• glycogen
  • Once within cells, glucose is rapidly phosphorylated by glucokinase in the liver and hexokinase in other tissues to form glucose-6-phosphate, which then enters glycolysis or is polymerized into glycogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the body takes in energy in the form of glucose, some is expended, and the rest is stored as glycogen primarily in the liver, muscle cells, or fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in the SLC2A2 gene are associated with a particular type of glycogen storage disease called Fanconi-Bickel syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol also plays an important, but indirect, role in liver and muscle glycogenolysis, the breaking down of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate and glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This response allows the liver to take up glucose not being used by the peripheral tissue and turn it into liver glycogen stores to be used if the body moves into the starvation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • They convert glycogen into glucose (this process is called glycogenolysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • In vivo quercetin inhibits post absorptive glucose peaks in obese, diabetic rats. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We propose to test, in a double blind placebo controlled study, whether coadministration of 1 or 2 grams of quercetin with glucose will reduce plasma glucose concentrations during a 6 hour oral glucose tolerance test with 3 to 6 grams of 3-O-methyl glucose (3OMG) in non-diabetic obese subjects and in obese type 2 diabetic subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We will study 16 obese non diabetic subjects and 16 obese type 2 diabetics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • From December 2005 to September 2006, drug-naive type 2 diabetic patients, aged 18-79 years, with A1C ≥7% and ≤10%, were recruited at 98 clinical centers in the U.S., 24 in Canada, 8 in Mexico, and 3 in Puerto Rico. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study evaluates differences in brain function and cognitive performance in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to non diabetic controls (both obese and lean) and correlate. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Almost all remaining filtered glucose is reabsorbed by sodium/glucose transporter 1 so under normal circumstances almost all filtered glucose will be reabsorbed and less than 100 mg of glucose finds its way into the urine of non-diabetic individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phlorizin seemed to have very interesting properties and the results in animal studies were encouraging, it improved insulin sensitivity and in diabetic rat models it seemed to increase glucose levels in urine and also normal glucose concentration in plasma occurred without hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many type 1 diabetics are diagnosed when they present with diabetic ketoacidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 6 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have celiac disease, but in most cases there are no digestive symptoms or are mistakenly attributed to poor control of diabetes, gastroparesis or diabetic neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • gluconeogenesis
  • In the early fasting state, cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis (the formation of glucose), and activates antistress and anti-inflammatory pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Evidence from animal studies indicates that hyperinsulinemia, without changes in glucose, increases ventilation via a carotid body-mediated mechanism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • As activity increases and it begins to pump faster, the cardiac muscles begin to oxidize glucose at a higher rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The association of celiac disease with type 1 diabetes increases the risk of complications, such as retinopathy and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Recently, adipose tissues are considered as an endocrine organ which secretes numerous fat and glucose regulating hormones, adipokines, and cytokines like adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by many tissues, but the cells in the pancreatic islets are among the most well understood and important. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by insufficient or non-existent production of insulin, while type 2 is primarily due to a decreased response to insulin in the tissues of the body (insulin resistance). (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • Noninferiority of the primary cardiovascular composite endpoints was achieved, and saxagliptin demonstrated an unexpected increase in hospitalization for heart failure that has yet to be fully explained (2-5) . (diabetes.ca)
  • The Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial (EMPAREG OUTCOME) included 7020 patients with type 2 diabetes and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), including prior myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery disease, unstable angina, stroke or occlusive peripheral arterial disease and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels ≥30 mL/min. (diabetes.ca)
  • The results of EMPA-REG OUTCOME are relevant to the management of type 2 diabetes because 40% to 60% of these individuals will die of cardiovascular disease, and the published literature to date shows little evidence that other antihyperglycemic agents provide cardiovascular benefits in patients with clinical CVD (7,8) . (diabetes.ca)
  • In one study, serum VAP-1 was shown to independently predict 10-year all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cancer-related mortality in subjects with type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • 3OMG is a non-metabolizable glucose analogue and is excreted unaltered in urine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Every day approximately 180 grams of glucose are filtered through the glomeruli and lost into the primary urine in healthy adults, but more than 90% of the glucose that is initially filtered is reabsorbed by a high capacity system controlled by SGLT-2 in the early convoluted segment of the proximal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thiazide-type diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide act on the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit the sodium-chloride symporter leading to a retention of water in the urine, as water normally follows penetrating solutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane bound
  • VAP-1 is a type 1 membrane-bound glycoprotein that has a distal adhesion domain and an enzymatically active amine oxidase site outside of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • We are very pleased with today's results, which have important implications for the clinical management of glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes," said Paul Strumph , M.D., Lexicon's vice president of clinical research and development who leads the development program for sotagliflozin and has been living with type 1 diabetes for more than 50 years. (prnewswire.com)
  • Therefore, empagliflozin should be utilized in patients with type 2 diabetes and clinical CVD who are already taking antihyperglycemic therapy. (diabetes.ca)
  • It is now recognized that a period of glucose intolerance precedes the clinical symptoms appearance. (bioportfolio.com)
  • There is much research being conducted that attempts to artificially reconfigure beta cells in order to use them in clinical applications: Type 1 Diabetes is caused by an auto-immune mediated destruction of the insulin producing beta cells in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway's clinical importance was demonstrated by mutations that lead to various diseases, including breast and prostate cancer, glioblastoma, type II diabetes and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 12 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have clinical depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia due to insufficient or inefficient insulin secretory response. (ijbs.com)
  • Tissue-specific amplification of glucocorticoid action through 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) affects the development of the metabolic syndrome. (ad-astra.ro)
  • In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthenia, malaise diarrhea nausea and vomiting abdominal pain dizziness insomnia sweating taste abnormality metabolic hypercholesterolemia hypertriglyceridemia elevated transaminases elevated CPK One of ritonavir's side effects is hyperglycemia. (wikipedia.org)