• Sudden Cardi
  • In this article we will consider casual relationship of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy with sudden cardiac death, their prevelance in the population studied, prevention in the general population, and possible preventive strategies to reduce SCD in diving. (bestpub.com)
  • Hypertension, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Sudden Cardiac Death in Scuba Diving by Petar J. Denoble, MD, DSc. (bestpub.com)
  • In most cases the scenario of death fits the description of sudden cardiac death (SCD), which is also one of the most common risk factors in the general population. (bestpub.com)
  • Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) occur when the heart abruptly begins to beat in an abnormal or irregular rhythm (arrhythmia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cases have shown that the most common finding at postmortem examination of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is chronic high-grade stenosis of at least one segment of a major coronary artery, the arteries that supply the heart muscle with its blood supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications include heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, and sudden cardiac death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms and signs of HCM include shortness of breath due to stiffening and decreased blood filling of the ventricles, exertional chest pain (sometimes known as angina) due to reduced blood flow to the coronary arteries, uncomfortable awareness of the heart beat (palpitations), as well as disruption of the electrical system running through the abnormal heart muscle, lightheadedness, weakness, fainting and sudden cardiac death. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in athlete's with significantly increased left ventricular weight there is also a corresponding increased risk for conduction abnormalities and sudden cardiac death. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibrillation
  • The initial heart rhythm is most often ventricular fibrillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major risk factors for sudden death in individuals with HCM include prior history of cardiac arrest or ventricular fibrillation, spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia, family history of premature sudden death, unexplained syncope, LV thickness greater than or equal to 30 mm, abnormal exercise blood pressure and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • tachycardia
  • Examples of arrhythmic syndromes associated with SCD include: Long QT syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • collagen
  • J Biol Chem 283:35003-35009 Bonnin et al (1981) "Collagen synthesis and content in right ventricular hypertrophy in the dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005. Inhibition of cardiac myofibroblast formation and collagen synthesis by activation and overexpression of adenylyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 28:735-742 Eghbali M, Tomek R, Sukhatme VP, Woods C, Bhambi B. Differential effects of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and phorbol myristate acetate on cardiac fibroblasts: regulation of fibrillar collagen mRNAs and expression of early transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides, the cardiac interstitium which consisted of largely Type I and Type III collagen fibres are also involved in cardiac remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac collagen is synthesized by fibroblasts and degraded by metalloproteinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • Adenovirusmediated overexpression of human transforming growth factor-beta 1 in rat cardiac fibroblasts, myocytes and smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Both drugs suppressed not only the increase in left ventricular weight but also the downregulation of cardiac α-myosin heavy chain expression in OLETF rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Glomerulosclerosis and glomerular hypertrophy in OLETF rats were improved by cilazapril and E4177 to a comparable extent. (ahajournals.org)
  • In rats with SAS, the treatment with L reduced M rate and ICC and had beneficial effects on geometrical myocardial remodeling and left ventricular function. (scielo.br)
  • Accordingly, we studied isolated hearts from 3 groups of Dahl salt-sensitive rats, controls, and hearts with matched amounts of LVH secondary to either hypertension or aortic constriction. (ahajournals.org)
  • The control group (n=6) consisted of sham-operated rats that were maintained on a low (0.1%) salt diet from 8 to 12 weeks of life and did not develop hypertension or LVH. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 These aortic-banded rats were maintained on a low-salt diet for the subsequent 8 weeks and did not develop hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1976) Cardiac performance in rats with renal hypertension" Circ Res 38:280-288 Weber et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • myocardial infarction
  • In a rat model of myocardial infarction, intracoronary S100A1 adenoviral gene transfer restored sarcoplasmic reticular calcium transients and load, normalized intracellular sodium concentrations, reversed the pathologic expression of the fetal gene program, restored energy supply, normalized contractile function, preserved inotropic reserve, and reduced cardiac hypertrophy 1 week post-myocardial infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac remodelling of the ECM is also regulated by the CNP/NPR-B pathway as demonstrated by the improved outcomes in transgenic mice with CNP over-expression subjected to myocardial infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial remodeling phase after a myocardial infarction results in repair of the necrotic area and myocardial scarring that may, to some extent, be considered beneficial since there is an improvement in or maintenance of LV function and cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal failure
