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  • cardiac hypertrophy
  • However, upon calcineurin activation or pressure overload-induced pathologic hypertrophy, MYOZ2-/- exhibited exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy, demonstrating that calsarcin-1 negatively modulates the function of calcineurin during pathologic hypertrophic remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of calsarcin-1 in mice (CS1Tg) was protective against Angiotensin II-induced pathologic cardiac hypertrophy, evidenced by preserved fractional shortening and contractility, as well as a blunted induction of the fetal hypertrophic gene program and significantly reduced expression of calcineurin-stimulated MCIP1.4 gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, these studies strongly support a role for calsarcin-1 in suppressing pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a disease model of cardiac hypertrophy, β-tropomyosin was shown to be reexpressed within two days following induction of pressure overload. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Three homologous genes have evolved in vertebrates, encoding three muscle type specific isoforms of TnT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence and epitope conservation studies suggested that genes encoding the muscle type specific TnT and TnI isoforms may have evolved from duplications of a fsTnI-like-fsTnT-like gene pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein sequence alignment demonstrated that TNNT1 genes are highly conserved among vertebrate species (Fig. 2), especially in the middle and C-terminal regions, while the three muscle type isoforms are significantly diverged among vertebrate species. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrates
  • There are three types of muscle tissue recognized in vertebrates: Skeletal muscle or "voluntary muscle" is anchored by tendons (or by aponeuroses at a few places) to bone and is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion and in maintaining posture. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNNT1 gene is specifically expressed in slow skeletal muscle of vertebrates, with one exception that dry land toad (Bufo) cardiac muscle expresses ssTnT other than cardiac TnT. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, there is a third muscle tissue recognized: Cardiac muscle (myocardium), found only in the heart, is a striated muscle similar in structure to skeletal muscle but not subject to voluntary control. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, motor neurons release acetylcholine (ACh), a small molecule neurotransmitter, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on the cell membrane of the muscle fiber, also known as the sarcolemma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter synthesized from dietary choline and acetyl-CoA (ACoA), and is involved in the stimulation of muscle tissue in vertebrates as well as in some invertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • circulation
  • This occludes circulation to the muscle, creating a hypoxic environment similar to blood flow restricted exercise. (t-nation.com)
  • The ventricles are stronger and thicker than the atria, and the muscle wall surrounding the left ventricle is thicker than the wall surrounding the right ventricle due to the higher force needed to pump the blood through the systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycogen
  • Likewise, if one mainly utilizes glucose for energy during cardio (i.e. high intensity cardio) the body will customarily rely on fat at other times of the day in order to spare muscle glycogen. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Training in and of itself causes the body to preferentially spare muscle glycogen and burn fat. (anabolicminds.com)
  • types
  • The basic unit of activity in the two main fiber types is the "twitch," in which a single action potential (AP) on the fiber's surface membrane elicits a brief contractile response. (rupress.org)
  • Many types of training educe muscle hypertrophy. (ideafit.com)
  • Underlying this greater neural input are the motor unit recruitment patterns of muscle fiber types (see Figure 1 for an explanation of motor unit recruitment). (ideafit.com)
  • Mice lacking the MYOZ2 gene (MYOZ2-/-) are generally sensitized to calcineurin signaling in both muscle types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle tissue is a soft tissue, and is one of the four fundamental types of tissue present in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Training commonly uses the technique of progressively increasing the force output of the muscle through incremental weight increases and uses a variety of exercises and types of equipment to target specific muscle groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • These muscle types may be activated both through interaction of the central nervous system as well as by receiving innervation from peripheral plexus or endocrine (hormonal) activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different muscle types vary in their response to neurotransmitters and endocrine substances such as acetylcholine, noradrenalin, adrenalin, nitric oxide and among others depending on muscle type and the exact location of the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, muscle tissue can be described as being one of three different types: Skeletal muscle, striated in structure and under voluntary control, is anchored by tendons (or by aponeuroses at a few places) to bone and is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion and to maintain posture. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of cardiac muscle cell: cardiomyocytes which have the ability to contract easily, and modified cardiomyocytes the pacemaker cells of the conducting system. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • In order for the body and the muscles to grow, a steady supply of nutrients must be supplied via the foods we eat. (mensfitclub.com)
