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  • eosinophilic
  • An eosinophilic granulocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization classifies these disorders into a) Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 (i.e. high eosinophil blood counts caused by mutations in the eosinophil cell line of one of these three genes), 'b) Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and c) the Idiopathic hypereosinophiic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental driver of these hypereosinophilic (or uncommonly eosinophilic) disorders is the mutation which increases the proliferation, survival, and further mutation of cells descendant from the originally mutated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutropenia
  • Chemotherapy can cause myelosuppression and unacceptably low levels of white blood cells (neutropenia), making patients susceptible to infections and sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be precise, neutropenia is the term normally used to describe absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) of less than 500 cells per microlitre, whereas agranulocytosis is reserved for cases with ANCs of less than 100 cells per microlitre. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Although class II MHC molecules were known to be involved in the stimulation of mixed leukocyte culture, and class I MHC were known to be important for graft rejection, it was not until 1974 that Doherty and Zinkernagel ( 9 ) published their paper on MHC restriction of cytotoxic T cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Subsequent changes in NK cell function may also favor the formation of gastric tumors in H. pylori carriers, since exposure of these cells to oxygen radicals alters their pattern of gene expression and impairs their ability to activate antitumor immune responses. (jci.org)
  • Inside a multi-center randomized trial of the melanoma vaccine, the Compact disc4+ and Compact disc8+ T cell responses were lower using the co-administration of recombinant GM-CSF . (plant-finder.com)
  • They are an important part of the body's immune system and also have a role in inflammation , allergic responses, and protection against cancer. (labtestsonline.org)
  • ILCs represent a relatively small population in the gut, but accumulating evidence suggests that these cells could play a decisive role in orchestrating both protective and detrimental immune responses. (hindawi.com)
  • ILCs play broad roles in lymphoid organogenesis, in the defense against extracellular pathogens, and in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier and are supposed to contribute to the amplification of immune-inflammatory responses in various organs [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It possesses metabolic, physiological, haematopoietic activities, and plays one of the central roles in the regulation of the immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The constitutive production of large amounts of IL-1α precursor by healthy epidermal keratinocytes interfere with the important role of IL-1α in immune responses, assuming skin as a barrier, which prevents the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • These agents serve to orchestrate robust immune and inflammatory responses that destroy invading microbes, foreign tissue, and malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • These MDSCs infiltrate inflammation sites and tumors, where they stop immune responses by inhibiting T cells and NK cells, for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDSC activity was originally described as suppressors of T cells, in particular of CD8+ T-cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • granular
  • White blood cells are classified according to their propensity to stain with particular substances, the shape of the nuclei and the granular inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • interleukin
  • Later, it was discovered that T cell-derived interleukin 3 was the component present in the conditioned media that was required for mast cell differentiation and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "interleukin" was chosen in 1979, to replace the various different names used by different research groups to designate interleukin 1 (lymphocyte activating factor, mitogenic protein, T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation factor, and "Heidikine") and interleukin 2 (TSF, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning of the Interleukin 1 Beta converting enzyme is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 1 also plays a role in the Central Nervous System. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when mice with this genetic deletion have wild-type neural precursor cells injected into their hippocampus and these cells are allowed to mature into astrocytes containing the interleukin-1 receptors, the mice exhibit normal hippocampal-dependent memory function, and partial restoration of long-term potentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors, which include interleukin 2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, and have various physiological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • common precursor
  • MPO is a homodimer: each monomer consists of a light (A or B) and a heavy (C or D) chain resulting from post-translational excision of 6 residues from the common precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelets
  • Multipotent cells produce only cells of a closely related family of cells (e.g., hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). (thermofisher.com)
  • In addition, CML involves abnormalities of both the blood platelets, structures that help blood to clot, and the red blood cells, the blood cells that carry oxygen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Red blood cells - Erythrocytes White blood cells - Leukocytes Platelets - Thrombocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition can rapidly lead to life-threatening infection, as the body cannot produce leukocytes in response to invading bacteria and viruses, as well as leading to anaemia due to a lack of red blood cells and spontaneous severe bleeding due to deficiency of platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • leukocyte
  • IL-1α is also known as fibroblast-activating factor (FAF), lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF), B-cell-activating factor (BAF), leukocyte endogenous mediator (LEM), epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF), serum amyloid A inducer or hepatocyte-stimulating factor (HSP), catabolin, hemopoetin-1 (H-1), endogenous pyrogen (EP), and proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). (wikipedia.org)
