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  • innate immune
  • Compromises to innate immune cell functioning can interfere with, or reflect, adaptive processes and translate into shifts in cytokine patterns that are either pro- or anti-inflammatory [ 11 ]. (medsci.org)
  • 13 These polysaccharidic components are widely used for bacterial classification, responsible for non-immunological and immunological interactions of bacteria with hosts and also involved in the avoidance of host innate immune mechanisms-such as resistance to phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing, and the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial peptides. (iranjournals.ir)
  • In addition, current genomic technologies, like microarrays, can capture immune system gene expression over time and can trace interactions of microorganisms with cells of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine
  • Severe dengue disease is associated with sub-protective levels of antibody, which exacerbate disease upon re-infection.A dengue vaccine should generate protective immunity without increasing severity of disease.This study explores the immunological basis of protection induced by a dengue vaccine and suggests that a safe and efficient vaccine against dengue should trigger both arms of the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • Vaccine-induced humoral responses had the potential to either protect from or exacerbate dengue disease upon challenge, whereas cellular immune responses were beneficial. (nih.gov)
  • This study explores the immunological basis of protection induced by a dengue vaccine and suggests that a safe and efficient vaccine against dengue should trigger both arms of the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • complement
  • Evaluation of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 resistance to immune serum and complement system', Veterinary Research Forum , 8(3), pp. 179-184. (iranjournals.ir)
  • In the present study, the possible bactericidal activity of immune calf sera in the presence and absence of complement system was investigated. (iranjournals.ir)
  • The results showed that P. multocida B:2 is highly resistant to positive serum, containing high levels of IgG and IgM obtained from calves after vaccination, and complement activity in normal fresh calf serum. (iranjournals.ir)
  • As a control test an E. coli strain was subjected to the same experiment and found completely sensitive to the bactericidal activity of complement in calf and guinea pig fresh sera. (iranjournals.ir)
  • Results were indicative of the presence of inhibitory mechanism(s) in P. multocida B:2 against bactericidal activity of immune calf serum and complement system. (iranjournals.ir)
  • The destructive effects of fresh serum on gram-negative bacteria is assumed to be one of the consequences of the activity of host complement system. (iranjournals.ir)
  • Deposition of these complexes in tissues or in vascular endothelium can produce immune complex-mediated tissue injury by activation of complement, generation of anaphylatoxins, chemoattraction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and tissue injury. (health.am)
  • Immunohistochemical techniques can identify immune complexes or complement fragments deposited in tissue biopsy specimens. (health.am)
  • In 1895 Bordet made his discovery that the bacteriolytic effect of acquired specific antibody is significantly enhanced in vivo by the presence of innate serum components which he termed alexine (but which are now known as complement). (wikipedia.org)
  • Four years later, in 1899, he described a similar destructive process involving complement, "hemolysis", in which foreign red blood cells are ruptured or "lysed" following exposure to immune serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that swimming in a chlorinated pool induces perturbations of the immune response through acute alterations of patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion. (uu.nl)
  • antibody
  • It would be unlikely that the antibody would be reacting specifically with the plate and any non-specific reaction should be happening with your negative sera too. (protocol-online.org)
  • The specific IgG antibody may be present in sufficient quantity in serum to be detected by the precipitin-in-gel method. (health.am)
  • genes
  • Two thirds of the genome is active in one or more immune cell types and less than 1% of genes are uniquely expressed in a given type of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, they designed the "Lymphochip" cDNA microarray, which contained 13,000 genes and was enriched for genes of importance to the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The serum-induced genes have been associated with processes relevant to wound healing, including genes directly involved in remodeling the clot and extracellular matrix, as well as genes encoding signal proteins for inflammation, the development of new blood vessels, and regrowth of epithelial tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In seven separate experiments, nude (nu/nu) mice carrying established murine sarcoma virus (MSV) tumours were reconstituted with syngeneic (+/+) immune splenic T cells. (springer.com)
  • These immune protected mice were randomly divided to provide smaller groups for serial exsanguination. (springer.com)
  • Control sera were obtained from nu/nu and adult +/+ mice inoculated with tumour cells only, and from nu/nu mice protected with normal +/+ spleen cells. (springer.com)
  • On the other hand, in immune protected mice considered alone or together with the control groups, CIC and time after tumour cell inoculation, but not tumour size, were significantly correlated. (springer.com)
  • A significant relationship between blocking and tumour size was also established, although this only applied to immune protected mice. (springer.com)
  • However, analysis of the combined data from sequentially bled immune protected mice in relation to different phases of tumour behaviour, did not support the notion that blocking, and more particularly the persistence of CIC, contribute to tumour regrowth and dissemination. (springer.com)
  • A) 50, 200 or 500 µl DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum (from AG129 mice immunized i.p. 14 and 5 days prior to serum collection) were transferred i.v. into naïve AG129 recipient mice one day prior to challenge with 5×108 GE DENV. (nih.gov)
  • To assess whether the protective effect of the DENV2 E85-VRP immunization was mediated by serum, 50 µl, 200 µl or 500 µl of serum from AG129 mice immunized 14 and 5 days earlier with 1×106 IU of DENV2 E85-VRP were injected i.v. into naïve AG129 recipient mice one day prior to challenge with 5×108 GE DENV. (nih.gov)
  • As transfer of naïve serum had no effect on the viral load, we concluded that Ab present in the serum of immunized mice had caused ADE. (nih.gov)
  • infection
  • Passive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum or adoptive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune B cells can increase the viral RNA levels in the liver upon infection with DENV. (nih.gov)
  • Symptoms are caused by the microfilariae and the immune response to infection, rather than the adults themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emil von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō demonstrate passive immunity, protection of animals from infection by injection of immune serum (1890). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Hellstrom, I. , and Hellstrom, K. E. , 1969, Studies on cellular immunity and its serum-mediated inhibition in Moloney virus-induced mouse sarcomas. (springer.com)
  • snake
