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  • blackout
  • Hyperventilation-induced blackout This is a recommended term for cases where hyperventilation is known or suspected to have been a contributing factor in either shallow water blackout or deep water blackout. (wikipedia.org)
  • This alone is enough to cause a blackout, but it is widely believed that the effect is enhanced if lung air pressure is increased by holding the breath "hard" or "bearing down" (tightening the diaphragm as in a forced exhalation while allowing no air to escape or having an assistant apply a bear-hug). (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Biot's respiration, in which breathing is rapid for a period and then absent for a period, occurs because of injury to the cerebral hemispheres or diencephalon. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • He was discharged at day 10 to home and at 3 weeks had a normal neurological examination except for a slight left eye droop with improved over the next 6 months. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • Central neurogenic hyperventilation (CNH) is an extremely rare neurological disorder that was initially reported by Fred Plum, MD and August G. Swanson, MD, in 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • 3,4 In humans, CO 2 reactivity is known to be depressed in patients with lacunar syndromes and cerebral small-vessel disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although it is known that l -arginine itself can temporarily increase cerebral blood flow, 10,11 it is not clear whether it affects CO 2 reactivity in humans and can improve impaired CO 2 reactivity in patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • metabolic
  • Afferent neurons from the peripheral chemoreceptors are via the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and the vagus nerve (CN X). Levels of CO2 rise in the blood when the metabolic use of O2,and the production of CO2 is increased during, for example, exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • Management of CE consists of general principles of stabilization of airway, breathing and circulation, as well as specific measures to reduce CE and preserve cerebral perfusion with corticosteroids, hyperosmolar therapy, management of underlying disorders and in certain instances, neurosurgical interventions such as drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and decompressive craniectomy. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • brain
  • an open, internet based trans-national collaborative infrastructure for supporting assessment of health care technologies in brain-injured patients, developing and testing an improved coordination structure/grant no. (springer.com)
  • patients
  • Heffner JE, Sahn SA (1983) Controlled hyperventilation in patients with intracranial hypertension. (springer.com)
  • Oertel M, Kelly DF, Lee JH, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Martin NA (2002) Can hyperventilation improve cerebral microcirculation in patients with high ICP? (springer.com)
  • To clarify whether these findings can be transferred to the clinical situation and have beneficial effects in patients, we studied the effects of l -arginine on CO 2 reactivity of the cerebral vessels in patients with impaired vasomotor reactivity (VMR) and compared them with patients with normal VMR. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the 22 patients with reduced VMR in the first examination (42±8%), VMR increased significantly after infusion of l -arginine (52±14%, P =0.005). (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 In patients, improvement in cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) was found after intake of pravastatin, an HMG CoA inhibitor leading to upregulation of endothelial NO synthase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly in the study, the legs were the most common affected part of the body and the attacks were reported as stiffening and cramps by those affected.During an episode of PED patients find walking nearly impossible.Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a two-fold increase of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid immediately following exercise compared to normal levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nausea
  • People with panic attacks often report a fear of dying or heart attack, flashing vision, faintness or nausea, numbness throughout the body, heavy breathing and hyperventilation, or loss of body control. (wikipedia.org)
  • chest
  • These include breathlessness, an increased rate of breathing, use of the chest and abdominal muscles to breathe, and lip pursing. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortex
  • It occurs due to failure of migration of a population of neuronal cells to their correct location in the cerebral cortex. (epilepsydiagnosis.org)
  • A single surface shock of the cerebral cortex induces a 10-20 ms negative potential, a manifestation of the summed excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked in the distal portions of the apical dendrite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first is the cerebral cortex-the gray matter that forms the outer layer of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cerebral cortex is a group of tight, dense, "gray matter" composed of the nuclei of the neurons whose axons then form the "white matter," and is responsible for perception, relay of the sensory input via the thalamic pathway, and many other neurological functions, including complex thinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Made up of a system of acetylcholine-producing neurons, the ascending track, or ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), works to arouse and wake up the brain, from the RF, through the thalamus, and then finally to the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemispheres
  • Biot's respiration, in which breathing is rapid for a period and then absent for a period, occurs because of injury to the cerebral hemispheres or diencephalon. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1875, Richard Caton (1842-1926), a physician practicing in Liverpool, presented his findings about electrical phenomena of the exposed cerebral hemispheres of rabbits and monkeys in the British Medical Journal. (wikipedia.org)
  • venous
  • one requires percutaneous insertion of a catheter into the jugular bulb to continuously measure cerebral venous oxygenation 1 and the other requires insertion of a probe through the cranium into the brain parenchyma to measure tissue Po 2 . (asahq.org)
  • A noninvasive monitor would greatly expand the population of surgical and critically ill patients in whom changes in cerebral venous saturation could be used to direct therapy and could permit earlier monitoring. (asahq.org)
  • For example, an increase in lesion volume (e.g. epidural hematoma) will be compensated by the downward displacement of CSF and venous blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemoglobin
  • Because hemoglobin is a darker red when it is not bound to oxygen (deoxyhemoglobin), as opposed to the rich red color that it has when bound to oxygen (oxyhemoglobin), when seen through the skin it has an increased tendency to reflect blue light back to the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • Both these methods work whether using mannitol (an osmotic diuretic that causes generalized dehydration and hypernatremia) or hypertonic saline (which increases sodium concentration directly). (pulmccm.org)
  • Calcium entry into the cell causes more prolonged depolarization and increased action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • volume
  • The volume of distribution of fosphenytoin increases with CEREBYX dose and rate, and ranges from 4.3 to 10.8 litres. (eci2012.net)
  • Their ribs are more horizontal and any increase in the volume of the thorax is due to downward movement of the diaphragm. (developinganaesthesia.org)
  • Difference in neurological outcome at 3 months, measured as modified Rankin Scale score, was analyzed (primary outcome) and early neurological improvement of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and cerebral infarction volume. (ahajournals.org)
  • diabetes
  • This may be because they were being used in people with type 1 diabetes, but in those with type 2 diabetes it may be as a result of an increase in glucagon levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Metabolically active gases have a greater effect in proportion to their concentration, which is proportional to their partial pressure, which for contaminants is increased in proportion to absolute ambient pressure. (wikipedia.org)