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  • Humans
  • In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans . (asmscience.org)
  • Interferon type II (IFN-γ in humans): This is also known as immune interferon and is activated by Interleukin-12. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other extreme are accelerated aging diseases, rare in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks of the Ixodes genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some strains of hantaviruses cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)-also known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS)- while others have not been associated with known human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells include T lymphocytes (T cells), that primarily mediate the immune system, B lymphocytes (B cells) and Natural Killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal neutrophil chemotaxis due to decreased production of interferon gamma by T lymphocytes is thought to cause the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Second, the only way to help prevent the spread of viral disease amongst cats is to know the viral status of individuals. (sandcreekanimalhospital.com)
  • Newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic tests that detect viral genetic material have been developed to confirm FeLV infections. (sandcreekanimalhospital.com)
  • These results showed that epigenetic changes of provirus facilitated ATL cells to evade host immune system by suppressing viral gene transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IFNs belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bean pod mottle virus Table of Contents Description and Importance Symptoms Disease Cycle and Pathogenesis Agronomic Impact Management Strategies Genetic Resistance Cultural Tactics Chemical Tactics Description and Importance BPMV is the viral pathogen that causes the disease Bean Pod Mottle in soybeans and other legumes such as snap peas. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Four new studies reported at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC) 2018 in Chicago investigated how the digestive system, including gut and liver functions, may be related to changes in the brain, and to brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The plethora of inbred mouse strains, including genetically modified animals, and the depth of knowledge of the murine immune system have made studies of the mouse particularly valuable. (asmscience.org)
  • Once thought only to attack neurons, immune cells turn out to be vital for central nervous system function. (the-scientist.com)
  • Such inactivation of Tax expression is considered to allow ATL cells to escape from the host immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it is also recognized as a mechanism for virus-infected cells to escape from the host immune system and establish the latent state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It blocks a protective mechanism of cancer cells, and allows the immune system to destroy those cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • this same mechanism also allows the immune system to attack the body itself, and checkpoint inhibitors like pembrolizumab have immune-dysfunction side effects as a result. (wikipedia.org)
  • pembrolizumab appears to facilitate clearance of any such tumor by the immune system, by preventing the self-checkpoint system from blocking the clearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cells are key effector elements of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system consists of specialized cells that work together to fight off bacteria, fungi and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) involves intravenous infusion of stem cells to those who have either a damaged bone marrow or defective immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroimmunology is a field combining neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the US National Institute of Health: "Despite the brain's status as an immune privileged site, an extensive bi-directional communication takes place between the nervous and the immune system in both health and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, interactions of immune molecules with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system indicate that sex differences are a significant factor determining the impact of neuroimmune influences on brain function and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • While some disorders may affect the nervous and immune systems independently of one another, it is impossible to truly understand neuroimmnulogical science without a complex understanding of how each system works independently and also how they work together. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the acute form of the disease caused by highly virulent strains, pigs may develop a high fever, but show no other noticeable symptoms for the first few days. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • Oesophageal diseases include a spectrum of disorders affecting the oesophagus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic diseases might include congenital diseases such as Zenker's diverticulum and esophageal webbing, and oesophageal motility disorders including the nutcracker oesophagus, achalasia, diffuse oesophageal spasm, and oesophageal stricture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital disorders of the stomach include pernicious anaemia, in which a targeted immune response against parietal cells results in an inability to absorb vitamin B12. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many types of interactions involve both the nervous and immune systems including the physiological functioning of the two systems in health and disease, malfunction of either and or both systems that leads to disorders, and the physical, chemical, and environmental stressors that affect the two systems on a daily basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new study is leading to the discovery of environmental stressors that dictate initiation of specific neurological disorders and specific disease biomarkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescence
  • The discovery, in 1934, that calorie restriction can extend lifespan by 50% in rats, and the existence of species having negligible senescence and potentially immortal species such as Hydra, have motivated research into delaying and preventing senescence and thus age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new branch has already provided unique insights into the mechanisms underlying brain development, evolution, neuronal and network plasticity and homeostasis, senescence, the etiology of diverse neurological diseases and neural regenerative processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Many of the immediate gaps in knowledge are attributed to basic lack of understanding of gene expression and regulation and are thus the limiting factors for creating advanced treatments or cures to many diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • To better understand these processes, neuroimmunological experiments are being created and tested to once and for all amass a more complete anthology of knowledge pertaining to the complex interactions between the nervous and immune systems along with that of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • ischemic
  • There are four categories of people who are considered to be at higher risk, hence strongly advised to be immunised - pregnant women, young children below the age of 5 years, elderly people, and those whose immunity is compromised because of factors such as asthma, diabetes, ischemic heart disease to name a few. (medindia.net)
