• enzymes
  • Although phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) enzymes have been implicated in the promotion of inflammation through mobilizing lipid mediators, the molecular entity of PLA 2 subtypes acting upstream of antiinflammatory lipid mediators remains unknown. (rupress.org)
  • As explained in the background sections of the present specification and Johnson, phospholipase A2s are a diverse family of enzymes which play an important role in mammalian metabolism. (ipmall.info)
  • Phospholipases are important mediators of both cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling mechanisms in hepatocytes, and despite a potentially critical role for these enzymes in regulating the temporal aspect of hepatic physiology, their involvement in the circadian liver clock has not been the subject of much investigation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It belongs to a superfamily of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes and is found primarily in adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • WAT is responsible for releasing fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol as energy sources for other tissues which is regulated predominately by AdPLA over other phospholipase A2 enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLA2
  • under which Anthera has obtained worldwide (except for Japan) development and commercialization rights to an entire platform of clinical and preclinical inhibitors of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) developed by Lilly and Shionogi as part of their collaboration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It bears similarity to its PLA2 family in phospholipase activity and calcium dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelet-activa
  • The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of ET-3-stimulated metabolism of phosphoinositides and synthesis of prostaglandins appeared to be distinct from the effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on these processes described previously [Gandhi, Hanahan & Olson (1990) J. Biol. (biochemj.org)
  • mediators
  • Lipidomics analysis revealed that PLA2G2D in the LNs contributed to mobilization of a pool of polyunsaturated fatty acids that could serve as precursors for antiinflammatory/pro-resolving lipid mediators such as resolvin D1 and 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 , which reduced Th1 cytokine production and surface MHC class II expression in LN cells or DCs. (rupress.org)
  • precursor
  • In addition to activating PKC, diacylglycerol has a number of other functions in the cell: a source for prostaglandins a precursor of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol an activator of a subfamily of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) cation channels, TRPC3/6/7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in PBMC have shown that endogenous DHA, the main precursor of PD1, is released by the activity of phospholipase A2. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophage
  • Leslie), "Properties and purification of an arachindonoyl-hydrolyzing phospholipase A2 from a macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 963: 476-492 (1988). (ipmall.info)
  • enzymatic
  • Finally, in the third step of the pathway, enzymatic hydrolysis of the 16(17)-epoxide-containing intermediate leads to the formation of PD1. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphatidylinositol
  • Recently I have shown that vasoconstrictive hormones, such as angiotensin II, vasopressin and norepinephrine, caused a rapid hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) in rat mesangial cells with subsequent formation of diacylglycerol (DG) and inositoltrisphosphate (IP 3 ) (1, 2). (springer.com)
  • pathways
  • 10 11 12 13 14 ET activates a number of different signaling pathways, including phospholipase C, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and is coupled to the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src and small GTPases. (ahajournals.org)
  • fatty
  • AdPLA regulates adipocyte lipolysis and release of fatty acids through a G-protein coupled pathway involving prostaglandin and EP3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Key amino acids that are involved in the stabilization and regulation of GTP hydrolysis are conserved in RhoA as Gly14, Thr19, Phe30 and Gln63. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • The primary protein sequences of members of the Rho family are mostly identical, with the N-terminal containing most of the protein coding for GTP binding and hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • We have demonstrated previously that protein kinase C α (PKC α ) plays a key role in regulating phospholipase D (PLD) activation by nucleotides and the phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-D1) cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • and, they represent several types of protein folds and catalytic mechanisms, most of them are built on an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and employ a chymotrypsin-like hydrolysis mechanism using a catalytic triad consisting of a serine nucleophile, a histidine base, and an acid residue (usually aspartic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • ET-3-induced hydrolysis of phosphoinositides was characterized by the production of various inositol phosphates and of glycerophosphoinositol. (biochemj.org)
  • byproduct
  • An isomer of 5-oxo-ETE, 5-oxo-(7E,9E,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid, forms non-enzymatically as a byproduct of hydrolyses of the 5-lipooxgenase metabolite, Leukotriene A4. (wikipedia.org)