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The system is highly adaptable because of somatic hypermutation (a process of accelerated somatic mutations), and V(D)J recombination (an irreversible genetic recombination of antigen receptor gene segments). (wikipedia.org)
  • From 60 matching donors, they selected a [CCRΔ32 homozygous individual with two genetic copies of a rare variant of a cell surface receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • We here present a method to investigate the effects of P. falciparum -infected erythrocytes on the replication of HIV-1 in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. (jove.com)
  • However, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils can also mediate ADCC, such as eosinophils killing certain parasitic worms known as helminths via IgE antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assays
  • Both assays were developed for HIV-1 subtype B, but can be adapted for other subtypes and other regions of the genome by changing primers, probes, and standards. (jove.com)
  • latent
  • However, these advances do not constitute a cure, since current treatment regimens cannot eradicate latent HIV from the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • HIV antibody tests exceed the performance of most other infectious disease tests in both sensitivity (the ability of the screening test to give a positive finding when the person tested truly has the disease) and specificity (the ability of the test to give a negative finding when the subjects tested are free of the disease under study). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many current HIV antibody tests have sensitivity and specificity in excess of 96% and are therefore extremely reliable. (wikipedia.org)
  • lectins
  • Both F-HIV and C-HIV interacted with C-type lectins, integrins, and CD4 and blocking these receptor families prevented HIV-1 from binding to DC at 4°C. Blocking integrins significantly reduced the binding and uptake of F-HIV and C-HIV implicating the involvement of several integrins such as ?1-integrin, CR3, LFA-1, and ?4?7. (jove.com)
  • activation
  • Also cited is the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist MGN1703, which researchers at the University of Aarhus have shown can promote NK cell activation in HIV-positive people on ART. (typepad.com)
  • Last month in Clinical Infectious Diseases , Stéphane Hua and colleagues presented evidence that NK cell activation associates with a decline in HIV DNA levels in HIV-positive individuals receiving alpha interferon for the treatment of hepatitis C. (typepad.com)
  • Therefore, the activation status of DCs in the presence of normal human serum depends on the balance between activating and inhibitory FcγRs and can be enhanced by new antibodies that react selectively with FcγRIIb. (pnas.org)
  • cell
  • Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Channel Involved in Atherosclerosis and Macrophage-Foam Cell Formation. (abcam.com)
  • Here we describe a cell-based ELISA assay that allows studying the recognition of trimeric HIV-1 Env by monoclonal antibodies. (jove.com)
  • To shed light on this complex process, a systematic analysis of the interactions between the malaria parasite and HIV-1 in different relevant human primary cell populations is critically needed. (jove.com)
  • Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components. (wikipedia.org)
  • This implies good quantity and quality of induced antibodies but low levels of T cell stimulation to avoid aforementioned increased susceptibility and disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell does not express these receptors, then the virus cannot normally infect it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a bacterium recognizes the host cell receptors or nutrient-rich surroundings, it will colonize the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, Brown, who was HIV positive, underwent a procedure known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to treat leukemia (performed by a team of doctors in Berlin, Germany, including Gero Hütter). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common Fc receptor on the surface of an NK cell is called CD16 or FcγRIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the Fc receptor binds to the Fc region of IgG, the Natural Killer cell releases cytotoxic factors that cause the death of the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the course of a few hours a complex forms between the antibody, target cell, and effector cell which leads to lysis of the cell membrane of the target. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • They have recently shown that HIV-1 membrane is an important participant in binding and neutralization by 4E10 and 2F5. (cavd.org)
  • viral
  • Elevated TIGIT levels remained sustained even among those with undetectable viral loads and a large fraction of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells simultaneously express both TIGIT and another negative checkpoint receptor, Programmed Death Protein 1 (PD-1) and retained several features of exhausted T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her first applications and inventions in the field of immunological applications of Synthetic peptide were antibody screening immunoassays employing highly optimized synthetic viral peptide antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • It is likely to assume that these results are transferable to humans as HIV-1 patients with neutralizing antibodies were shown to possess increased numbers of Gag-specific T cells but time wise comparable levels of Env gp120 specific T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • High levels of HIV-1 (often HAART-resistant) develop if treatment is stopped, if compliance with treatment is inconsistent, or if the virus spontaneously develops resistance to an individual's regimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a host cell expresses the complementary surface receptor for the virus, then the virus can attach and enter the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell does not express these receptors, then the virus cannot normally infect it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The graft-versus-host disease Brown suffered from could have been what eliminated the HIV virus from his system. (wikipedia.org)
  • ISH has proven effective for treatment of influenza, rabies related lyssavirus, hepatitis B, and HIV virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • First in vitro and immunization experiments conducted with Simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV), showed a 10-50 fold increase in Env-specific antibodies of treated mice compared to exosome vaccinated ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996 when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the three years after the initial transplant, and despite discontinuing antiretroviral therapy, researchers could not detect HIV in Brown's blood or in various biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • viremia
  • These problems mean that while HIV-positive people with low viremia are less likely to infect others, the chance of transmission always exists. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • This implies good quantity and quality of induced antibodies but low levels of T cell stimulation to avoid aforementioned increased susceptibility and disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The system is highly adaptable because of somatic hypermutation (a process of accelerated somatic mutations), and V(D)J recombination (an irreversible genetic recombination of antigen receptor gene segments). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene Therapy Strategies: Can We Eradicate HIV? (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • This mechanism allows a small number of genes to generate a vast number of different antigen receptors, which are then uniquely expressed on each individual lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • The production of such cross-reactive but non-neutralizing antibodies could be the reason for more severe secondary infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, importantly, HAART does nothing to prevent the spread of HIV by people with undiagnosed infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • First was the development of a synthetic peptide based HIV 1 test and later an HIV 1,2 diagnostic test for blood screening, which received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approvals in 1989 and 1996, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • The laboratory has isolated and cloned human antibodies to HIV-1 and explored their roles in prevention and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • While not widely used for routine testing due to high cost and requirements in laboratory equipment, these direct testing techniques have confirmed the validity of the antibody tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Another response to the challenge has been to create a single peptide that contains the least variable components of all the known HIV strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest known reference to immunity was during the plague of Athens in 430 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • decades
  • According to the UNAIDS 2009 report, some 60 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV, resulting in approximately 25 million deaths and 14 million orphaned children in southern Africa alone since the epidemic began decades ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • cure
  • Sex with an uninfected virgin does not cure an HIV-infected person, and such contact will expose the uninfected individual to HIV, potentially further spreading the disease. (wikipedia.org)