  • acute
  • Acute disease might include infections such as oesophagitis, trauma caused ingestion of corrosive substances, or rupture of veins such as oesophageal varices, Boerhaave syndrome or Mallory-Weiss tears. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic or congenital diseases might be investigated using barium swallows, endoscopy and biopsy, whereas acute diseases such as reflux may be investigated and diagnosed based on symptoms and a medical history alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1775
  • The first cause of cancer was identified by British surgeon Percivall Pott, who discovered in 1775 that cancer of the scrotum was a common disease among chimney sweeps. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • University of Minnesota Extension, 2016) Disease Cycle and Pathogenesis BPMV can be transferred via insect vector such as the bean leaf beetle or from infected seed which is a low occurrence (Michigan State University Field Crop Pathology), although it is still not fully understood how the virus gets from one host from another host, if not bean leaf beetles. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • The most common condition of the oesophagus in Western countries is gastroesophageal reflux disease, which in chronic forms is thought to result in changes to the epithelium of the oesophagus, known as Barrett's oesophagus. (wikipedia.org)
  • When gastritis persists in a chronic state, it is associated with several diseases, including atrophic gastritis, pyloric stenosis, and gastric cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other common symptoms that stomach disease might cause include indigestion or dyspepsia, vomiting, and in chronic disease, digestive problems leading to forms of malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • What diseases do these viruses cause? (sandcreekanimalhospital.com)
  • Some diseases which involve other parts of the GI tract can manifest in the mouth, alone or in combination, including: Gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause acid erosion of the teeth and halitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several GI diseases, especially those associated with malabsorption, can cause recurrent mouth ulcers, atrophic glossitis, and angular cheilitis (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases of the intestine may cause vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and altered stool, such as with blood in stool. (wikipedia.org)
  • They normally infect rodents and do not cause disease in these hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dutch professor Francois de la Boe Sylvius, a follower of Descartes, believed that all disease was the outcome of chemical processes, and that acidic lymph fluid was the cause of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Human infections of hantaviruses have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement, but recent human-to-human transmission has been reported with the Andes virus in South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances
  • Advances in genetic testing and more widespread use of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization has led to increased diagnosis of MECP2 duplication syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • potentially
  • An alternative to the IFA test is to repeat the ELISA test in the clinical setting in one month, thus allowing the cat time to mount an appropriate immune response and potentially eliminate the FeLV virus. (sandcreekanimalhospital.com)
  • ticks
  • The virus causes a haemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in pigs, but persistently infects its natural hosts, warthogs, bushpigs, and soft ticks of the Ornithodoros genus, with no disease signs. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In the two crystal structures of normal human G6P, Pro172 is seen exclusively in the cis confirmation, while in the crystal structure of one disease causing mutant (variant Canton R459L), Pro172 is seen almost exclusively in the trans confirmation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers document the diverse roles of immune cells in neuronal health and disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • On October 5, 2005, Tumpey and other researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York announced that the (~13 kbp) genetic sequence of the 1918 flu strain, a subtype of avian strain H1N1, had been reconstructed using historic tissue samples and a small part of the RNA from a modern strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with RD have a genetic defect that affects the T cells and at least one other type of immune cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who suffer from RD will now have more stem cells that can differentiate into immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • is that the virus strain originated at Fort Riley, Kansas, by two genetic mechanisms - genetic drift and antigenic shift - in viruses in poultry and swine which the fort bred for local consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Since some cats are able to subsequently mount an appropriate immune response and eliminate the virus from their bodies, this viremia (literally virus in the blood) may not be permanent. (sandcreekanimalhospital.com)
  • In general, type I and II interferons are responsible for regulating and activating the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • affects
  • This disease disproportionally affects black patients, with higher incidence rates, more advanced stage at diagnosis and decreased survival rates compared to other ethnic groups. (healthcanal.com)
  • known
  • I. Sandoval, N. Áñez, E. Villegas, and J. V. Scorza, "Persistent transmission of Chagas disease in controlled venezuelan localities in absence of known domestic vectors," Revista de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología , vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 166-168, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • We have now identified three cases: the Brevig Mission case and two archival cases that represent the only known sources of genetic material of the 1918 influenza virus", said Taubenberger, chief of AFIP's molecular pathology division and principal investigator on the project. (wikipedia.org)
  • deaths
  • 50% of those affected do not live beyond 25 years of age, with deaths attributed to the impaired immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • In research reports over the last few years, we've learned a great deal about how diet, particularly overall eating patterns, may be linked to brain health, cognitive decline and possibly even dementia as we age. (medicalxpress.com)
  • results
  • Union of Everett Zeta Squadron disease weight are the open on the device, fighting dark results and Indian books of the radiocarbon model skin. (southwayinc.com)
  • certain
  • A long-term goal of this rapidly developing research area is to further develop our understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases, some of which have no clear etiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • It was originally called "Four Corners disease," but the name was changed to "Sin Nombre virus" after complaints by Native Americans that the name "Four Corners" stigmatized the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus causes a lethal haemorraghic disease in domestic pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the four recovered samples contained viable genetic material of the virus. (wikipedia.org)