• protein
  • Furthermore, the functionally important epitopes of the gp120 protein are masked by glycosylation, trimerisation and receptor-induced conformational changes making it difficult to block with neutralising antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent data revealed that Ab-mediated targeting of protein Ags to cell surface receptors on dendritic cells could enhance the induction of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Extensive immune monitoring revealed that NY-ESO-1-specific immune responses were inducible by a variety of NY-ESO-1-based vaccines such as HLA class I and/or class II-binding peptides, recombinant viruses, and recombinant protein with or without adjuvants or delivery systems, even in patients without spontaneous immunity ( 7 - 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Two agents used clinically to block the functional activity of TNFalpha protein are Remicade (an antibody) and Enbrel (a soluble TNF receptor). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • By staining with a fluorochrome conjugated antibody against CD107a, a lysosomal membrane protein that becomes expressed on the NK cell surface when the cytolytic granules fuse to the plasma membrane, we can determine what percentage of NK cells degranulate in response to target cell recognition. (jove.com)
  • The impact of parasite exposure on HIV-1 transcriptional/translational events is monitored by using single cycle pseudotyped viruses in which a luciferase reporter gene has replaced the Env gene while the effect on the quantity of virus released by the infected macrophages is determined by measuring the HIV-1 capsid protein p24 by ELISA in cell supernatants. (jove.com)
  • The researchers examined the role a protein called programmed cell death receptor (PD-1) plays in the immune response to influenza virus. (india.com)
  • Elevated TIGIT levels remained sustained even among those with undetectable viral loads and a large fraction of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells simultaneously express both TIGIT and another negative checkpoint receptor, Programmed Death Protein 1 (PD-1) and retained several features of exhausted T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These particles contain Gag protein and HIV-Env surface protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-2 receptor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL2RB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein also forms one of the three subunits of the IL-15 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical complement pathway can be initiated by the binding of antigen-antibody complexes to the C1q protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • HAART allows the stabilization of the patient's symptoms and viremia, but they do not cure the patient of HIV, nor of the symptoms of AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients seen at NIH under research protocols have a wide variety of disorders, including allergic diseases, asthma, inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies, mast cell disorders (including mastocytosis), idiopathic eosinophilias, autoimmune diseases, and HIV/AIDS. (nih.gov)
  • In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2 million annual deaths due to AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV is an acronym for human immunodeficiency virus, which is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • While this virus is the underlying cause of AIDS, not all HIV-positive individuals have AIDS, as HIV can remain in a latent state for many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luc Montagnier, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and colleagues discovered the two HIV viruses that cause AIDS, in 1983 and 1985, was honored by the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine The biggest mistake by the Institute was ignoring a dissertation by Ernest Duchesne on the use of Penicillium glaucum to cure infections in 1897. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of AIDS-related topics, many of which were originally taken from the public domain U.S. Department of Health Glossary of HIV/AIDS-Related Terms, 4th Edition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timothy Ray Brown (born 1966) is an American considered to be the first person cured of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2012, Brown announced the formation of the Timothy Ray Brown Foundation in Washington, DC, a foundation dedicated to fighting HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.aidsmeds.com/articles/hiv_aids_stemcell_2042_14199.shtml Levy JA (2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • Current HIV/AIDS Reports. (wikipedia.org)
  • simplified Chinese: 王长怡), is an immunologist and astute organic chemist, best known for establishing a new platform in vaccines technology that employs designer peptide as key ingredients to be formulated into vaccines for the prevention and treatment of AIDS, HIV, Alzheimer disease, allergy and other emerging infectious diseases in both humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • Therefore, one objective is to increase the quality of the immune response by the induction of poly-functional antibody sub classes, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the current goal is to avoid uncontrolled T cell proliferation and modulate the humoral immune response towards highly efficient poly-functional monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these studies utilized mice with complete LT-α deficiency that did not allow to distinguish effects of soluble versus membrane-associated LT. As a member of the TNF family, LT-α binds to various receptors and activates the NF-κB pathway, thus promoting immune regulation through the innate immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Stimulation of these cells with phorbol esters and either lectins or monoclonal antibodies leads to activation of T cell antigen receptors and induction of IL-2 expression. (activemotif.com)
  • In addition, both mannose receptor and DEC-205 targeting elicited specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells from PBLs of cancer patients. (jimmunol.org)