  • Well, with HST you're absolutely destroying your muscles and they need as much energy and nutrients as possible. (mensfitclub.com)
  • Ideally, immediately following your workout, you should consume some carbohydrates in order to create an insulin spike, which feeds the muscles with large doses of vital energy and nutrients. (mensfitclub.com)
  • The benefits are that these nutrients induce fat storage, but will rather be stored in muscle tissue. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Why would you want to deny your muscles nutrients at the most crucial time of the day, but then provide them during rest? (anabolicminds.com)
  • We also want to fill those muscles with blood and fluids to get the nutrients in there to encourage muscle growth and get the biggest, veiniest and most gnarly pump ever experienced. (tigerfitness.com)
  • This is meant to hit your slow twitch muscles and drive blood and nutrients into the muscle while creating a pump that will make you feel as if your skin is about to split! (tigerfitness.com)
  • actin
  • Tropomysin is a flexible protein homodimer or heterodimer composed of two alpha-helical chains, which adopt a bent coiled coil conformation to wrap around the seven actin molecules in a functional unit of muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscle weakness observed in these patients may be due to a change in mutated TPM2 affinity for actin or decreased calcium-induced activation of contractility. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Too high of a turnover rate makes it hard to gain muscle, unless you consume around two grams of protein per pound of bodyweight and a large caloric surplus). (t-nation.com)
  • mice
  • The term muscle is derived from the Latin musculus meaning "little mouse" perhaps because of the shape of certain muscles or because contracting muscles look like mice moving under the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Older people who take up weight training can prevent some of the loss of muscle tissue that normally accompanies aging-and even regain some functional strength-and by doing so become less frail. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanical
  • While mechanical tension is indisputably a primary major driver of muscle growth, there's compelling evidence that a significant exercise-induced metabolite buildup plays a role as well (11). (t-nation.com)
  • strength
  • Do some heavy sets to keep building strength and then use some of your hypertrophy sets to gain some size. (anabolicminds.com)
  • These people are characterized by a very high ratio of fast-twitch motor units which have a greater potential for hypertrophy and are better suited to respond well to strength training. (t-nation.com)
  • This rep scheme hits your fast twitch muscle fibers responsible mainly for strength and power, but also plays a role in hypertrophy via progressive overload. (tigerfitness.com)
  • For many people in rehabilitation or with an acquired disability, such as following stroke or orthopaedic surgery, strength training for weak muscles is a key factor to optimise recovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Cytokines are messaging proteins from the immune system that interact with specialized receptors on muscle to promote tissue growth. (ideafit.com)
  • A popular claim is that an optimal TUT for maximizing muscle growth requires training with sets that last in the range of 30 to 60 seconds. (t-nation.com)
  • Although the exact mechanisms aren't clear, research shows that an intermittent hypoxic state enhances muscle growth (9). (t-nation.com)
  • These people do have an important muscle growth potential due to their fast-twitch dominance (hence the "easy" gainer part) but in reality this potential is often hard to actualize because of their active metabolisms (hence the "hard" gainer part). (t-nation.com)
  • high
  • Common methods for training include periodization, intervals, hard easy, long slow distance, and in recent years high-intensity interval training. (wikipedia.org)
  • fats
  • Cortisol will liberate amino acids to produce glucose (glucose cannot be synthesized from fats) and can lead to muscle loss. (anabolicminds.com)
  • gains
  • According to this theory, sets of longer or shorter duration will be suboptimal for muscle gains. (t-nation.com)
  • calcium
  • The N-terminal EF-hand domain of RLC binds calcium/magnesium at activating concentrations, however the dissociation rate is too slow to modulate cardiac contractility on a beat-by-beat basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perturbing the calcium binding region of RLC through site-directed mutagenesis (D47A) decreased tension and stiffness in isolated, skinned skeletal muscle fibers, suggesting that the conformational change induced by calcium binding to RLC is functionally important. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is well established that RLC phosphorylation enhances myofilament sensitivity to calcium in isometrically-contracting, skinned cardiac fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Heterozygous mutations in TPM2 have been identified in patients with congenital cap myopathy, a rare disorder defined by cap-like structures in muscle fiber periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in TPM2 have also been associated with nemaline myopathy, a rare disorder characterized by muscle weakness and nemaline bodies, as well as distal arthrogryposis. (wikipedia.org)
  • stronger
