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  • glycogen
  • Once within cells, glucose is rapidly phosphorylated by glucokinase in the liver and hexokinase in other tissues to form glucose-6-phosphate, which then enters glycolysis or is polymerized into glycogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the body takes in energy in the form of glucose, some is expended, and the rest is stored as glycogen primarily in the liver, muscle cells, or fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in the SLC2A2 gene are associated with a particular type of glycogen storage disease called Fanconi-Bickel syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • They convert glycogen into glucose (this process is called glycogenolysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol also plays an important, but indirect, role in liver and muscle glycogenolysis, the breaking down of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate and glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This response allows the liver to take up glucose not being used by the peripheral tissue and turn it into liver glycogen stores to be used if the body moves into the starvation state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucagon
  • The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide reduced cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the LEADER trial (Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Typ. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Since the publication of the 2013 guidelines, several cardiovascular outcome trials have been completed, and they demonstrate the overall cardiovascular safety of 3 dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (alogliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin) and 1 glucagon-likeprotein-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (lixisenatide) in patients with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk for cardiovascular events (2-5) . (diabetes.ca)
  • Before his research, glucagon was considered to have effects on many organs, but he was the first to measure the physiological role of glucagon, based on the effect of glucagon on glucose turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of these cells reduces the body's ability to respond to glucose levels in the body, therefore making it nearly impossible to properly regulate glucose and glucagon levels in the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the blood glucose level falls to dangerous levels (as during very heavy exercise or lack of food for extended periods), the alpha cells of the pancreas release glucagon, a hormone whose effects on liver cells act to increase blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, and unresponsive to the concentration of glucose in the blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Since beta cells use glucokinase to catalyze the first step of glycolysis, metabolism only occurs around physiological blood glucose levels and above. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism of the glucose produces ATP, which increases the ATP to ADP ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some minerals play roles in glucose regulation: see Chromium in glucose metabolism for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this body of work, Archer argued that accumulative maternal effects via the non-genetic evolution of matrilineal nutrient metabolism is responsible for the increased global prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • gluconeogenesis
  • In the early fasting state, cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis (the formation of glucose), and activates antistress and anti-inflammatory pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative stress
  • It is known that the onset of diabetes is related to many classic risk factors including oxidative stress [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, hydrogen peroxide, along with aldehydes and glucose, is involved in generating advanced glycation end-products and oxidative stress, which leads to the development of atherosclerosis, a disease in which plaque builds up inside arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • We will study 16 obese non diabetic subjects and 16 obese type 2 diabetics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • From December 2005 to September 2006, drug-naive type 2 diabetic patients, aged 18-79 years, with A1C ≥7% and ≤10%, were recruited at 98 clinical centers in the U.S., 24 in Canada, 8 in Mexico, and 3 in Puerto Rico. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Many type 1 diabetics are diagnosed when they present with diabetic ketoacidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 6 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have celiac disease, but in most cases there are no digestive symptoms or are mistakenly attributed to poor control of diabetes, gastroparesis or diabetic neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidneys
  • HNF-1α is also involved in various metabolic pathways of other organs, such as being a transcriptional regulator of bile acid transporters in the intestine and kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • 3OMG is a non-metabolizable glucose analogue and is excreted unaltered in urine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Every day approximately 180 grams of glucose are filtered through the glomeruli and lost into the primary urine in healthy adults, but more than 90% of the glucose that is initially filtered is reabsorbed by a high capacity system controlled by SGLT-2 in the early convoluted segment of the proximal tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Members of the GLUT family of glucose uniporters then transport the glucose across the basolateral membrane, and into the peritubular capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, he proposed that the accumulation of glucose in the intestinal epithelium across the brush border membrane was [is] coupled to downhill Na+ transport cross the brush border. (wikipedia.org)
  • VAP-1 is a type 1 membrane-bound glycoprotein that has a distal adhesion domain and an enzymatically active amine oxidase site outside of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular disease
