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  • enzymes
  • Although phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) enzymes have been implicated in the promotion of inflammation through mobilizing lipid mediators, the molecular entity of PLA 2 subtypes acting upstream of antiinflammatory lipid mediators remains unknown. (rupress.org)
  • Due to such utilization of apricots and the deteriorating characteristic of enzymes in oils, the present study was conducted to observe the enzymes activities in vast range of pH, temperatures and organic solvents to establish an optimum condition at which lipase and phospholipase shows their maximum activities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As explained in the background sections of the present specification and Johnson, phospholipase A2s are a diverse family of enzymes which play an important role in mammalian metabolism. (ipmall.info)
  • Phospholipases are important mediators of both cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling mechanisms in hepatocytes, and despite a potentially critical role for these enzymes in regulating the temporal aspect of hepatic physiology, their involvement in the circadian liver clock has not been the subject of much investigation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It belongs to a superfamily of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes and is found primarily in adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • WAT is responsible for releasing fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol as energy sources for other tissues which is regulated predominately by AdPLA over other phospholipase A2 enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • In addition to activating PKC, diacylglycerol has a number of other functions in the cell: a source for prostaglandins a precursor of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol an activator of a subfamily of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) cation channels, TRPC3/6/7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in PBMC have shown that endogenous DHA, the main precursor of PD1, is released by the activity of phospholipase A2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol
  • Recently I have shown that vasoconstrictive hormones, such as angiotensin II, vasopressin and norepinephrine, caused a rapid hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) in rat mesangial cells with subsequent formation of diacylglycerol (DG) and inositoltrisphosphate (IP 3 ) (1, 2). (springer.com)
  • inhibitor
  • It has been reported that salt stress inhibits plant growth and development by activating kinase-dependent pathways and increased with increasing concentration of salt stress concentration however, neomycin a phospholipase C inhibitor inhibits this activity by increasing growth characteristics in soybean (Im et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mediators
  • Lipidomics analysis revealed that PLA2G2D in the LNs contributed to mobilization of a pool of polyunsaturated fatty acids that could serve as precursors for antiinflammatory/pro-resolving lipid mediators such as resolvin D1 and 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 , which reduced Th1 cytokine production and surface MHC class II expression in LN cells or DCs. (rupress.org)
  • fatty
  • AdPLA regulates adipocyte lipolysis and release of fatty acids through a G-protein coupled pathway involving prostaglandin and EP3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Finally, in the third step of the pathway, enzymatic hydrolysis of the 16(17)-epoxide-containing intermediate leads to the formation of PD1. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Key amino acids that are involved in the stabilization and regulation of GTP hydrolysis are conserved in RhoA as Gly14, Thr19, Phe30 and Gln63. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophage
  • Leslie), "Properties and purification of an arachindonoyl-hydrolyzing phospholipase A2 from a macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 963: 476-492 (1988). (ipmall.info)
  • family
  • The primary protein sequences of members of the Rho family are mostly identical, with the N-terminal containing most of the protein coding for GTP binding and hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • sPLA2-IID His-Tagged Fusion protein is 16.4 kDa containing 125 amino acid residues of the human secreted phospholipase A2-IID and 16 additional amino acid residues - His-Tag. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The amino acid sequence of the recombinant human Secreted Phospholipase A2-IID is 100% homologous to the amino acid sequence of the human Secreted Phospholipase A2-IID without signal sequence. (creativebiomart.net)
  • sPLA2-IIE His-Tagged Fusion Protein is 15.8 kDa protein containing 123 amino acid residues of the human secreted phospholipase A2-IIE and 16 additional amino acid residues - His-Tag. (creativebiomart.net)
  • sPLA2-X His-Tagged Fusion Protein, is 15.5 kDa containing 123 amino acid residues of the human secreted phospholipase A2. (creativebiomart.net)
  • byproduct
  • An isomer of 5-oxo-ETE, 5-oxo-(7E,9E,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid, forms non-enzymatically as a byproduct of hydrolyses of the 5-lipooxgenase metabolite, Leukotriene A4. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • and, they represent several types of protein folds and catalytic mechanisms, most of them are built on an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and employ a chymotrypsin-like hydrolysis mechanism using a catalytic triad consisting of a serine nucleophile, a histidine base, and an acid residue (usually aspartic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Adipocyte hypotrophy was attributed primarily to reduced triacylglyceride content in WAT from lipolysis, while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • Several other types of lipase activities exist in nature, such as phospholipases and sphingomyelinases, however these are usually treated separately from "conventional" lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured by electromagnetic flowmetry in anesthetized, water-loaded, 8-week-old WKY and SHR pretreated with indomethacin to avoid interactions with prostaglandins. (ahajournals.org)
  • reaction
  • The reaction involves hydrolysis of TAG molecules into FFAs followed by reesterification of the FFAs onto the glycerol backbone. (aocs.org)
  • Water must be continuously removed to prevent undesired hydrolysis and maximize reaction yield. (aocs.org)
  • primarily
  • Adipocyte hypotrophy was attributed primarily to reduced triacylglyceride content in WAT from lipolysis, while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal
  • These structural arrangements provide interaction sites that can interact with effectors and guanine factors in order to stabilize and signal the hydrolysis of GTP. (wikipedia.org)