• NS4A
  • Regarding NS3 protease, two strategies have been followed: competitive inhibitors blocking the active site and allosteric inhibitors blocking the binding of the accessory viral protein NS4A. (jove.com)
  • genome
  • Another strategy which is different from conventional vaccine is to induce the T cell arm of the immune response using viral vectors, adenoviral vectors that contain large parts of the hepatitis C virus genome itself, to induce a T cell immune response against hepatitis C.[citation needed] Most of the work to develop a T cell vaccine has been done against a particular genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • These trVLPs can continuously infect cells expressing the Ebola virus proteins responsible for genome replication and transcription, allowing us to safely model multiple infectious cycles under biosafety level 2 conditions. (jove.com)
  • The replication machine of HCV is a multi-subunit membrane associated complex, consisting of nonstructural proteins (NS2-5B), which replicate the viral RNA genome. (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • protease
  • These include targeting the recognition molecules for the avoidance of detection, targeting key enzymes and complexes of the complement pathways like C3 convertases and C5b-9 formation - either by encoding complement regulators or by recruiting membrane-bound and soluble host complement regulators, cleaving complement proteins by encoding protease, and inhibiting the synthesis of complement proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found ligands binding to the Zn(+2)-free NS3 protease, trap the inactive protein, and block the viral life cycle. (jove.com)
  • HCV NS3/4A protein is an attractive therapeutic target responsible for harboring serine protease and RNA helicase activities during the viral replication. (jove.com)
  • Small molecules binding at the interface between the protease and helicase domains can stabilize the closed conformation of the protein and thus block the catalytic function of HCV NS3/4A protein via an allosteric regulation mechanism. (jove.com)
  • infection
  • This immune complex-mediated vasculitis is characterized by a primary B-cell clonal proliferation accompanied by the deposition of immune complexes composed of complement factors, mono/oligoclonal IgMs with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity bound to oligo/polyclonal IgGs that, in the case of HCV infection, are mostly directed against HCV proteins [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, recent data in HCV model systems have demonstrated that targeting critical components of tetraspanins and associated cell membrane proteins open new avenues to prevent and treat viral infection. (mdpi.com)
  • polypeptide
  • The two 5-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37) which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. (jove.com)
  • gene
  • To date, several host- and virus-related factors have been implicated in the progression to MCII, such as the virus-induced expansion of selected subsets of B-cell clones expressing discrete immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies, the involvement of complement factors and the specific role of some HCV proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • amino
  • Tetraspanins are relatively small proteins (200-300 amino acids) composed of a small extracellular loop (SEL), a large extracellular loop (LEL), four transmembrane domains and intracellular N- and C−terminal domains [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • bind
  • In line, HBsAg preferentially bound to TLR9-triggered pDC demonstrating that once pDC are able to bind HBV/HBsAg, the virus exerts its immune regulatory effect. (jove.com)
  • complexes
  • In particular, about 60% of HCV-infected patients present cold-precipitable (cryoprecipitable) and noncryoprecipitable immune complexes that could be associated with the clinical onset of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • complex
  • They include: apo state of HCV NS3/4A protein, HCV NS3/4A protein in complex with an allosteric inhibitor and the truncated form of the above two systems. (jove.com)
  • The molecular dynamics simulation results indicate HCV NS3/4A protein in complex with the allosteric inhibitor 4VA adopts a closed conformation (inactive state), while the truncated apo protein adopts an open conformation (active state). (jove.com)
  • cells
  • The green fluorescent protein is a commonly used marker for studying lentiviruses in living cells. (jove.com)
  • While all cells, except sperm cells, express tetraspanins, the expression level of the individual proteins in different tissues is variable [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • To explore this possibility, we investigated whether cross-linking CD81 on NK cells could alter NK cell function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CD81 cross-linking by monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for CD81 or by immobilized E2 have been shown to result in costimulatory signals for human T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results show that CD81 cross-linking mediates completely different signals in NK cells versus T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we have investigated whether cross-linking CD81 on NK cells can alter NK cell function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • andsubsequently administering at least once a second composition comprising a viral vector comprising a nucleic acid encoding said at least one epitope of said first composition, whereby the nucleic acid of said second composition is expressed in one or more cells of the subject and at least part of the protein of said first composition is produced. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • function
  • Enhance/regulate immune system function. (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • Regulate immune function/prevent auto-immune problems. (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • Finally, a dynamic model about the allosteric regulation and conformational changes of HCV NS3/4A protein was proposed and could provide fundamental insights into the allosteric mechanism of HCV NS3/4A protein function regulation and design of new potent inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • This method may also allow analysis of how PP pDCs affect the frequency or function of other immune subsets in PPs. (jove.com)
  • allosteric
  • Here, we aimed to provide some insight into the inhibitor binding mode and allosteric regulation mechanism of HCV NS3/4A protein by using computational methods. (jove.com)
  • specific
  • Tetraspanins are integral transmembrane proteins organized in microdomains displaying specific and direct interactions with other tetraspanins and molecular partners. (mdpi.com)
  • promotes
  • NSs induces a shut-off of host transcription including interferon (IFN)-beta mRNA 7,8 and promotes degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) at the post-translational level. (jove.com)
  • expression
  • The signaling of these TLRs is kept under tight control by the expression of endogenous inhibiting proteins such as RP105, a recently identified homolog of TLR4. (blogspot.com)
  • role
  • Further residue interaction network analysis suggests the communication of the domain-domain interface play an important role in the transition from closed to open conformation of HCV NS3/4A protein. (jove.com)
  • present
  • The methods utilize one or more administrations of HCV protein compositions, followed by one or more administrations of a viral vector comprising a nucleic acid encoding a least one HCV epitope that is present in the first composition. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • human
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef): What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants? (mdpi.com)
  • association
  • Palmitoylated tetraspanins are important for the assembly of the tetraspanin web by linking tetraspanins and their associated proteins in cholesterol rich regions of the plasma membrane and by their association with proteins of the cytoskeleton and signaling molecules [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • important
  • The N-terminal domain forms an alpha helix containing positively charged residues important for protein interactions, as well as palmitoylation sites causing anchorage of the protein to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. (mdpi.com)
  • contain
  • Negative-stain electron microscopy revealed that the particles were spherical (~40- to 75-nm diameter) and pleomorphic and that some of them contain HCV E2 protein and apolipoprotein E on their surfaces. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • time
  • Cell-free culture supernatants, protein lysates and total RNA were harvested at various time points post-transfection to assess HCV growth. (jove.com)