• estrogen
  • A surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) is precipitated by a fall in estrogen:progesterone ratio and is responsible for ovulation and luteinization of follicular theca and/or granulosa cells to luteal cells which produce progesterone. (vin.com)
  • In females, the positive feedback loop between estrogen and luteinizing hormone help to prepare the follicle in the ovary and the uterus for ovulation and implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the sex hormones, estrogen from the ovaries and androgen from the testes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The suppression of gonadal function may also be attributed to elevated CRH by its ability to inhibit hypothalamic LHRH release, although it could act also directly on the ovary by inhibiting FSH-stimulated estrogen production. (prohealth.com)
  • Estrogen and progesterone bind to their cognate nuclear hormone receptors, which translocate to the cell nucleus and interact with regions of DNA known as hormone response elements (HREs) or get tethered to another transcription factor's binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absolute contraindications - those that can cause life-threatening complications, and in which hormone replacement therapy should never be used - include histories of estrogen-sensitive cancer (e.g., breast cancer), thrombosis or embolism (unless the patient receives concurrent anticoagulants), or macroprolactinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogen is one of the two major sex hormones in women (the other being progesterone), and is responsible for the development and maintenance of feminine secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, wide hips, and a feminine pattern of fat distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progesterone is used in combination with an estrogen as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with up to extremely high doses of ethinylestradiol (fourteen 100-µg patches per week) had no effect on any of his symptoms of hypoestrogenism, did not produce any estrogenic effects such as gynecomastia, and had no effect on any of his physiological parameters (e.g., hormone levels or bone parameters), suggesting a profile of complete estrogen insensitivity syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormone that dominates female development is an estrogen called estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • MPA is also prescribed in combination with an estrogen to prevent endometrial hyperplasia in post-menopausal women who are undergoing menopausal hormone therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • Ejaculated spermatozoa can be stored in a reservoir in the tubular tract, which may be the uterus, uterine glands or the oviduct, for 2 to 5 (and reported up to 11 days) - this seems to vary with individual dogs and bitches. (vin.com)
  • It opposes the effects of estrogens in various parts of the body like the uterus and also blocks the effects of the hormone aldosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • While estradiol promotes growth of the breasts and uterus, it is also the principal hormone driving the pubertal growth spurt and epiphyseal maturation and closure. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulates
  • Somatotropic hormone or Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone that stimulates growth of all body tissues but especially skeletal muscle and bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • LH stimulates gonadal hormone production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurohypophysis stores and releases two hypothalamic hormones: Oxytocin stimulates powerful uterine contractions, which trigger labor and delivery of an infant, and milk ejection in nursing women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb and conserve water, resulting in small volumes of highly concentrated urine and decreased plasma osmolarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxytocin
  • In mammals, magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus produce neurohypophysial hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxytocin and vasopressin (also called anti-diuretic hormone), the two neurohypophysial hormones of the posterior pituitary gland (the neurohypophysis), are secreted from the nerve endings of magnocellular neurosecretory cells into the systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • A hormone (from the Greek participle "ὁρμῶ", "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • The history of efforts to understand the factors that regulate cyclic gonadal function actually starts with research on a somewhat different problem. (springer.com)
  • cortisol
  • a tropic hormone) is inhibited, cortisol can no longer be released because the chain reaction has been interrupted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids, including hormones such as cortisol and corticosterone, are highly involved in the stress response, and are often referred to as the stress hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • This may lead to cell type-specific responses that include rapid non-genomic effects or slower genomic[disambiguation needed] responses where the hormones acting through their receptors activate gene transcription resulting in increased expression of target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, some vertebrate and invertebrate animals have provided "model systems" for research that have yielded valuable information on the nature of hormone receptors and the mechanisms of hormone action. (britannica.com)
  • neurons
  • We explain the deviations of hormonal secretion in FMS patients as being caused by chronic stress, which, after being perceived and processed by the central nervous system (CNS), activates hypothalamic CRH neurons. (prohealth.com)
  • these are blood-borne substances [clarification needed] [author means via bloodstream and not by the lymphatic system nor air, nor any other modes of transport] released by hypothalamic neurons into blood vessels at the base of the brain, at the median eminence. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterine
  • These hormone levels also control the uterine (menstrual) cycle causing the proliferation phase in preparation for ovulation, the secretory phase after ovulation, and menstruation when conception does not occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormonal
  • For this reason, in gonadal dysgenesis the accompanying hormonal failure also prevents the development of secondary sex characteristics in either sex, resulting in a sexually infantile female appearance and infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, vitamin D, via its active hormonal metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3 (D hormone), regulates both innate and adaptive immunity, potentiating the innate response (monocytes/macrophages with antimicrobial activity and antigen presentation) but suppressing adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocyte functions). (bmj.com)
  • Hormonal signaling involves the following steps: Biosynthesis of a particular hormone in a particular tissue Storage and secretion of the hormone Transport of the hormone to the target cell(s) Recognition of the hormone by an associated cell membrane or intracellular receptor protein Relay and amplification of the received hormonal signal via a signal transduction process: This then leads to a cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland controls most other hormonal glands in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • pubertal growth spurt
  • In females, estradiol induces breast development, widening of the hips, a feminine fat distribution (with fat deposited particularly in the breasts, hips, thighs, and buttocks), and maturation of the vagina and vulva, whereas it mediates the pubertal growth spurt (indirectly via increased growth hormone secretion) and epiphyseal closure (thereby limiting final height) in both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy for transgender
  • citation needed] Hormone therapy for transgender individuals has been shown in medical literature to be safe when supervised by a qualified medical professional. (wikipedia.org)
  • MPA has also been prescribed in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women due to its progestogenic and antigonadotropic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • estradiol
  • In the female, estradiol acts as a growth hormone for tissue of the reproductive organs, supporting the lining of the vagina, the cervical glands, the endometrium, and the lining of the fallopian tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the menstrual cycle, estradiol produced by the growing follicles triggers, via a positive feedback system, the hypothalamic-pituitary events that lead to the luteinizing hormone surge, inducing ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Growth hormone releasing factor and growth hormone fall into this category -- being released in a pulse lasting for minutes in the middle of the night. (ceri.com)
  • Growth, reproduction, control of metabolic processes, sexual attributes, and even mental conditions and personality traits are dependent on hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others are prohormones that must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trophic hormones directly affect growth either as hyperplasia or hypertrophy on the tissue it is stimulating. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • Gonadal dysgenesis is any congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system characterized by a progressive loss of germ cells on the developing gonads of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid dysfunction can halt ovulation by upsetting the balance of the body's natural reproductive hormones. (wikipedia.org)