  • abundant
  • Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor (FcεRI) for the Fc region of IgE, the least-abundant member of the antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these are very abundant it can be a feature of infection or leukemia, although the most common types of leukemia (CML and CLL) are characterised by mature cells, and have more of an abnormal appearance on light microscopy (additional tests can aid the diagnosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The cells obtained will be used to purify blood precursors for growing in culture and to examine the ability to transfer new genes into these precursor cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Methylation at CpG dinucleotides, the best-understood epigenetic mechanism in mammals, allows cells to silence transcription of particular genes in a relatively stable manner. (jci.org)
  • For instance, the persistent silencing of one allele of imprinted genes or large regions of one X chromosome in normal female cells is associated with hypermethylation. (jci.org)
  • By binding RANKL, OPG prevents RANK-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation which is a central and rapid acting transcription factor for immune-related genes, and a key regulator of inflammation, innate immunity, and cell survival and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytosis
  • These cells also have a limited ability to participate in phagocytosis, they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, particles are taken up by the cells as membrane-bound Solidly bound or molten particles, whose resulting surface may be much smaller than the sum of the calculated surfaces of the individual components. Aggregates are held together by strong forces such as covalent bonds or forces caused by sintering or complex physical hooking. Aggregates , just as agglomerates, are referred to as secondary particles. See also ISO/TS 27687:2008 (E), International Organization for Standardization. ">aggregates , i.e. large aggregates in Latin vesicula - small bubble. Round or oval compartments that are approximately 100 nm in diameter. Vesicles are located in the cells and are surrounded by separating layers (membranes). ">vesicles , vacuoles or lamellar bodies (cell compartments surrounded by membranes) through phagocytosis . (nanopartikel.info)
  • They assist in destruction of foreign particles by the immune system by phagocytosis and intracellular killing. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells also have a limited ability to participate in phagocytosis, they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • What is the predominant white clood cell type in acute inflammation? (brainscape.com)
  • These leukocytes are among the first to be recruited to sites of inflammation and/or infection, and they are the most numerous white blood cell in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effector cytokines are also involved in the orchestration of tissue-damaging immune response in states of chronic inflammation [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • differentiate
  • Can fibroblasts differentiate into different types of cells, if so what would they be? (brainscape.com)
  • In the strictest sense, depending on potency (i.e., the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types), stem cells are either totipotent or pluripotent. (thermofisher.com)
  • Totipotent cells differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types, whereas pluripotent cells are defined as the descendants of totipotent cells and differentiate into cells derived from any of the three germ layers, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • immature
  • Increased production of immature myeloid cells in cancer patients: a mechanism of immunosuppression in cancer. (termedia.pl)
  • Gr-1+CD115+ immature myeloid suppressor cells mediate the development of tumor-induced T regulatory cells and T-cell anergy in tumor-bearing host. (termedia.pl)
  • The differential reveals if the cells are present in normal proportion to one another, if the number of one cell type is increased or decreased, or if abnormal and/or immature cells are present. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Unlike acute leukemias, in which the process of maturation of the blast cells is interrupted, in chronic leukemias, the cells do mature and only a few remain as immature cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The site an immature mast cell settles in probably determines its precise characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • What type of cell is a key player in tissue repair? (brainscape.com)
  • Pluripotent cells are capable of forming virtually all of the possible tissue types found in human beings. (thermofisher.com)
  • Multipotent stem cells are partially differentiated, so that they form a limited number of tissue types. (thermofisher.com)
  • Increase in both CD14-positive and CD15-positive myeloid-derived suppressor cell subpopulations in the blood of patients with glioma but predominance of CD15-positive myeloid-derived suppressor cells in glioma tissue. (termedia.pl)
  • These cells make up nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these three kinds of blood cells add up to a total 45% of the blood tissue by volume, with the remaining 55% of the volume composed of plasma, the liquid component of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells in rodents are classically divided into two subtypes: connective tissue-type mast cells and mucosal mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different types of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are also part of the MPS. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • The clustering of the intracellular domains of the cell-bound Fc receptors, which are associated with the cross-linked IgE molecules, causes a complex sequence of reactions inside the mast cell that lead to its activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Calpain, a calcium-activated cysteine protease, associated with the plasma membrane, is primarily responsible for the cleavage of the IL-1α precursor into a mature molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytic
  • We hope to learn if LRRK2 function in monocytic cells is linked to Parkinson disease pathogenesis and also if we can use these cells to monitor disease progression and ideally also as drugable target. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the property of self-renewal and,, through cell division and differentiation, form populations of progenitor cells which are committed to the main marrow cell lines: erythroid, granulocytic and monocytic, megakaryocytic, and lymphocytic. (thermofisher.com)