  • The term auto-inflammatory disorders has been coined to describe a group of conditions characterized by spontaneously relapsing and remitting bouts of systemic inflammation without apparent involvement of antigen-specific T cells or significant production of auto-antibodies. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate viral entry into target cells and are essential to the infectious cycle. (jove.com)
  • Following expression of HIV-1 trimeric Env at the surface of transfected cells, conformation specific anti-Env antibodies are incubated with the cells. (jove.com)
  • It is important to understand the ability of NK cells to recognize and lyse HIV-1 infected cells because identifying any aberrancy in NK cell function against HIV-infected cells could potentially lead to therapies that would enhance their cytolytic activity. (jove.com)
  • There is a need to use HIV-infected primary T-cell blasts as target cells rather then infected-T-cell lines in the cytotoxicity assays. (jove.com)
  • Early studies evaluating NK cell cytolytic responses to primary HIV-infected cells failed to show significant killing of the infected cells 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • However, using HIV-1 infected primary T-cells as target cells in NK cell functional assays has been difficult due the presence of contaminating uninfected cells 3 . (jove.com)
  • Here we demonstrate the isolation of a highly purified population of HIV-1 infected cells by taking advantage of HIV-1's ability to down-modulate CD4 on infected cells and the availability of commercial kits to remove dead or dying cells 3-6 . (jove.com)
  • Some cells do not have the usual receptors on their surfaces that viruses use to gain entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • This could be due to the preferential survival of long-lived memory B cells producing homotypic antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro experiments showed that the inflammatory cytokines and Type 1 IFN production was reduced when the ADE-DENV complexe bound to the Fc receptor of THP-1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIGIT (also called T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains) is an immune receptor present on some T cells and Natural Killer Cells(NK). (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway can potentially be targeted to enhance killing of HIV infected cells during "Shock and Kill" HIV curative approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the gene rearrangement leads to an irreversible change in the DNA of each cell, all progeny (offspring) of that cell inherit genes that encode the same receptor specificity, including the memory B cells and memory T cells that are the keys to long-lived specific immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of HIV, T cells specific for the group specific antigen (Gag) are stimulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was shown to lead to a strong activation of the B-cells and ultimately to the production of Env-specific antibodies by the activated B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the receptor increases proliferation of CD8+ effector T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunotherapies have been developed to detect and destroy cells infected by the HIV virus via classical complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of LT-β receptors is capable of inducing cell death of cancerous cells and suppressing tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, LT-α interactions with LT-β receptors can increase anti-tumor effects through direct destruction of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assays
  • Once the correlates of immunity are defined, it will be necessary to have standardized and validated immunological assays to measure and compare immune responses among various strategies and candidates of HIV vaccines. (thebody.com)
  • Both assays were developed for HIV-1 subtype B, but can be adapted for other subtypes and other regions of the genome by changing primers, probes, and standards. (jove.com)
  • tumor
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), an important inflammatory mediator in tuberculosis, has been implicated in causing accelerated HIV disease progression in HIV-associated tuberculosis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • An epitope-specific novel anti-EMMPRIN polyclonal antibody inhibits tumor progression. (abcam.com)
  • tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. (wikigenes.org)
  • progression
  • This implies good quantity and quality of induced antibodies but low levels of T cell stimulation to avoid aforementioned increased susceptibility and disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • signalling pathway
  • Washington: A new study has suggested that an antibody that blocks a component of a key signalling pathway in the respiratory airways could help the immune system rid the body of the influenza virus. (india.com)
  • activation
  • While the anaphylatoxin C3a interacts with its C3a receptor (C3aR) to recruit leukocytes, C3b contributes to further downstream complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • After LT-β receptor activation, IKK-α, β, and γ are produced, which increases degradation of I-κB, an inhibitor or NF-kB, and produce NF-kB1 (p50) and ReIA (p60). (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • HIV antibody tests exceed the performance of most other infectious disease tests in both sensitivity (the ability of the screening test to give a positive finding when the person tested truly has the disease) and specificity (the ability of the test to give a negative finding when the subjects tested are free of the disease under study). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many current HIV antibody tests have sensitivity and specificity in excess of 96% and are therefore extremely reliable. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • Dramatic clinical success in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases has resulted from the use of anti-cytokine therapies including specific blocking antibodies, soluble receptors and traps to silence the actions of inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • interactions
  • The development of novel model systems to study HCV entry and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody-mediated neutralization. (mdpi.com)
