• oxygen
  • Aviation physiology can also include the effect in humans and animals exposed for long periods of time inside pressurized cabins The other main issue with altitude is hypoxia, caused by both the lack of barometric pressure and the decrease in oxygen as the body rises. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia occurs when the bloodstream lacks oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) are likely to experience acute changes in both temperature and oxygen availability and, like many other organisms, exhibit behavioural selection of low temperatures during hypoxia that acts to reduce metabolism and alleviate the demands on the heart. (biologists.org)
  • Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) is not particularly hypoxia tolerant, but may encounter substantial variations in oxygen availability in both natural settings and when kept in aquaculture. (biologists.org)
  • The oxygen-rich ("red") blood then returns to the left heart, via the pulmonary veins, and is pumped through the aorta to the rest of the body, including the heart muscle itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus dysregulation of glycolysis is also implicated in the functional distribution of oxygen possibly leading to organ hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxemia has many causes, often respiratory disorders, and can cause tissue hypoxia as the blood is not supplying enough oxygen to the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxemia refers to low oxygen in the blood, and the more general term hypoxia is an abnormally low oxygen content in any tissue or organ, or the body as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical citation needed] Severe hypoxia can lead to respiratory failure Hypoxemia refers to insufficient oxygen in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen and carbon dioxide receptors in the blood stream (called chemoreceptors) send nerve impulses to the brain, which then signals for reflexive opening of the larynx (enlarging the opening between the vocal cords) and movements of the rib cage muscles and diaphragm. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the episode of apnea, breathing may be faster and/or more intense (hyperpnea) for a period of time, a compensatory mechanism to blow off retained waste gases, absorb more oxygen, and, when voluntary, enable a return to normal instinctive breathing patterns by restoring oxygen to the breathing muscles themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy needed to perform short lasting, high intensity bursts of activity is derived from anaerobic metabolism within the cytosol of muscle cells, as opposed to aerobic respiration which utilizes oxygen, is sustainable, and occurs in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • pulmonary
  • On the other hand, cardiac patients often develop pulmonary congestion, which may reduce lung compliance, stimulate J receptors and induce rapid and shallow ventilation (14-16) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • Decreased cardiac output and pulmonary congestion in cardiac patients may cause changes in the distribution of ventilation and perfusion in the lungs (ventilation-perfusion mismatch), leading to an increased ratio of physiologic dead space to tidal volume (7,17,18) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • The vasoconstriction of the pulmonary arterioles is caused by hypoxia in the right portion of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • rainbow trout
  • The importance of suppressing cardiac demands is well illustrated by the finding that the 70% reduction in force production by anoxic myocardial strips from rainbow trout occurs faster, albeit ultimately to the same extent, at 20°C compared with 10°C ( Hartmund and Gesser, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • severe
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and progressive muscle wasting disorder for which no cure is available. (jove.com)
  • occurs
  • In the United States, cardiac arrest outside hospital occurs in about 13 per 10,000 people per year (326,000 cases). (wikipedia.org)
  • In hospital cardiac arrest occurs in an additional 209,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no effort made to breathe during the pause in breathing: there are no chest movements and no muscular struggling, although when awakening occurs in the middle of a pause, the inability to immediately operate the breathing muscles often results in cognitive struggle accompanied by a feeling of panic exacerbated by the feeling associated with excessive blood CO2 levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidosis
  • The combined effect of hypoxia and hypercapnia act as a strong stimulus whose main consequence is to increase lactic acid and hydrogen ions production, and therefore to provoke a strong acidosis in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reduction in acidosis would be due to an improvement in buffer capacity at the muscle level. (wikipedia.org)
  • By delaying acidosis, hypoventilation training would also delay the onset of fatigue and would therefore improve performance during strenuous exertions of short to moderate durations. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • The carbon monoxide tolerance level for any person is altered by several factors, including activity level, rate of ventilation, a pre-existing cerebral or cardiovascular disease, cardiac output, anemia, sickle cell disease and other hematological disorders, barometric pressure, and metabolic rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • To assess the in vivo effects of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of muscle disease 1,2,3 , quantitative methods are needed that measure force generation and fatigability in treated muscle. (jove.com)
  • onset of fatigue
  • however, prolonged exercise or sufficiently intense exercise can result in an imbalance leaning towards a higher rate of disposal than appearance, at which point glucose levels fall producing the onset of fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • stroke
  • Cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume and sympathetic modulation to the heart are greater when exercise with hypoventilation is performed in running or cycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stroke volume is not greatly affected by immersion or variation in ambient pressure but slowed heartbeat reduces the overall cardiac output, particularly due to the diving reflex in breath-hold diving. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, studies which focus on a moderate level of alcohol consumption have concluded that there can be substantial health benefits from its use, such as decreased risk of cardiac disease, stroke and cognitive decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. (jove.com)
  • They demonstrated that through hypoventilation at low lung volume, that is the exhale-hold technique, it was possible, without leaving sea level, to decrease O2 concentrations in the blood and in the muscles at levels corresponding to altitudes above 2000 m. (wikipedia.org)
  • When exercise is being performed, if the exhale-hold technique is properly applied, a decrease in O2 concentrations and an increase in CO2 concentrations occur in the lungs, the blood and the muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] A candidate must hold a current paramedic license and have active certifications in Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS/PEPP), Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS/ITLS), and other advanced certifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • output
