• estrogen
  • A surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) is precipitated by a fall in estrogen:progesterone ratio and is responsible for ovulation and luteinization of follicular theca and/or granulosa cells to luteal cells which produce progesterone. (vin.com)
  • In females, the positive feedback loop between estrogen and luteinizing hormone help to prepare the follicle in the ovary and the uterus for ovulation and implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absolute contraindications - those that can cause life-threatening complications, and in which hormone replacement therapy should never be used - include histories of estrogen-sensitive cancer (e.g., breast cancer), thrombosis or embolism (unless the patient receives concurrent anticoagulants), or macroprolactinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogen is one of the two major sex hormones in women (the other being progesterone), and is responsible for the development and maintenance of feminine secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, wide hips, and a feminine pattern of fat distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormone that dominates female development is an estrogen called estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • Ejaculated spermatozoa can be stored in a reservoir in the tubular tract, which may be the uterus, uterine glands or the oviduct, for 2 to 5 (and reported up to 11 days) - this seems to vary with individual dogs and bitches. (vin.com)
  • Estradiol is responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as the breasts, widening of the hips, and a feminine pattern of fat distribution in women and is important in the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues such as the mammary glands, uterus, and vagina during puberty, adulthood, and pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It opposes the effects of estrogens in various parts of the body like the uterus and also blocks the effects of the hormone aldosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • While estradiol promotes growth of the breasts and uterus, it is also the principal hormone driving the pubertal growth spurt and epiphyseal maturation and closure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxytocin is released into the bloodstream as a hormone in response to stretching of the cervix and uterus during labor and with stimulation of the nipples from breastfeeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • steroid hormones
  • By considering that all steroid hormones before mentioned, are also produced via intracrine synthesis by the inflammatory cells (ie. (bmj.com)
  • steroid hormones, being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells (both cytoplasmic and nuclear) to act within their nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1) inhibitors such as aminoglutethimide, ketoconazole, and mitotane inhibit the production of pregnenolone from cholesterol and thereby prevent the synthesis of all steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) inhibitors such as amphenone B, azastene, cyanoketone, epostane, mitotane, and trilostane inhibit the conversion of Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroids into Δ4-3-ketosteroids and thereby inhibit the production of most of the steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH
  • Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreted from hypothalamic nuclei into the portal hypophyseal circulation causes pulsatile release of stored pituitary gonadotrophins inducing steroid synthesis and gametogenesis by the gonad. (vin.com)
  • Inhibin acts to inhibit activin, which is a peripherally produced hormone that positively stimulates GnRH-producing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In males, the production of GnRH, LH, and FSH are similar, but the effects of these hormones are different. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • After a hormone is discharged by its parent gland into the capillaries or the lymph, it may travel a circuitous path through the bloodstream to exert influence on cells, tissues, and organs (target organs) far removed from its site of origin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Non-tropic hormones are those that act directly on targeted tissues or cells, and not on other endocrine gland to stimulate release of other hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, cortisol (non-tropic) is secreted from the adrenal glands and goes into the bloodstream where it can have more widespread effects on organs and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cortisol is what finally reaches other tissues in the body, it is a non-tropic hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatotropic hormone or Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone that stimulates growth of all body tissues but especially skeletal muscle and bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The finding of significant amounts of this classically "neurohypophysial" hormone outside the central nervous system raises many questions regarding its possible importance in these different tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxytocin
  • Oxytocin and vasopressin (also called anti-diuretic hormone), the two neurohypophysial hormones of the posterior pituitary gland (the neurohypophysis), are secreted from the nerve endings of magnocellular neurosecretory cells into the systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurohypophysis stores and releases two hypothalamic hormones: Oxytocin stimulates powerful uterine contractions, which trigger labor and delivery of an infant, and milk ejection in nursing women. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • Gonadal dysgenesis is any congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system characterized by a progressive loss of germ cells on the developing gonads of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the female, estradiol acts as a growth hormone for tissue of the reproductive organs, supporting the lining of the vagina, the cervical glands, the endometrium, and the lining of the fallopian tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid dysfunction can halt ovulation by upsetting the balance of the body's natural reproductive hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) protein is a transcription factor involved in sex determination by controlling activity of genes related to the reproductive glands or gonads and adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth hormone
  • Growth hormone releasing factor and growth hormone fall into this category -- being released in a pulse lasting for minutes in the middle of the night. (ceri.com)
  • Growth hormone is secreted in pulses, which arise from alternating episodes of GHRH release and somatostatin release, which may reflect neuronal interactions between the GHRH and somatostatin cells, and negative feedback from growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterine
  • These hormone levels also control the uterine (menstrual) cycle causing the proliferation phase in preparation for ovulation, the secretory phase after ovulation, and menstruation when conception does not occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • One of the best-known endocrine hormones is insulin , a protein manufactured by the beta cells of the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas that is important in carbohydrate metabolism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is. (wikipedia.org)
  • stress hormones
  • The shrinking of the thymic cortex (the outer layer of the thymus gland) which normally occurs with aging -- and is experimentally accelerated by adrenal stress hormones -- is not prevented by concomitant melatonin administration. (ceri.com)
  • Glucocorticoids, including hormones such as cortisol and corticosterone, are highly involved in the stress response, and are often referred to as the stress hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since they are involved in arousal, stress, and often physical exercise some of these hormones are also called stress hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Hormones act as chemical messengers to body organs, stimulating certain life processes and retarding others. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A hormone (from the Greek participle "ὁρμῶ", "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy for transgender
  • citation needed] Hormone therapy for transgender individuals has been shown in medical literature to be safe when supervised by a qualified medical professional. (wikipedia.org)
  • MPA has also been prescribed in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women due to its progestogenic and antigonadotropic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • released into the bloodstream
  • Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others are prohormones that must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • thyroid hormones
  • Thyroid tissue consists of follicles with stored protein called colloid, containing thyroglobulin, a precursor to other thyroid hormones, which are manufactured within the colloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thyroid hormones increase the rate of cellular metabolism, and include thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). (wikipedia.org)
  • bloodstream
  • these are blood-borne substances [clarification needed] [author means via bloodstream and not by the lymphatic system nor air, nor any other modes of transport] released by hypothalamic neurons into blood vessels at the base of the brain, at the median eminence. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormonal
  • For this reason, in gonadal dysgenesis the accompanying hormonal failure also prevents the development of secondary sex characteristics in either sex, resulting in a sexually infantile female appearance and infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, vitamin D, via its active hormonal metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3 (D hormone), regulates both innate and adaptive immunity, potentiating the innate response (monocytes/macrophages with antimicrobial activity and antigen presentation) but suppressing adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocyte functions). (bmj.com)
  • The pituitary gland controls most other hormonal glands in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • It is a progestogen and is used in combination with estrogens mainly in hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms and low sex hormone levels in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Blood levels rise sharply at the beginning of sleep so this hormone can be a regulatory element in the circadian rhythms of the immune system (1). (bmj.com)
  • Introducing exogenous hormones into the body impacts it at every level and many patients report changes in energy levels, mood, appetite, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • pineal gland
  • Another important part of the circadian mechanism is provided by the pineal gland and the pineal hormone melatonin. (ceri.com)
  • protein
  • to allow for their widespread distribution, these hormones must bond to carrier plasma glycoproteins (e.g., thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) to form ligand-protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)