• eosinophilic
  • An eosinophilic granulocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The morphologically recognizable and functionally capable cells circulating in the blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells including both B and T cells), non B- and T-lymphocytes, phagocytes, neutrophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes, and platelets. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The World Health Organization classifies these disorders into a) Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 (i.e. high eosinophil blood counts caused by mutations in the eosinophil cell line of one of these three genes), 'b) Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and c) the Idiopathic hypereosinophiic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental driver of these hypereosinophilic (or uncommonly eosinophilic) disorders is the mutation which increases the proliferation, survival, and further mutation of cells descendant from the originally mutated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Even though the E-selectin gene is silent in in vitro-cultured endothelial cells, low levels of E-selectin are expressed in most tissues in vivo and regulate leukocyte homeostasis together with constitutively expressed P-selectin ( 8 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • antigen
  • These cells also have a limited ability to participate in phagocytosis, they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorders of the immune system fall into two broad categories: (1) those that arise when some aspect of the host's immune mechanism fails to prevent infection (immune deficiencies) and (2) those that occur when the immune response is directed at an inappropriate antigen, such as a noninfectious agent. (britannica.com)
  • The allergen binds to the antigen-binding sites, which are situated on the variable regions of the IgE molecules bound to the mast cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors, which include interleukin 2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, and have various physiological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells also have a limited ability to participate in phagocytosis, they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutropenia
  • Chemotherapy can cause myelosuppression and unacceptably low levels of white blood cells (neutropenia), making patients susceptible to infections and sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be precise, neutropenia is the term normally used to describe absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) of less than 500 cells per microlitre, whereas agranulocytosis is reserved for cases with ANCs of less than 100 cells per microlitre. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The cells obtained will be used to purify blood precursors for growing in culture and to examine the ability to transfer new genes into these precursor cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Methylation at CpG dinucleotides, the best-understood epigenetic mechanism in mammals, allows cells to silence transcription of particular genes in a relatively stable manner. (jci.org)
  • For instance, the persistent silencing of one allele of imprinted genes or large regions of one X chromosome in normal female cells is associated with hypermethylation. (jci.org)
  • lncRNAs are known to show more cell-type specificity than protein-coding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • responses
  • Subsequent changes in NK cell function may also favor the formation of gastric tumors in H. pylori carriers, since exposure of these cells to oxygen radicals alters their pattern of gene expression and impairs their ability to activate antitumor immune responses. (jci.org)
  • They are an important part of the body's immune system and also have a role in inflammation , allergic responses, and protection against cancer. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Immune system , the complex group of defense responses found in humans and other advanced vertebrates that helps repel disease-causing organisms (pathogens). (britannica.com)
  • Nonspecific protective mechanisms repel all microorganisms equally, while the specific immune responses are tailored to particular types of invaders. (britannica.com)
  • It possesses metabolic, physiological, haematopoietic activities, and plays one of the central roles in the regulation of the immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The constitutive production of large amounts of IL-1α precursor by healthy epidermal keratinocytes interfere with the important role of IL-1α in immune responses, assuming skin as a barrier, which prevents the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • These agents serve to orchestrate robust immune and inflammatory responses that destroy invading microbes, foreign tissue, and malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • granular
  • White blood cells are classified according to their propensity to stain with particular substances, the shape of the nuclei and the granular inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • We believe that Bria-IMT™ helps the body to recognize and kill tumor cells by activating T cells that attack the tumor and B cells that produce anti-tumor antibodies. (sbwire.com)
  • Initially, MAFs were thought to increase a macrophage's cytotoxic response, allowing enhanced clearance of the tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also participate in transplant rejection, Graft-versus-host disease, and the killing of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast
  • MAST CELLS are also granulocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • PMN) -mast cells -interdigitating. (slideplayer.com)
  • A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, defense against pathogens, and blood-brain barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The site an immature mast cell settles in probably determines its precise characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells in rodents are classically divided into two subtypes: connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are present in most tissues characteristically surrounding blood vessels and nerves, and are especially prominent near the boundaries between the outside world and the internal milieu, such as the skin, mucosa of the lungs, and digestive tract, as well as the mouth, conjunctiva, and nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells play a key role in the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells can be stimulated to degranulate by allergens through cross-linking with immunoglobulin E receptors (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement proteins can activate membrane receptors on mast cells to exert various functions as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor (FcεRI) for the Fc region of IgE, the least-abundant member of the antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, which is produced by plasma cells (the antibody-producing cells of the immune system). (wikipedia.org)
