• biomass
  • Application of the process to biomass provides simple sugars in near quantitative yield by supercritical hydrolysis of the constituent polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • A private company, Renmatix, based in King of Prussia, PA, has developed a supercritical hydrolysis technology to convert a range of non-food biomass feedstocks into cellulosic sugars for application in biochemicals and biofuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleophile
  • Their hydrolysis occurs when the nucleophile (a nucleus-seeking agent, e.g., water or hydroxyl ion) attacks the carbon of the carbonyl group of the ester or amide. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA hydrolysis occurs when the deprotonated 2' OH of the ribose, acting as a nucleophile, attacks the adjacent phosphorus in the phosphodiester bond of the sugar-phosphate backbone of the RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleavage
  • The hydrolysis or cleavage of RNA can occur spontaneously, without the presence of a catalyst or enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auto-hydrolysis or self-cleavage reactions take place in basic solutions, where free hydroxide ions in solution can easily deprotonate the 2' OH of the ribose. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • The modified method eliminates the usual 4-hour hydrolysis period by substituting a 15-minute hydrolysis in an autoclave, thus allowing a more rapid processing of samples. (dtic.mil)
  • Thus hydrolysis adds water to break down, whereas condensation builds up by removing water and any other solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • This feature makes RNA chemically unstable compared to DNA, which does not have this 2' OH group and thus is not susceptible to base-catalyzed hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • Usually hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule of water is added to a substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis relieves some of these electrostatic repulsions, liberating useful energy in the process by causing conformational changes in enzyme structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis of the terminal phosphoanhydridic bond is a highly exergonic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supercritical hydrolysis is a chemical engineering process in which water in the supercritical state can be employed to achieve a variety of reactions within seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supercritical hydrolysis can be considered a broadly applicable green chemistry process that utilizes water simultaneously as a heat transfer agent, a solvent, a reactant, a source of hydrogen and as a char-reduction component. (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • However, if rapid racemization is occurring alongside hydrolysis (an example of dynamic kinetic resolution), a maximum yield of 100% is possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • produces
  • In humans, approximately 60 percent of the energy released from the hydrolysis of one mole of ATP produces metabolic heat rather than fuel the actual reactions taking place. (wikipedia.org)
  • weak
  • As noted below, energy is released by the hydrolysis of ATP when these weak bonds are broken - requiring a small input of energy, followed by the formation of new bonds and the release of a larger amount of energy as the total energy of the system is lowered and becomes more stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • The present invention relates to polymerizable acrylophosphonic acids which have a high hydrolysis stability and are suitable in particular for preparing, or as components of, polymers, adhesives or other materials and mainly dental materials. (google.com)
  • Under certain conditions, high levels of ATP hydrolysis can contribute to lactic acidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Field Deployable Hydrolysis System (FDHS) is a transportable, high throughput neutralization system developed by the U.S. Army for converting chemical warfare material into compounds not usable as weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • Hydrolysis of the phosphate groups in ATP is especially exergonic, because the resulting orthophosphate group is greatly stabilized by multiple resonance structures, making the products (ADP and Pi) much lower in energy than the reactant (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • RNA is susceptible to this base-catalyzed hydrolysis because the ribose sugar in RNA has a hydroxyl group at the 2' position. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • Both strategies rely on the fact that the transition states for hydrolysis of enantiotopic or enantiomorphic ester groups by the chiral enzyme are diastereomeric. (wikipedia.org)
  • final
  • ATP hydrolysis is the final link between the energy derived from food or sunlight and useful work such as muscle contraction, the establishment of electrochemical gradients across membranes, and biosynthetic processes necessary to maintain life. (wikipedia.org)