  • The GR1 marker is made up of two cell membrane molecules, Ly6C and Ly6G, and according to their relative expression levels murine MDSCs are further classified into two subtypes, monocytic and granulocytic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocytic MDSCs seem to be precursors of granulocytic subsets demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Incredibly, a randomized research of 133 tumor patients treated having a trivalent influenza vaccine with GM-CSF given at a dosage of 250 g also didn't show an elevated immune system response . (plant-finder.com)
  • Initially, MAFs were thought to increase a macrophage's cytotoxic response, allowing enhanced clearance of the tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also participate in transplant rejection, Graft-versus-host disease, and the killing of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cell lines overexpressing colony stimulating factors (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • bloodstream
  • The decrease in blood cell counts does not occur right at the start of chemotherapy because the drugs do not destroy the cells already in the bloodstream (these are not dividing rapidly). (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiency
  • The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune diseases or immune deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of hematopoietic cells devoid of antigen receptors that have important functions in lymphoid organogenesis, in the defense against extracellular pathogens, and in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier. (hindawi.com)
  • this is used as a precursor for extracellular matrix components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, limited sequence similarity (28%) and different pharmacological characteristics have been cloned from mouse and human cell lines: these have been termed type I and type II receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Paired receptors consist of highly related activating and inhibitory receptors and are widely involved in the regulation of the immune system. (abcam.com)
  • This work raises critical questions about the nature and regulation of the demethylases that erase p15 methylation in these cells. (jci.org)
  • receptors
  • B and T cells utilize genetic recombination to generate a highly diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins and T-cell surface receptors, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mast cells can be stimulated to degranulate by allergens through cross-linking with immunoglobulin E receptors (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement proteins can activate membrane receptors on mast cells to exert various functions as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Betten and colleagues now show that Hp(2-20), a cleaved fragment of an H. pylori ribosomal protein, also acts directly on the host immune system, apparently allowing the bacterium to alter the course and outcome of an infection. (jci.org)
  • It is a severe lack of one major class of infection-fighting white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cell
  • Several studies of the use of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines to attempt to treat measurable metastatic tumor deposits have been unsuccessful. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a murine model, we found that a tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine generated an order of magnitude greater antitumor immunity than immunization with irradiated tumor cells plus the classic adjuvant, Corynebacterium parvum ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dendritic cells are present in those tissues that are in contact with the external environment, such as the skin (where there is a specialized dendritic cell type called the Langerhans cell) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, the dendritic cell has a very large surface area compared to the overall cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also upregulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Here, we based the route of immunization on our observations in murine models of enhanced antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and IFNγ production using intranodal injections when compared with subcutaneous or intravenous routes of immunization ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The fundamental driver of these hypereosinophilic (or uncommonly eosinophilic) disorders is the mutation which increases the proliferation, survival, and further mutation of cells descendant from the originally mutated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • It is a leukocyte membrane protein expressed specifically by lymphohematopoietic progenitor cells. (githubusercontent.com)
  • CD4 is an accessory protein for MHC class-II antigen/T-cell receptor interaction. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C (CD45) regulates signal transduction and lymphocyte activation by specific association with receptor molecules on T and B cells. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Thus, GD2 is a convenient tumor-specific marker for targeting immune-stimulatory protein domains to tumor cells for the purpose of raising an effective immune response against the tumor cells to destroy them. (google.es)
  • While the 14.18 mouse antibody (m14.18 antibody) may assist the targeting of these protein domains to tumor cells, its mouse-derived amino acid sequences can impair the desired therapeutic effect. (google.es)