  • This study aims to estimate the number of patients with cardiovascular disease and risk factors in patients who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For instance, NAFLD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease ( 3 ), type 2 diabetes ( 4 ), and chronic kidney disease ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial (EMPAREG OUTCOME) included 7020 patients with type 2 diabetes and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), including prior myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery disease, unstable angina, stroke or occlusive peripheral arterial disease and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels ≥30 mL/min. (diabetes.ca)
  • The results of EMPA-REG OUTCOME are relevant to the management of type 2 diabetes because 40% to 60% of these individuals will die of cardiovascular disease, and the published literature to date shows little evidence that other antihyperglycemic agents provide cardiovascular benefits in patients with clinical CVD (7,8) . (diabetes.ca)
  • apoptosis
  • Metformin alleviates hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis and differentiation suppression in osteoblasts through inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathway. (annals.org)
  • metabolic
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia due to insufficient or inefficient insulin secretory response. (ijbs.com)
  • Although the prevalence of all types of chronic conditions is increasing, diabetes is one of the few long-term metabolic disorders that individuals can successfully manage, monitor and control on a da. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tissue-specific amplification of glucocorticoid action through 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) affects the development of the metabolic syndrome. (ad-astra.ro)
  • Type II diabetes is one of the most widespread metabolic disorders in the world, characterized by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. (hindawi.com)
  • In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthenia, malaise diarrhea nausea and vomiting abdominal pain dizziness insomnia sweating taste abnormality metabolic hypercholesterolemia hypertriglyceridemia elevated transaminases elevated CPK One of ritonavir's side effects is hyperglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • As activity increases and it begins to pump faster, the cardiac muscles begin to oxidize glucose at a higher rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLC2A2
  • Defects in the SLC2A2 gene are associated with a particular type of glycogen storage disease called Fanconi-Bickel syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic aerobic respiration produces approximately 34 additional molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule, however most of these are produced by a vastly different mechanism to the substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was as a crystal of what is now called form I. However, like many drugs, ritonavir exhibits polymorphism, i.e., the same molecule crystallizes into more than one type of crystal. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • median follow-up, 5.7 years) with normal glucose levels (mean ± SD: 5.46 ± 0.58 mmol/l) at baseline were included. (springer.com)
  • A study conducted at Western University of Health Sciences in Pomona, Calif. found that the consumption of cinnamon is associated with a statistically significant decrease in plasma glucose levels, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. (thediabetesrepair.com)
  • In both young and old individuals, the brain may habituate to low glucose levels with a reduction of noticeable symptoms, sometimes despite neuroglycopenic impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low levels of glucose were discovered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a condition referred to as hypoglycorrhachia [or hypoglycorrhacia]. (wikipedia.org)
  • A dysfunctional HPA-axis causes high cortisol levels to circulate, which results in raising glucose and insulin levels, which in turn cause insulin-mediated effects on adipose tissue, ultimately promoting visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, with direct effects on the bone, causing "low turnover" osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The destruction of these cells reduces the body's ability to respond to glucose levels in the body, therefore making it nearly impossible to properly regulate glucose and glucagon levels in the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • This variability is further compounded by the imprecision of glucose meter measurements at low levels, or the ability of glucose levels to change rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • obesity
  • I have explained in various posts why this idea does not appear to be correct ( 1 , 2 , 3 ), and why, after extensive research, the insulin hypothesis of obesity lost steam by the late 1980s. (blogspot.com)
  • Obesity is characterized by an excess of adipose tissue - insulin increases the synthesis of fatty acids from glucose, facilitates the entry of glucose into adipocytes and inhibits breakdown of fat in adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acids
  • β-Cells avidly import fatty acids through the CD36 transporter (24,61) and respond to increased fatty acid supply by storing the excess as triacylglycerol (62). (thediabetesrepair.com)
  • The lower-energy production, per glucose, of anaerobic respiration relative to aerobic respiration, results in greater flux through the pathway under hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions, unless alternative sources of anaerobically oxidizable substrates, such as fatty acids, are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Symptoms and effects can be mild, moderate or severe, depending on how low the glucose falls and a variety of other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • They lack chronic toxicity because they lack viral coding sequences 2-5 and retain only Ad cis elements necessary for vector replication and packaging. (jove.com)
  • food intake
  • They tested four different doses: 0, 1, 2 and 6 units per day, and measured food intake and body weight. (blogspot.com)
  • defects
  • We found defects in c-Fos activation by glucose in the arcuate nucleus and changes in the amounts of TRH and orexin neuropeptide mRNA, which are relevant to poorly controlled meal size. (physiology.org)