• Algorithms
  • Various algorithms have been applied in image processing , medicine, three-dimensional statistical data security problems, computer tomograph assisted engineering and design, electron microscopy and materials science, including the 3DXRD microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the actual algorithms for performing digital image processing had been around for some time, it was not until the significant computing power needed to perform these analyses became available at reasonable prices that digital imaging techniques could be brought to bear in the mainstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measurements saved for each particle are then used to generate image population statistics, or as inputs to algorithms for filtering and sorting the particles into groups of similar types. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it is a digital camera or a frame grabber is present, the image can now be saved in digital format, and image processing algorithms can be used to isolate particles in the field of view and measure them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diffeomorphic mapping is a broad term that actually refers to a number of different algorithms, processes, and methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first algorithm for dense image mapping via diffeomorphic metric mapping was Beg's LDDMM for volumes and Joshi's landmark matching for point sets with correspondence, with LDDMM algorithms now available for computing diffeomorphic metric maps between non-corresponding landmarks and landmark matching intrinsic to spherical manifolds, curves, currents and surfaces, tensors, varifolds, and time-series. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, however, the classical interference microscope (in particular the Mach-Zehnder instrument) has been "rediscovered" by biologists because its main original disadvantage (difficult interpretation of translated interference bands or complex coloured images) can now be easily surmounted by means of digital camera image recording, followed by the application of computer algorithms which rapidly deliver the processed data as false-colour images of projected dry mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in the 1970s formed the early foundations for many of the computer vision algorithms that exist today, including extraction of edges from images, labeling of lines, non-polyhedral and polyhedral modeling, representation of objects as interconnections of smaller structures, optical flow, and motion estimation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopy
  • The challenge, however, is that Prochlorococcus, the most abundant cyanobacterium in the sea, is readily visible in infrared images but not visible in the initial cyanobacterial images obtained by epifluorescence microscopy because its emission signals are masked by brighter fluorescence from larger cells like Synechococcus coexisting in seawater samples. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Given the above, the primary method for imaging particle analysis is using optical microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallographic image processing (CIP) is traditionally understood as being a set of key steps in the determination of the atomic structure of crystalline matter from high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images obtained in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) that is run in the parallel illumination mode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the late 1990s, analogous and complementary image processing techniques that are directed towards the achieving of goals with are either complementary or entirely beyond the scope of the original inception of CIP have been developed independently by members of the computational symmetry/geometry, scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy communities, and applied crystallography communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interference microscopy became relatively popular in the 1940-1970 decades but fell into disuse because of the complexity of the instrument and difficulties in both its use and in the interpretation of image data. (wikipedia.org)
  • reconstruction
  • Forensic facial reconstruction (or forensic facial approximation) is the process of recreating the face of an individual (whose identity is often not known) from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, forensic science, anthropology, osteology, and anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • These programs may help speed the reconstruction process and allow subtle variations to be applied to the drawing, though they may produce more generic images than hand-drawn artwork. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discrete tomography focuses on the problem of reconstruction of binary images (or finite subsets of the integer lattice) from a small number of their projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • A special case of discrete tomography deals with the problem of the reconstruction of a binary image from a small number of projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of MRI, signals with different spatial encodings that are required for the reconstruction of a full image need to be acquired by generating multiple signals - usually in a repetitive way using multiple radio-frequency excitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most recently, highly undersampled radial FLASH MRI acquisitions have been combined with an iterative image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion to achieve real-time MRI at a temporal resolution of 20 to 30 milliseconds for images with a spatial resolution of 1.5 to 2.0 millimeters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowadays two approaches are available to overcome this problem: one method is the exit-wave function reconstruction method, which requires several HREM images from the same area at different defocus and the other method is crystallographic image processing (CIP) which processes only a single HREM image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exit-wave function reconstruction provides an amplitude and phase image of the (effective) projected crystal potential over the whole field of view. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion one can say that the exit-wave function reconstruction method has most advantages for determining the (aperiodic) atomic structure of defects and small clusters and CIP is the method of choice if the periodic structure is in focus of the investigation or when defocus series of HREM images cannot be obtained, e.g. due to beam damage of the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reconstruction filter is then employed to extrapolate the appearance of the unrendered parts of the scene, with the final image then being presented to the viewer as (theoretically) the same as if it had been rendered natively at the target resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Functional MR imaging was conducted during tactile stimulation (brush strokes) of Digits II-III and IV-V of both hands, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2001. The term Surgical Process (SP) has been defined as a set of one or more linked procedures or activities that collectively realise a surgical objective within the context of an organisational structure defining functional roles and relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMRI
  • In the present study, we propose adding images from a third method, such as fMRI, to the fusion of CT and MRI. (scielo.br)
  • contrast
  • In addition to the objective lens defocus (which can easily be changed by the TEM operator), the thickness of the crystal under investigation has also a significant influence on the image contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990s
  • Toward the end of the 1990s, a significant change came about with the increased interaction between the fields of computer graphics and computer vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1977
  • Herman, Liu 7 (1977) developed this technique of image processing, which demanded a long interval for the rendering of images. (scielo.br)
  • Echo-planar imaging had been proposed by Mansfield's group in 1977, and the first crude images were shown by Mansfield and Ian Pykett in the same year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retina
  • Understanding in this context means the transformation of visual images (the input of the retina) into descriptions of the world that can interface with other thought processes and elicit appropriate action. (wikipedia.org)
  • statistical
  • This decade also marked the first time statistical learning techniques were used in practice to recognize faces in images (see Eigenface). (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • He recognized the value of objective analysis of digital fundus images for research and clinical practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • He developed a system for evaluating and standardizing images in clinical trials and was a principal investigator for the NEI-funded Complications of AMD Prevention Trial (CAPT). He was an expert on laser tissue interactions and worked on eye tracking laser systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. Berger JW, Yoken J. Computer-assisted quantitation of choroidal neovascularization for clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • reconstructions
  • Three-dimensional facial reconstructions are either: 1) sculptures (made from casts of cranial remains) created with modeling clay and other materials or 2) high-resolution, three-dimensional computer images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer programs create three-dimensional reconstructions by manipulating scanned photographs of the unidentified cranial remains, stock photographs of facial features, and other available reconstructions. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition
  • due to the acquisition technology ("roving zoom", i.e. a mobile zoom), the heart always appeared at the centre of the frame in all projections and in the sum image. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While this significantly speeded up the acquisition of particle measurements, it was still a tedious, labor-intensive process, which not only made it difficult to measure statistically significant particle populations, but also still introduced some degree of human error to the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Static image acquisition is the most common form. (wikipedia.org)
  • In static image acquisition only one field of view image is captured at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the combination of (i) a low-flip angle excitation which leaves unused longitudinal magnetization for an immediate next excitation with (ii) the acquisition of a gradient echo which does not need a further radio-frequency pulse that would affect the residual longitudinal magnetization, allows for the rapid repetition of the basic sequence interval and the resulting speed of the entire image acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLASH reduced the typical sequence interval to what is minimally required for imaging: a slice-selective radio-frequency pulse and gradient, a phase-encoding gradient, and a (reversed) frequency-encoding gradient generating the echo for data acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In either case, repetition times are as short as 2 to 10 milliseconds, so that the use of 64 to 256 repetitions results in image acquisition times of about 0.1 to 2.5 seconds for a two-dimensional image. (wikipedia.org)
  • The particular meaning of the data at the sample point depends on modality: for example a CT acquisition collects radiodensity values, while a MRI acquisition may collect T1 or T2-weighted images. (wikipedia.org)
  • segmentation
  • A gray scale thresholding process is used to perform image segmentation, segregating out the particles from the background, creating a binary image of each particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into different meaningful segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manual segmentation, using tools such as a paint brush to explicitly define the tissue class of each pixel, remains the gold standard for many imaging applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, variations of graph cut were used to solve image segmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • overlap
  • Care must be taken to insure that two images do not overlap so as not to count and measure the same particles more than once. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spirit of this discipline shares strong overlap with areas such as computer vision and kinematics of rigid bodies, where objects are studied by analysing the groups responsible for the movement in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two images can be a nuisance when they overlap, since they can severely affect the accuracy of mass thickness measurements. (wikipedia.org)
  • binary image
  • The problem of reconstructing a binary image from a small number of projections generally leads to a large number of solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgical
  • Laboratory Unit for Computer Assisted Surgery (LUCAS) is a system used for virtual surgical planning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Related surgical models can then be introduced into a new generation of Computer-Assisted Interventions systems to improve the management of complex multimodal information, improve surgical workflows, increase surgical efficiency and the quality of care in the OR. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Surgical Process Model (SPM) has been defined as a simplified pattern of an SP that reflects a predefined subset of interest of the SP in a formal or semi-formal representation. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE
  • In that case the positions of the atom columns appear as black blobs in the image (when the spherical aberration coefficient of the objective lens is positive - as always the case for uncorrected TEMs). (wikipedia.org)
  • digital