  • We measured end-tidal CO 2 pressure (PETCO 2 ) during exercise and investigated the relationship between PETCO 2 and exercise capacity, ventilatory parameters and cardiac output to determine the mechanism(s) of changes in this parameter. (onlinejacc.org)
  • PETCO 2 in relation to cardiac output was similar in patients and normal subjects. (onlinejacc.org)
  • PETCO 2 was correlated with exercise capacity and cardiac output during exercise, and the sensitivity and specificity of PETCO 2 regarding decreased cardiac output were good. (onlinejacc.org)
  • PETCO 2 may be a new ventilatory abnormality marker that reflects impaired cardiac output response to exercise in cardiac patients diagnosed with heart failure. (onlinejacc.org)
  • At different altitudes the body may react in different ways, provoking more cardiac output, and producing more erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without organized electrical activity in the heart muscle, there is no consistent contraction of the ventricles, which results in the heart's inability to generate an adequate cardiac output (forward pumping of blood from heart to rest of the body). (wikipedia.org)
  • hindlimb
  • We describe a detailed approach to evaluating myo-mechanical properties in freshly explanted hindlimb muscle from the mouse. (jove.com)
  • blood
  • Thus, during exercise with hypoventilation, the blood and muscle acid-base homeostasis is highly disturbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cases have shown that the most common finding at postmortem examination of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is chronic high-grade stenosis of at least one segment of a major coronary artery, the arteries that supply the heart muscle with its blood supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • A normal coronary artery transports blood to and from the heart muscle itself, not through the main circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the ability to perform useful work like staying afloat declines substantially after ten minutes as the body protectively cuts off blood flow to "non-essential" muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • If blood is allowed to pool in the lower areas of the body, the brain will be deprived of blood, leading to temporary hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • Sudden cardiac arrest can result from cardiac and non-cardiac causes including the following: Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease, is responsible for 62 to 70 percent of all SCDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Certain types of prompt intervention can often reverse a cardiac arrest, but without such intervention the event will almost always lead to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is often recognized initially through signs of muscle weakness and exercise intolerance, suggesting rapid muscular fatigue and damage, likely directly related to ATP depletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • This analysis provides a method for quantitative comparison between therapeutic interventions in mouse models of muscle disease 1,2,3,5 , as well as comparison of the effects of genetic modification on muscle function 6,7,8,9 . (jove.com)
  • One type of hypoxia related syndrome is mountaineering disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common cause of cardiac arrest is coronary artery disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • variations
  • We analyzed two tissues providing complementary insights: one with isotopic turnover (muscle) and one that keeps a permanent record of variations in isotopic values (baleen plates). (jove.com)
  • contraction
  • The interaction of myosin and actin is responsible for muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounds the myofibrils and holds a reserve of the calcium ions needed to cause a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • T tubules are the pathways for action potentials to signal the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium, causing a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • With improvement in muscle function being the most important end point in these trials, a lot of emphasis has been placed on setting up reliable, reproducible, and easy to perform functional tests to pre clinically assess muscle function, strength, condition, and coordination in the mdx mouse model for DMD. (jove.com)
  • Every single organelle and macromolecule of a muscle fiber is arranged to ensure form meets function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longitudinal architecture The fascicles of longitudinally arranged, parallel, or fusiform muscles run parallel to the axis of force generation, thus these muscles on a whole function similarly to a single, large muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • The myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin filaments, repeated in units called sarcomeres, which are the basic functional units of the muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • However, if a big body is isometrically downscaled to a small body, the latter requires higher joint angular velocities to achieve a given takeoff velocity and work production will be more impaired by the force-velocity relationship of muscle. (jove.com)
  • These changes cause more energy waste in the body, causing muscle fatigue, but this varies depending on the level of the altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • exercise
  • It is unclear whether PETCO 2 is abnormal at rest and during exercise in cardiac patients. (onlinejacc.org)
  • PETCO 2 was below normal in cardiac patients at rest and during exercise. (onlinejacc.org)
  • These cells are normally quiescent but can be activated by exercise or pathology to provide additional myonuclei for muscle growth or repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction takes place during low energy situations such as extreme exercise or conditions of hypoxia, but is not a significant source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • coronary artery
  • A single obstruction of the left main coronary artery is associated with a higher risk for a cardiac death and usually receives a double bypass. (wikipedia.org)
  • varies
  • Because of these different architectures, the tension a muscle can create between its tendons varies by more than simply its size and fiber-type makeup. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • Muscle architecture refers to the arrangement of muscle fibers relative to the axis of force generation of the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, fusiform refers to a longitudinal architecture with a widened muscle belly (biceps), while parallel may refer to a more ribon-shaped longitudinal architecture (rectus abdominis). (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • A g-suit does not so much increase the g-threshold, but makes it possible to sustain high g longer without excessive physical fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Another group of cells, the myosatellite cells are found between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of muscle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development Individual muscle fibers are formed during development from the fusion of several undifferentiated immature cells known as myoblasts into long, cylindrical, multi-nucleated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapid
  • Here, we present a study design for a minimally invasive and rapid assessment of cardiac autonomic control in children, using a validated ambulatory device 1-5 , the VU University Ambulatory Monitoring System (VU-AMS, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, www.vu-ams.nl). (jove.com)