  • He also developed the first antivenom for snake venom, the Calmette's serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1894, he came back to France again and develop the first antivenoms for snake bites using immune sera from vaccinated horses (Calmette's serum). (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • however, their presence in the bloodstream causes little to no immune response until death or degradation of the microfilariae or adult worms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunomics is the study of immune system regulation and response to pathogens using genome-wide approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • that is, the whole pathogenic peptide sequence is not necessary to initiate an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Many studies have assessed the levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) although even with conflicting and inconsistent results, this may suggest potential shifts in immune regulations in the illness [ 2 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Viral RNA levels in the liver were significantly higher in all groups that had received DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum compared to the baseline group. (nih.gov)
  • cDNA
  • were some of the first to recognize the potential of cDNA microarrays to define gene expression of immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • As controls, one group received 1500 µl naïve serum (500 µl on day -3, -2, -1) and two groups received no serum and were challenged either in the absence or presence of exogenous anti-DENV Ab (baseline and ADE groups). (nih.gov)
  • system
  • We hypothesized a potential pathway involving modulation of the immune system. (uu.nl)
  • This is done so that the fetal rhesus D positive erythrocytes are destroyed before the immune system of the mother can discover them and become sensitized. (wikipedia.org)
  • recently, these technologies have been used to help better understand how the immune system functions and how it is regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunomics has made this approach easier by its ability to look at the immune system as a whole and characterize it as a dynamic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATC code J06 Immune sera and immunoglobulins is a therapeutic subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Serum IL-7 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the severe CFS/ME group compared with healthy controls and moderate CFS/ME patients. (medsci.org)
  • presence
  • One control group received 1.5 ml naïve serum (500 µl 3, 2 and 1 day prior to challenge), another control group received no serum and was infected in the presence of anti-DENV Ab (ADE) and the last control group received no serum and was infected in the presence of an isotype control Ab of irrelevant specificity (baseline). (nih.gov)
  • patterns
  • Therefore, it is critical that the expression patterns of these immune cell types be deciphered in the context of a network, and not as an individual, so that their roles be correctly characterized and related to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, analyzing the systematic variation of gene expression can relate these patterns with specific diseases and gene networks important for immune functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Hardcastle SL, Brenu EW, Johnston S, Nguyen T, Huth T, Ramos S, Staines D, Marshall-Gradisnik S. Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients. (medsci.org)
  • This research addressed this relationship between CFS/ME severity subgroups, assessing serum immunoglobulins and serum cytokines in severe and moderate CFS/ME patients. (medsci.org)
  • results
  • 7,8 Similar results have been reported by other studies and serum resistance has been considered as a tool to assess the virulence in FC-associated strains. (iranjournals.ir)
  • Study
  • He also took part in the development in the first immune serum against the bubonic plague (black pest), in collaboration with the discoverer of its pathogenic agent, Yersinia pestis, by Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943), and went to Portugal to study and to help fight an epidemic at Oporto. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood cells
  • The term usually refers to blood serum, the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of the plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells, and remains fluid after clotting of blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • relationship
  • 9 However, lesions have also been reported in chickens infected by serum-sensitive strains 10 and the relationship between virulence and serum resistance is complicated in the chicken. (iranjournals.ir)
  • role
  • Although not intending to address any aspect of immunity at the start of their experiment, these researchers observed that the expression profiles of serum-stimulated fibroblasts were far richer than anticipated and suggested an important physiological role for fibroblasts in healing wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Night blindness may be a feature of severe zinc deficiency, however most reports of night blindness and abnormal dark adaptation in humans with zinc deficiency have occurred in combination with other nutritional deficiencies (e.g. vitamin A). Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other infections, e.g., pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 17D vaccine is contraindicated in (among others) infants between zero and six months or over 59 years of age, people with thymus disorders associated with abnormal immune cell function, people with primary immunodeficiencies, and anyone with a diminished immune capacity including those taking immunosuppressant drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • It also stops the patient's immune system from rejecting the donor's stem cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune system and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-tumor effect). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The plethora of inbred mouse strains, including genetically modified animals, and the depth of knowledge of the murine immune system have made studies of the mouse particularly valuable. (asmscience.org)
  • It also has been found to be vital for the immune system and fertility in men3. (machine-envy.com)
  • It can improve your cholesterol, boost your immune system, and enhance brain functioning. (aol.com)
  • However, if the immune system is weakened, the Candida fungus can multiply and lead to a yeast infection or vaginal thrush. (lybrate.com)
  • Other risk factors include smoking, a weak immune system, birth control pills, starting sex at a young age, and having many sexual partners, but these are less important. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATC code J06 Immune sera and immunoglobulins is a therapeutic subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, many of acquired nonself surfaces e.g. carcinoembryonic/oncofetal type neoantigens carrying "internal danger source"/"self turned nonself" type pathogen pattern are also identified and destroyed (e.g. by complement fixation or other cytotoxic attacks) or sequestered (phagocytosed or ensheathed) by the immune system by virtue of the CLRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-mediated immunity (Encyclopædia Britannica) Chapter 8:T Cell-Mediated Immunity Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can also make an immune response against the body's normal cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Concanavalin A (ConA) has the ability to stimulate the activation of T lymphocytes, mostly CD4 + T-cells, leading to immune hepatitis in mice [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol
  • Hepatitis is caused by many factors including alcohol, viruses, drugs, immune injury, and idiopathic factors and has remained a serious human health problem throughout the world [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However
  • However, since a decrease in the serum concentration is only detectable after long-term or severe depletion, serum zinc is not a reliable biomarker for zinc status. (wikipedia.org)