• glycogen
  • Once within cells, glucose is rapidly phosphorylated by glucokinase in the liver and hexokinase in other tissues to form glucose-6-phosphate, which then enters glycolysis or is polymerized into glycogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the body takes in energy in the form of glucose, some is expended, and the rest is stored as glycogen primarily in the liver, muscle cells, or fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in the SLC2A2 gene are associated with a particular type of glycogen storage disease called Fanconi-Bickel syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol also plays an important, but indirect, role in liver and muscle glycogenolysis, the breaking down of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate and glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This response allows the liver to take up glucose not being used by the peripheral tissue and turn it into liver glycogen stores to be used if the body moves into the starvation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • They convert glycogen into glucose (this process is called glycogenolysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Improvement in hyperglycemia downregulates carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), a transcription factor responsible for activating the machinery for fatty acid synthesis ( 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • In study where rats were given either ramipril or losartan, levels of SGLT-2 protein and mRNA were significantly reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • We will study 16 obese non diabetic subjects and 16 obese type 2 diabetics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • From December 2005 to September 2006, drug-naive type 2 diabetic patients, aged 18-79 years, with A1C ≥7% and ≤10%, were recruited at 98 clinical centers in the U.S., 24 in Canada, 8 in Mexico, and 3 in Puerto Rico. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phlorizin seemed to have very interesting properties and the results in animal studies were encouraging, it improved insulin sensitivity and in diabetic rat models it seemed to increase glucose levels in urine and also normal glucose concentration in plasma occurred without hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many type 1 diabetics are diagnosed when they present with diabetic ketoacidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 6 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have celiac disease, but in most cases there are no digestive symptoms or are mistakenly attributed to poor control of diabetes, gastroparesis or diabetic neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • gluconeogenesis
  • In the early fasting state, cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis (the formation of glucose), and activates antistress and anti-inflammatory pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative stress
  • It is known that the onset of diabetes is related to many classic risk factors including oxidative stress [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, hydrogen peroxide, along with aldehydes and glucose, is involved in generating advanced glycation end-products and oxidative stress, which leads to the development of atherosclerosis, a disease in which plaque builds up inside arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients with Type 2 diabet
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if self-monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes not using insulin results in better glycemic control. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Primary: What is the effect of SMBG in patients with type 2 diabetes who are not using insulin on Glycemic control (as measured with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)? (bioportfolio.com)
  • A Study to assess if patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) who have suboptimal glycemic control using multiple oral agents are able to make lifestyle changes resulting in improved glycemic c. (bioportfolio.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD were randomly assigned to either the empagliflozin group (standard treatment for type 2 diabetes plus empagliflozin 10 mg daily) or the control group (standard treatment without empagliflozin) for 20 weeks. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial (EMPAREG OUTCOME) included 7020 patients with type 2 diabetes and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), including prior myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery disease, unstable angina, stroke or occlusive peripheral arterial disease and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels ≥30 mL/min. (diabetes.ca)
  • Therefore, empagliflozin should be utilized in patients with type 2 diabetes and clinical CVD who are already taking antihyperglycemic therapy. (diabetes.ca)
  • tissues
  • Recently, adipose tissues are considered as an endocrine organ which secretes numerous fat and glucose regulating hormones, adipokines, and cytokines like adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by many tissues, but the cells in the pancreatic islets are among the most well understood and important. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by insufficient or non-existent production of insulin, while type 2 is primarily due to a decreased response to insulin in the tissues of the body (insulin resistance). (wikipedia.org)
  • kidneys
  • HNF-1α is also involved in various metabolic pathways of other organs, such as being a transcriptional regulator of bile acid transporters in the intestine and kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • 3OMG is a non-metabolizable glucose analogue and is excreted unaltered in urine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Every day approximately 180 grams of glucose are filtered through the glomeruli and lost into the primary urine in healthy adults, but more than 90% of the glucose that is initially filtered is reabsorbed by a high capacity system controlled by SGLT-2 in the early convoluted segment of the proximal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • As activity increases and it begins to pump faster, the cardiac muscles begin to oxidize glucose at a higher rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular disease
  • For instance, NAFLD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease ( 3 ), type 2 diabetes ( 4 ), and chronic kidney disease ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The results of EMPA-REG OUTCOME are relevant to the management of type 2 diabetes because 40% to 60% of these individuals will die of cardiovascular disease, and the published literature to date shows little evidence that other antihyperglycemic agents provide cardiovascular benefits in patients with clinical CVD (7,8) . (diabetes.ca)
  • membrane bound
  • VAP-1 is a type 1 membrane-bound glycoprotein that has a distal adhesion domain and an enzymatically active amine oxidase site outside of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)