• cations
  • The small multidrug resistance (SMR) transporters are a class of proteins that carry out this function by harnessing the energy of the proton gradient across a bacterial cell's inner membrane to expel hydrophobic cations. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Lipids
  • ABC uptake porters take up a large variety of nutrients, biosynthetic precursors, trace metals and vitamins, while exporters transport lipids, sterols, drugs, and a large variety of primary and secondary metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gram-negative bacteria, exporters transport lipids and some polysaccharides from the cytoplasm to the periplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • TM1, TM2, and TM3 form a substrate binding pocket deep within the membrane while TM4 plays a role in dimer formation. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Although this finding suggests a mechanism for proton-dependent substrate transport through mutually exclusive binding to glutamate-14 (Figure 1a), the structural basis for the mechanism remains poorly defined. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • To address this question, Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology members Hassane Mchaourab and Jens Meiler used double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy (DEER) in combination with molecular modeling to probe the conformational changes that occur in EmrE during proton and substrate binding [R. Dastvan et al. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • proteins
  • Among the physicochemically and structurally diverse disulfide-rich seed storage proteins, soluble storage proteins are transported through the endomembrane system from the ER to PSVs, where they accumulate [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ABC transporters often consist of multiple subunits, one or two of which are transmembrane proteins and one or two of which are membrane-associated ATPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABC2 exporters evolved by intragenic duplication of a 3 TMS precursor, and ABC3 exporters evolved from a 4 TMS precursor which duplicated either extragenicly to give two 4 TMS proteins, both required for transport function, or intragenicly to give 8 or 10 TMS proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the ABC transport proteins are overexpressed in cancer cells, they can export anticancer drugs and render tumors resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogens use siderophores, such as Enterobactin, to scavenge iron that is in complex with high-affinity iron-binding proteins or erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • However, the currently accepted mechanism involves a rapid four-electron reduction involving immediate oxygen-oxygen bond cleavage, avoiding any intermediate likely to form superoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes a reduction in Complex I activity and disturbs its assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporters
  • ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant
  • Isolation and Properties of a Regulatory Mutant in the Hexose Phosphate Transport System of Escherichia Coli FEBS Letters. (jove.com)
  • oxidation
  • After the electrons are derived from succinate oxidation via FAD, they tunnel along the [Fe-S] relay until they reach the [3Fe-4S] cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Oxidation: In order to form an acetyl group, the hydroxyethyl group which is attached to TTP is oxidized. (wikibooks.org)
  • bacteria
  • These cells tend to be larger than the cells of bacteria, and have developed specialized packaging and transport mechanisms that may be necessary to support their larger size. (cellsalive.com)
  • transfer
  • All edge-to-edge distances between the centers are less than the suggested 14 Å limit for physiological electron transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This electron transfer is demonstrated in image 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absorption of visible light by a chromophore molecule is known to induce transfer of an electron from the main orbital (S0) to one of the singlet (S1 * , S2 * …) or triplet (T) excited orbitals (Fig. 2.2). (slideshare.net)
  • molecule
  • Both dimers are connected by a cardiolipin molecule, which has been found to play a key role in stabilization of the holoenzyme complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • This reaction is catalyzed by the (E 1 ) pyruvate dehydrogenase component of the multienzyme complex. (wikibooks.org)
  • In this reaction, the disulfide group of lipoamide acts as an oxidant and is reduced to the disulfhydryl form. (wikibooks.org)
  • Here, aniline is shown to form a Schiff's base with the reducing end of oligosaccharides on-target, although the reaction does not go to completion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ribosomes
  • These complexes are very large, even bigger than ribosomes, with its molecular mass to be in between 4 million to 10 million daltons. (wikibooks.org)
  • distinct
  • Human mitochondria contain two distinct isoforms of SdhA (Fp subunits type I and type II), these isoforms are also found in Ascaris suum and Caenorhabditis elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Usually it is phospholipids that form the lipid component of biomembranes, but sometimes this function is fulfilled by sulfolipids or glycolipids. (slideshare.net)
  • However
  • However, the crystal structure shows that FAD, Glu255, Arg286, and His242 of subunit A (not shown) are good candidates for the initial deprotonation step. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, dimethylaniline does not form Schiff's bases at all. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the hidden tails of the phosopholipids are "hydrophobic" (water fearing), so the cell membrane acts as a protective barrier to the uncontrolled flow of water. (cellsalive.com)
  • found
  • The products of these steps have been found, though specific subunit compositions have not been determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • 1. Chapter 2 Chlorophyll-Based Generators of Proton Potential Generators of D'lHþ play a leading role in the conversion of external energy sources into forms that can be used by living cells. (slideshare.net)