  • In allergic reactions, mast cells remain inactive until an allergen binds to IgE already coated upon the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other membrane activation events can either prime mast cells for subsequent degranulation or act in synergy with FcεRI signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that binding of two or more IgE molecules (cross-linking) is required to activate the mast cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of the intracellular domains of the cell-bound Fc receptors, which are associated with the cross-linked IgE molecules, causes a complex sequence of reactions inside the mast cell that lead to its activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • interleukin
  • Physiological regulation of myeloid stem cells into CFU-GEMM is mediated by IL-3, IL-6, IL-1, SCF, GMCSF, and IL-12 (interleukin-12). (thermofisher.com)
  • Th1 cells secrete interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and IL-12. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular cloning of the Interleukin 1 Beta converting enzyme is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 1 also plays a role in the Central Nervous System. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when mice with this genetic deletion have wild-type neural precursor cells injected into their hippocampus and these cells are allowed to mature into astrocytes containing the interleukin-1 receptors, the mice exhibit normal hippocampal-dependent memory function, and partial restoration of long-term potentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundant
  • When these are very abundant it can be a feature of infection or leukemia, although the most common types of leukemia (CML and CLL) are characterised by mature cells, and have more of an abnormal appearance on light microscopy (additional tests can aid the diagnosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Calpain, a calcium-activated cysteine protease, associated with the plasma membrane, is primarily responsible for the cleavage of the IL-1α precursor into a mature molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocyte
  • Healthy normal volunteers between 18 and 65 years of age and patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), X-linked severe combined immune deficiency (X-SCID), leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), interferon gamma receptor deficiency (IGR-deficiency) or other inherited diseases affecting precursor blood cells-bone marrow cells that generate blood cells-may be eligible for this study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • IL-1α is also known as fibroblast-activating factor (FAF), lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF), B-cell-activating factor (BAF), leukocyte endogenous mediator (LEM), epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF), serum amyloid A inducer or hepatocyte-stimulating factor (HSP), catabolin, hemopoetin-1 (H-1), endogenous pyrogen (EP), and proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocytes
  • White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes, are cells that circulate in the blood and the lymphatic system that help protect the body against infections . (labtestsonline.org)
  • White blood cells or leukocytes, are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five diverse types of leukocytes exist, and are all produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • they are ferocious eaters and rapidly engulf invaders coated with antibodies and complement , as well as damaged cells or cellular debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protective antibodies are secreted by cells underlying the gastrointestinal lining. (britannica.com)
  • differentiate
  • In the strictest sense, depending on potency (i.e., the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types), stem cells are either totipotent or pluripotent. (thermofisher.com)
  • Totipotent cells differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types, whereas pluripotent cells are defined as the descendants of totipotent cells and differentiate into cells derived from any of the three germ layers, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • erythrocytes
  • Pulmonary Circulation- is the flow of blood from your heart to your lungs and back to the heart Red blood cells or erythrocytes, primarily carry oxygen and collect carbon dioxide through the use of haemoglobin, and have a lifetime of about 120 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Pluripotent cells are capable of forming virtually all of the possible tissue types found in human beings. (thermofisher.com)
  • Multipotent stem cells are partially differentiated, so that they form a limited number of tissue types. (thermofisher.com)
  • These cells make up nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these three kinds of blood cells add up to a total 45% of the blood tissue by volume, with the remaining 55% of the volume composed of plasma, the liquid component of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different types of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are also part of the MPS. (wikipedia.org)
  • bloodstream
  • The decrease in blood cell counts does not occur right at the start of chemotherapy because the drugs do not destroy the cells already in the bloodstream (these are not dividing rapidly). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The dualistic role of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in cancer is revealed in its gene transcription targets, cross-talk with other transcription factors, mediation of apoptotic pathways, and influence in the immune system. (omicsonline.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Th0 and Th2 cells for inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autoimmune
  • Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of variants associated with a risk for autoimmune and immune-related disorders (AID), our understanding of the disease mechanisms is still limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathogens
  • These potential pathogens, which include viruses , bacteria , fungi , protozoans , and worms , are quite diverse , and therefore a nonspecific defense system that diverts all types of this varied microscopic horde equally is quite useful to an organism. (britannica.com)
  • regulation
  • This work raises critical questions about the nature and regulation of the demethylases that erase p15 methylation in these cells. (jci.org)