  • Stronger muscles improve posture, provide better support for joints, and reduce the risk of injury from everyday activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • The exercise-induced stimulus from resistance exercise activates a complex response of cellular messaging pathways, cytokines and hormones that set muscle hypertrophy in motion (see Figure 2). (ideafit.com)
  • weights
  • Many people believe you simply have to lift weights in a gym to build muscle, but the truth is that you also have to spend a great deal of time getting your diet and nutrition just right before you see any results. (mensfitclub.com)
  • mitochondria
  • Central cardiovascular adaptations include decreased heart rate, increased stroke volume of the heart, increased blood plasma, without any major changes in red blood cell count, which reduces blood viscosity and increased cardiac output as well as total mitochondrial volume in the muscle fibers used in the training (i.e. the thigh muscles in runners will have more mitochondria than the thigh muscles of swimmers). (wikipedia.org)
  • stiffness
  • Perturbing the calcium binding region of RLC through site-directed mutagenesis (D47A) decreased tension and stiffness in isolated, skinned skeletal muscle fibers, suggesting that the conformational change induced by calcium binding to RLC is functionally important. (wikipedia.org)
  • tendons
  • Skeletal muscles are attached (with some exceptions, such as the muscles of the tongue and pharynx) to the skeleton by means of tendons, usually in pairs that pull in opposite directions, e.g., the biceps biceps , any muscle having two heads, or fixed ends of attachment, notably the biceps brachii at the front of the upper arm and the biceps femoris in the thigh. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The epimysium anchors muscle tissue to tendons at each end, where the epimysium becomes thicker and collagenous. (wikipedia.org)
  • myocytes
  • Muscle cells (myocytes) are elongated cells ranging from several millimetres to about 10 centimetres in length and from 10 to 100 micrometres in width. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin
  • The muscle weakness observed in these patients may be due to a change in mutated TPM2 affinity for actin or decreased calcium-induced activation of contractility. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Heterozygous mutations in TPM2 have been identified in patients with congenital cap myopathy, a rare disorder defined by cap-like structures in muscle fiber periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anatomy of muscles includes gross anatomy, which comprises all the muscles of an organism, and microanatomy, which comprises the structures of a single muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smooth muscle or "involuntary muscle" is found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, urethra, bladder, blood vessels, and the arrector pili in the skin (in which it controls erection of body hair). (wikipedia.org)
  • myofilaments
  • Consistent with the recessive phenotype, the truncated ssTnT is incapable of incorporation into the myofilaments and completely degraded in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • While sit-ups are the most widely applied abdominal exercise, abdominal workout programs that require your abs to tighten in order to keep you well-balanced will produce splendid end results because these workouts will work the smaller and difficult to tone muscles in your abdominal area. (competitiondiet.org)
  • Stronger
  • Stronger muscles improve posture, provide better support for joints, and reduce the risk of injury from everyday activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ventricles are stronger and thicker than the atria, and the muscle wall surrounding the left ventricle is thicker than the wall surrounding the right ventricle due to the higher force needed to pump the blood through the systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In striated and smooth muscle cells, fluctuations in the intracellular levels of Ca 2+ ions greatly determine the magnitude and duration of contractile force. (biomedcentral.com)
  • adult
  • A study overexpressing β-tropomyosin in adult cardiac muscle evoked a 34-fold increase in expression of β-tropomyosin, resulting in preferential formation of the αβ-tropomyosin heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • An average adult male is made up of 42% of skeletal muscle and an average adult female is made up of 36% (as a percentage of body mass). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • These postjunctional folds form what is referred to as the motor endplate, which possess nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at a density of 10,000 receptors/micrometer2 in skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • upon
  • The efficient functioning of striated muscle is dependent upon the structure of several cytoskeletal networks including myofibrils, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. (biologists.org)
  • The efficient functioning of striated muscle is dependent upon the precise interactions and alignment of complex cytoskeletal networks. (biologists.org)
  • Striated or skeletal muscle only contracts voluntarily, upon influence of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • parallel
  • quote]First you take a very wide stance that reduces the range of motion (ROM), you make sure you descend to no more than parallel & at the 'bottom' use 'muscle rebound' to aid the lift out of the hard bottom bit. (veganfitness.net)
  • bodies
  • Mutations in TPM2 have also been associated with nemaline myopathy, a rare disorder characterized by muscle weakness and nemaline bodies, as well as distal arthrogryposis. (wikipedia.org)