  • Since opsonization may affect the efficiency of uptake and the type of receptors utilized, we compared the interactions of DC with free HIV-1 (F-HIV) and complement opsonized HIV-1 (C-HIV). (jove.com)
  • To shed light on this complex process, a systematic analysis of the interactions between the malaria parasite and HIV-1 in different relevant human primary cell populations is critically needed. (jove.com)
  • lectins
  • Both F-HIV and C-HIV interacted with C-type lectins, integrins, and CD4 and blocking these receptor families prevented HIV-1 from binding to DC at 4°C. Blocking integrins significantly reduced the binding and uptake of F-HIV and C-HIV implicating the involvement of several integrins such as ?1-integrin, CR3, LFA-1, and ?4?7. (jove.com)
  • genetic
  • HIV can be categorized into multiple clades and subtypes with a high degree of genetic divergence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The system is highly adaptable because of somatic hypermutation (a process of accelerated somatic mutations), and V(D)J recombination (an irreversible genetic recombination of antigen receptor gene segments). (wikipedia.org)
  • immunological
  • Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her first applications and inventions in the field of immunological applications of Synthetic peptide were antibody screening immunoassays employing highly optimized synthetic viral peptide antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Humoral immune responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected children with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) are poorly understood. (jove.com)
  • latent
  • However, these advances do not constitute a cure, since current treatment regimens cannot eradicate latent HIV from the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Channel Involved in Atherosclerosis and Macrophage-Foam Cell Formation. (abcam.com)
  • Here we describe a cell-based ELISA assay that allows studying the recognition of trimeric HIV-1 Env by monoclonal antibodies. (jove.com)
  • TIGIT's inhibition of NK cytotoxicity can be blocked by antibodies against its interaction with PVR and the activity is directed through its ITIM domain TIGIT regulates T-cell mediated immunity via the CD226/TIGIT-PVR pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also produced the first dendritic cell-specific monoclonal antibody and cloned the first dendritic cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell does not express these receptors, then the virus cannot normally infect it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a bacterium recognizes the host cell receptors or nutrient-rich surroundings, it will colonize the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, Brown, who was HIV positive, underwent a procedure known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to treat leukemia (performed by a team of doctors in Berlin, Germany, including Gero Hütter). (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Another response to the challenge has been to create a single peptide that contains the least variable components of all the known HIV strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Researchers have been studying individuals who remain uninfected despite repeated exposure to HIV. (thebody.com)
  • Monkeys infected with Ebola have been cured by a cocktail of three antibodies first administered 24 hours or more after exposure . (slashdot.org)
  • discoveries
  • Building on discoveries that Prince made as a doctoral student, VSI pioneered the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in high-risk infants through the use of monoclonal antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants? (mdpi.com)
  • Plasmodium falciparum , the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) are among the most important health problems worldwide, being responsible for a total of 4 million deaths annually 1 . (jove.com)
  • We demonstrate that C-HIV significantly enhanced the uptake by immature DC (IDC) and mature DC (MDC) and that the internalization rate was dependent on both opsonization of the virus and DC maturation state. (jove.com)
  • Increased DC uptake of C-HIV was not due to opsonization related increased binding of virus to the surface of DC but rather increased internalization of C-HIV despite utilizing a similar repertoire of receptors as F-HIV. (jove.com)
  • So, for this study, the scientists treated mice infected with influenza virus with an antibody that blocks the activity of PDL-1. (india.com)
  • The findings from this study, coupled with the human tissue observations in the lab, suggest that an aerosolized version of the antibody, administered intranasally, could help the body clear the influenza virus. (india.com)
  • High levels of HIV-1 (often HAART-resistant) develop if treatment is stopped, if compliance with treatment is inconsistent, or if the virus spontaneously develops resistance to an individual's regimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • ISH has proven effective for treatment of influenza, rabies related lyssavirus, hepatitis B, and HIV virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • First in vitro and immunization experiments conducted with Simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV), showed a 10-50 fold increase in Env-specific antibodies of treated mice compared to exosome vaccinated ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The graft-versus-host disease Brown suffered from could have been what eliminated the HIV virus from his system. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • And, importantly, HAART does nothing to prevent the spread of HIV by people with undiagnosed infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their extensive overlap in developing regions, especially Sub-Saharan Africa, co-infections with malaria and HIV-1 are common, but the interplay between the two diseases is poorly understood. (jove.com)
  • While scientists have looked intently at PD-1 activity in chronic viral infections such as hepatitis and HIV, its involvement in acute infections was thought by many to be minor. (india.com)
  • individuals
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996 when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV may be encountered daily by individuals at high risk. (biology-online.org)