  • The distance the band was displaced was measured from superimposed digital images. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The protocol is distinguished by its use of time series observation, auto-imaging and digital analysis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Another example of computer-assisted gaming growing in popularity among role-playing game players is the use of a digital projector or flat screen monitors to present maps or other visual elements during game play. (wikipedia.org)
  • A form of discrete tomography also forms the basis of nonograms, a type of logic puzzle in which information about the rows and columns of a digital image is used to reconstruct the image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging particle analysis is a technique for making particle measurements using digital imaging, one of the techniques defined by the broader term particle size analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, beginning roughly in the late 1970s, CCD digital sensors for capturing images and computers which could process those images, began to revolutionize the process by using digital imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic process by which imaging particle analysis is carried out is as follows: A digital camera captures an image of the field of view in the optical system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital image processing techniques are used to perform image analysis operations, resulting in morphological and grey-scale measurements to be stored for each particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of set-up is often referred to as a digital microscope, although many systems using that name are used only for displaying an image on a monitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • What distinguished computer vision from the prevalent field of digital image processing at that time was a desire to extract three-dimensional structure from images with the goal of achieving full scene understanding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples
  • Examples of computer-assisted developments of the technique are found in the application of "DRIMAPS" from the laboratory of Graham Dunn and other recent developments of the methodology are described by Mahlmann et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Semi-automatic image analysis was used to make a morphometrical assessment of 15 nuclear and cellular variables in normal (n = 20) and malignant (n = 30) colorectal epithelium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS Overall 74% (range 50% to 90%) of the proximal and mid coronary artery segments were visualised with an image quality suitable for further analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Analysis of the wall motion was performed separately on the day after each dobutamine stress test (analysis A), and all images from the serial studies in the same patient were simultaneously retrieved and compared side-by-side in the same view (analysis B). The mean values of heart rate and blood pressure were comparable for each in the two studies except for the heart rate at rest. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Grading, image analysis, and stereopsis of digitally compressed fundus images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging particle analysis uses the techniques common to image analysis or image processing for the analysis of particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first dynamic imaging particle analysis system was patented in 1982. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a branch of the image analysis and pattern theory school at Brown University pioneered by Ulf Grenander. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer vision is concerned with the automatic extraction, analysis and understanding of useful information from a single image or a sequence of images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasound
  • Ultrasound images (spindle-shaped thickening, hypoechoic/hyperechoic lesions, neovascularizations) were analyzed in relation to the runners' anthropometrical data and history of Achilles tendon complaints. (biomedsearch.com)
  • principles
  • The two images are separated either laterally within the visual field or at different focal planes, as determined by the optical principles employed. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Those images can be processed by means of different protocols the 3D surface- and the 3D volume-rendering techniques 9 . (scielo.br)
  • Image data were analyzed with different programs, and the results were compared. (scielo.br)
  • If the user wishes to image other portions of the same sample on the slide, they can use the X-Y positioning hardware (typically composed of two linear stages on the microscope to move to a different area of the slide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thereby reconstructed crystal potential is corrected for aberration and delocalisation and also not affected by possible transfer gaps since several images with different defocus are processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • physics
  • This image understanding can be seen as the disentangling of symbolic information from image data using models constructed with the aid of geometry, physics, statistics, and learning theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • The term was created in the research group of Sven Hovmöller at Stockholm University during the early 1980s and became rapidly a label for the "3D crystal structure from 2D transmission/projection images" approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • approximation
  • Scherzer defocus ensures within the weak-phase object approximation a maximal contribution to the image of elastically scattered electrons that were scattered just once while contributions of doubly elastically scattered electrons to the image are optimally suppressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • axial
  • Axial slices obtained from CT are sent to an independent workstation, which utilizes an appropriate hardware and software to generate 3D images 1,2,3,4,6,13 . (scielo.br)
  • data
  • In some implementations the checkerboard grid will be alternated between frames, with the previous frame's image data being held in memory, and then used to aid with reconstructing the scene. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Therefore the plateau (maximum) count of the cyanobacterial cells in time series images rather than in the initial ones, as previously believed, represents the correct count for the total number of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus plus Prochlorococcus cells). (biomedsearch.com)
  • As faster computing resources became available at lowered costs, the task of making measurements from microscope images of particles could now be performed automatically by machine without human intervention, making it possible to measure significantly larger numbers of particles in much less time. (wikipedia.org)
  • RARE was slower, and echo-planar imaging (EPI) - for technical reasons - took even more time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longitudinal, time-varying acquisitions may or may not acquire images with regular time steps. (wikipedia.org)