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies have defined LECT2 as a hepatokine, i.e. a substance made and released into the circulation by liver hepatocyte cells that regulates the function of other cells: it is a hepatocyte-derived, hormone-like, signaling protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • An actin protein is the monomeric subunit of two types of filaments in cells: microfilaments, one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton, and thin filaments, part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Another way of categorizing this is "nonspecific defenses" (skin, mucous membranes, phagocytes, fever, interferons, cilia, and stomach acid) and "specific defenses" (the cell-mediated and the humoral systems, both of which attack specific pathogens). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Immature dendritic cells constantly sample the surrounding environment for pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells present receptors contained on the surface or within the cell, named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to clear pathogens or mark them for destruction by other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins work together to: trigger the recruitment of inflammatory cells "tag" pathogens for destruction by other cells by opsonizing, or coating, the surface of the pathogen form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the pathogen cell, causing the death of the pathogen rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • It describes a method that is commercially available as a kit (Orpegen) and includes an optional procedure to exclude from analysis cells with bound bacteria that have not been internalized (i.e., phagocytosed). (asmscience.org)
  • These carry out a wide variety of protective functions, including producing antibodies , engulfing bacteria and protozoa , ingesting dead and infected cells and debris, and so forth. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The gut flora can prevent the colonization of pathogenic bacteria by secreting toxic substances or by competing with pathogenic bacteria for nutrients or attachment to cell surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary granules contain cationic proteins and defensens that are used to kill bacteria, proteolytic enzymes and cathepsin G to break down (bacterial) proteins, lysozyme to break down bacterial cell walls, and myeloperoxidase (used to generate toxic bacteria-killing substances). (wikipedia.org)
  • He invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The make-up of the cytoskeleton is also related to the pathogenicity of intracellular bacteria and viruses, particularly in the processes related to evading the actions of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Viral tropism for the decidua and placenta is then dependent on viral entry receptor expression in these tissues as well as on the maternal immune response to the virus. (jci.org)
  • The regenerative capacity of adult tissues depends on their stem cell populations, which stably self-renew and, in turn, give rise to progeny that possess the ability to differentiate into specialized cells. (hindawi.com)
  • When these cells or tissues are subjected to inflammatory, fibrotic, and other insults, they commonly reduce their expression of LECT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimicrobial
  • The general rule of the mechanism triggering cathelicidin action, like that of other antimicrobial peptides, involves the disintegration (damaging and puncturing) of cell membranes of organisms toward which the peptide is active. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Immature dendritic cells are also called veiled cells, as they possess large cytoplasmic 'veils' rather than dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, the most abundant granulocyte is the neutrophil granulocyte, which has neutrally staining cytoplasmic granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting them with antigens derived from the pathogen, alongside non-antigen specific costimulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal cells
  • GD2 is a disialoganglioside that is normally only expressed at a significant level on the outer surface membranes of neuronal cells, where its exposure to the immune system is limited by the blood brain barrier. (google.es)
  • Neurons G-CSF can also act on neuronal cells as a neurotrophic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • The availability of these tools has allowed a precise gene editing, such as knockout of a specific gene or the correction of a defective gene by means of homologous recombination (HR), taking advantage of the endogenous cell repair machinery. (intechopen.com)
  • Apart from the proper design of the nucleases to recognize and cut the selected site in the cell genome, two main goals need to be adequately addressed to optimize its function: the delivery of the tools into the desired cells and the selection of those where the gene editing process has occurred correctly. (intechopen.com)
  • Among them, some have specific role in the nervous system such as the preprotachykinin-1 gene, giving rise to substance P and neurokinin A and the choline acetyltransferase responsible for the biosynthesis of the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor-specific
  • Patients with evidence of a vaccine-induced, tumor-specific T-cell proliferative or IFNγ response 1 week after vaccination had a markedly better recurrence-free survival (RFS) at 5 years (63% versus 18%, P = 0.037) than nonresponders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found an association between induction of an autologous tumor-specific immune response and improved recurrence-free survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • induces
  • Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis(programmed cell death)i in certain types of cancer cells, which are normally immortal and can multiply without limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • G-CSF stimulates the production of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the liver, Kupffer cells store excess iron from catabolism of heme from the breakdown of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • destruction
  • Colonic sections collected 5 days post DNBS-treatment showed focal ulceration, crypt destruction, goblet cell depletion, and mucosal infiltration of both acute and chronic inflammatory cells that differed in severity among diet groups. (jove.com)
  • antibodies
  • The invention provides a family of antibodies that specifically bind the human cell surface glycosphingolipid GD2. (google.es)
  • More particularly, the invention relates to modified antibodies with reduced immunogenicity that specifically bind the human cell surface glycosphingolipid GD2, and their use as therapeutic agents. (google.es)
  • Antibodies can be used to deliver certain molecules, for example, a toxin or an immune stimulatory moiety, for example, a cytokine, to a cancer cell expressing the marker so as to selectively kill the cancer cell. (google.es)
  • various immune
  • On the other hand, GM-CSF deficiency leads to various immune dysfunctions and the current utilization of GM-CSF as haematopoietic factor might be an accurate but very incomplete indication for a cytokine with vast clinical potential. (springer.com)
  • This probiotic mixture has been found to be helpful in various immune disturbances including ME/CFS. (wikipedia.org)