  • The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the usefulness of the cardiac troponins as predictors of subsequent cardiac events in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In patients with renal failure not undergoing dialysis, only three of 83 (4%) had elevated troponin I or T. None of these patients suffered a cardiac event in the next six months. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The above suggests that the combination of cTnI and cTnT might be very effective in elucidating cardiac risks of patients with renal failure undergoing chronic dialysis. (onlinejacc.org)
  • gene
  • The increased abundance of α- MHC mRNA in conjunction with an increase in V 1 myosin isozyme suggests that captopril affects transcriptional regulation of cardiac gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Approximately 40% of these mutations occur in the β-myosin heavy chain gene on chromosome 14 q11.2-3, and approximately 40% involve the cardiac myosin-binding protein C gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100A1 has shown great promise as an effective candidate for gene therapy to treat post-myocardially infarcted cardiac tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100A1 overexpression via adenoviral gene transfer in adult rabbit cardiomyocytes or a cardiac-restricted S100A1 murine transgenic enhanced cardiac contractile performance by increasing sarcoplasmic reticular calcium transients and uptake, altering the calcium sensitivity and cooperativity of myofibrils, enhancing SERCA2A activity and enhancing calcium-induced calcium release. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice with ablation of the S100A1 gene (S100A1-/-), cardiac reserve upon beta adrenergic stimulation was impaired, showing reduced contraction rate and relaxation rate, as well as reduced calcium sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • Treatment for cardiac arrest is immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and, if a shockable rhythm is present, defibrillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, cardiac arrest outside hospital occurs in about 13 per 10,000 people per year (326,000 cases). (wikipedia.org)
  • In hospital cardiac arrest occurs in an additional 209,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac arrest becomes more common with age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac arrest is preceded by no warning symptoms in approximately 50% of people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain types of prompt intervention can often reverse a cardiac arrest, but without such intervention the event will almost always lead to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Near-death experiences are reported by 10-20% of people who survived cardiac arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTEs involve a full cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), deep hypothermia and full cardiac arrest, with the critical procedure carried out in a standstill operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solution is a full cardiac arrest, which can be done with hypothermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others may result in cardiac arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • aortic
  • The validity of that strategy is controversial when the increase in cardiac load is relatively fixed, as in the case of aortic valvular stenosis. (scielo.br)
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) can have many origins, which may include hypertension, aortic stenosis, and congenital or genetic defects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Accordingly, the goal of the present study was to determine whether hearts with LVH secondary to hypertension respond differently to low-flow ischemia than do hearts with the same degree of LVH secondary to aortic constriction. (ahajournals.org)
  • With this model, an equal degree of LVH could be induced by means of hypertension or aortic constriction in a strain of rat that could also serve as a nonhypertrophied control. (ahajournals.org)
  • Aortic stenosis of any cause where the ventricular muscle becomes hypertrophied, and thence stiff, as a result of the increased pressure load placed on it by the stenosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and troponin I (cTnI) are structural proteins that act to regulate muscle contraction (1,2) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • S100A1 is a member of the S100 family of proteins expressed in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and brain, with highest density at Z-lines and sarcoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous perturbations affecting the cardiac neural crest have been associated with persistent truncus arteriosus, some of which include growth factors (fibroblast growth factor 8 and bone morphogenetic protein), transcription factors (T-box, Pax, Nkx2-5, GATA-6, and Forkhead), and gap junction proteins (Connexin). (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiac muscle cells, PKCε regulates muscle contraction through its actions at sarcomeric proteins, and PKCε modulates cardiac cell metabolism through its actions at mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • They are released into the bloodstream from injured muscle cells during cardiac ischemia with no overlap with skeletal muscle troponins under normal conditions (3,4) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • S100A1 is highly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and localizes to Z-discs and sarcoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)