• platelets
  • P-selectin is an important adhesion molecule expressed on both endothelial cells and activated platelets. (jimmunol.org)
  • P-selectin is constitutively expressed at variable levels on resting endothelial cells and is rapidly up regulated on endothelium and platelets on inflammatory stimuli ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Red blood cells - Erythrocytes White blood cells - Leukocytes Platelets - Thrombocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Platelets, or thrombocytes or yellow blood cells, are very small, irregularly shaped clear cell fragments (i.e. cells that do not have a nucleus containing DNA), 2-3 µm in diameter, which derive from fragmentation of precursor megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition can rapidly lead to life-threatening infection, as the body cannot produce leukocytes in response to invading bacteria and viruses, as well as leading to anaemia due to a lack of red blood cells and spontaneous severe bleeding due to deficiency of platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundant
  • Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor (FcεRI) for the Fc region of IgE, the least-abundant member of the antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulocytes, the most abundant types of leukocytes, are the first line of defense against pathogen invasion. (frontiersin.org)
  • When these are very abundant it can be a feature of infection or leukemia, although the most common types of leukemia (CML and CLL) are characterised by mature cells, and have more of an abnormal appearance on light microscopy (additional tests can aid the diagnosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutropenia
  • Chemotherapy can cause myelosuppression and unacceptably low levels of white blood cells (neutropenia), making patients susceptible to infections and sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be precise, neutropenia is the term normally used to describe absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) of less than 500 cells per microlitre, whereas agranulocytosis is reserved for cases with ANCs of less than 100 cells per microlitre. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • G-CSF is expressed in endothelial cells, macrophages, and several other types of immune cells. (clontech.com)
  • Even though the E-selectin gene is silent in in vitro-cultured endothelial cells, low levels of E-selectin are expressed in most tissues in vivo and regulate leukocyte homeostasis together with constitutively expressed P-selectin ( 8 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • innate
  • Immunity from disease is actually conferred by two cooperative defense systems, called nonspecific, innate immunity and specific, acquired immunity. (britannica.com)
  • The innate immune system provides this kind of nonspecific protection through a number of defense mechanisms, which include physical barriers such as the skin , chemical barriers such as antimicrobial proteins that harm or destroy invaders, and cells that attack foreign cells and body cells harbouring infectious agents. (britannica.com)
  • As key components in the innate immune system, granulocytes have generally been considered as rapid responders in the first line of defense against pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, highly purified proteins are typically not inherently immunogenic, as they usually lack the means to directly stimulate the innate immune system, and often require the addition of adjuvants to enhance vaccine potency. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent insight into the functioning of the innate immune system has demonstrated its important role in triggering and shaping the adaptive immune response to vaccines. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, recent insights into the innate immune system and its importance in initiating the adaptive immune response have sparked the rational design and development the next generation of adjuvants. (frontiersin.org)
  • granular
  • White blood cells are classified according to their propensity to stain with particular substances, the shape of the nuclei and the granular inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocyte
  • Healthy normal volunteers between 18 and 65 years of age and patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), X-linked severe combined immune deficiency (X-SCID), leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), interferon gamma receptor deficiency (IGR-deficiency) or other inherited diseases affecting precursor blood cells-bone marrow cells that generate blood cells-may be eligible for this study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • IL-1α is also known as fibroblast-activating factor (FAF), lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF), B-cell-activating factor (BAF), leukocyte endogenous mediator (LEM), epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF), serum amyloid A inducer or hepatocyte-stimulating factor (HSP), catabolin, hemopoetin-1 (H-1), endogenous pyrogen (EP), and proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The cells obtained will be used to purify blood precursors for growing in culture and to examine the ability to transfer new genes into these precursor cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Methylation at CpG dinucleotides, the best-understood epigenetic mechanism in mammals, allows cells to silence transcription of particular genes in a relatively stable manner. (jci.org)
  • For instance, the persistent silencing of one allele of imprinted genes or large regions of one X chromosome in normal female cells is associated with hypermethylation. (jci.org)
  • lncRNAs are known to show more cell-type specificity than protein-coding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathogens
  • These potential pathogens, which include viruses , bacteria , fungi , protozoans , and worms , are quite diverse , and therefore a nonspecific defense system that diverts all types of this varied microscopic horde equally is quite useful to an organism. (britannica.com)
  • Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, defense against pathogens, and blood-brain barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • After receiving signaling from both IFNγ and TNF, macrophages acquire a phenotype with higher activity against both pathogens and tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 4, secreted by granulocytes after tissue damage or by adaptive immune cells within a Th2 response, causes macrophages to secrete minimal amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and to have lower activity against intracellular pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocytes
  • White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes, are cells that circulate in the blood and the lymphatic system that help protect the body against infections . (labtestsonline.org)
  • White blood cells or leukocytes, are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophage
  • Here we investigate macrophage precursors as potential biomarker for LRRK2 associated disease. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Interestingly, we find a strong up-regulation in the production of macrophage precursors in LRRK2 associated Parkinson patients. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that asymptomatic at high risk individuals have an increased percentage of macrophage precursors, comparable to that seen in LRRK2 patients. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Secondary structure analysis has suggested similarity to IL4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • subsets
  • MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells with a variety of phenotypic markers being recognized which have variably been used to identify subsets. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Upcoming treatment paradigms aim to include several primary DC subsets in a single vaccine as pre-clinical studies identified synergistic effects between various antigen-presenting cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Monocytic MDSCs seem to be precursors of granulocytic subsets demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast
  • MAST CELLS are also granulocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • PMN) -mast cells -interdigitating. (slideplayer.com)
  • A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The site an immature mast cell settles in probably determines its precise characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells in rodents are classically divided into two subtypes: connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells are present in most tissues characteristically surrounding blood vessels and nerves, and are especially prominent near the boundaries between the outside world and the internal milieu, such as the skin, mucosa of the lungs, and digestive tract, as well as the mouth, conjunctiva, and nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells play a key role in the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells can be stimulated to degranulate by allergens through cross-linking with immunoglobulin E receptors (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement proteins can activate membrane receptors on mast cells to exert various functions as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, which is produced by plasma cells (the antibody-producing cells of the immune system). (wikipedia.org)
  • In allergic reactions, mast cells remain inactive until an allergen binds to IgE already coated upon the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other membrane activation events can either prime mast cells for subsequent degranulation or act in synergy with FcεRI signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The allergen binds to the antigen-binding sites, which are situated on the variable regions of the IgE molecules bound to the mast cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that binding of two or more IgE molecules (cross-linking) is required to activate the mast cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of the intracellular domains of the cell-bound Fc receptors, which are associated with the cross-linked IgE molecules, causes a complex sequence of reactions inside the mast cell that lead to its activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Th0 and Th2 cells for inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A substantial body of recent evidence demonstrates that granulocytes can acquire the function as antigen-presenting cells under pathological or inflammatory conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • interleukin
  • Th1 cells secrete interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and IL-12. (frontiersin.org)
  • These macrophages produce Interleukin 10 and inhibit immune system response (See below for Effect on cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning of the Interleukin 1 Beta converting enzyme is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 1 also plays a role in the Central Nervous System. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when mice with this genetic deletion have wild-type neural precursor cells injected into their hippocampus and these cells are allowed to mature into astrocytes containing the interleukin-1 receptors, the mice exhibit normal hippocampal-dependent memory function, and partial restoration of long-term potentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors, which include interleukin 2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, and have various physiological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Calpain, a calcium-activated cysteine protease, associated with the plasma membrane, is primarily responsible for the cleavage of the IL-1α precursor into a mature molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • Initially, MAFs were thought to increase a macrophage's cytotoxic response, allowing enhanced clearance of the tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also participate in transplant rejection, Graft-versus-host disease, and the killing of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • they are ferocious eaters and rapidly engulf invaders coated with antibodies and complement , as well as damaged cells or cellular debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protective antibodies are secreted by cells underlying the gastrointestinal lining. (britannica.com)
  • bloodstream
  • The decrease in blood cell counts does not occur right at the start of chemotherapy because the drugs do not destroy the cells already in the bloodstream (these are not dividing rapidly). (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytic
  • We hope to learn if LRRK2 function in monocytic cells is linked to Parkinson disease pathogenesis and also if we can use these cells to monitor disease progression and ideally also as drugable target. (michaeljfox.org)
  • The GR1 marker is made up of two cell membrane molecules, Ly6C and Ly6G, and according to their relative expression levels murine MDSCs are further classified into two subtypes, monocytic and granulocytic. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • These cells make up nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these three kinds of blood cells add up to a total 45% of the blood tissue by volume, with the remaining 55% of the volume composed of plasma, the liquid component of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the phenotypes of the macrophages in a certain environment play a fundamental role in determining the immune activity and response within the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different types of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoimmune
  • Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of variants associated with a risk for autoimmune and immune-related disorders (AID), our understanding of the disease mechanisms is still limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mature
  • Both the 31kDa precursor form of IL-1α and its 18kDa mature form are biologically active. (wikipedia.org)
  • These predictive in-vitro assays reveal effects the administered compounds have on the bone marrow progenitor cells that produce the various mature cells in the blood and can be used to test the effects of single drugs or the effects of drugs administered in combination with others. (wikipedia.org)