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  • proteins
  • The organic compounds (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) contain the majority of the carbon and nitrogen and most of the oxygen and hydrogen is present as water. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can be organized into three major classes: iron-sulfur proteins (such as rubredoxins, ferredoxins, and Rieske proteins), blue copper proteins, and cytochromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the cytochrome c family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bcl-2 proteins are layered on the surface of the mitochondria, detect damage, and activate a class of proteins called Bax, which punch holes in the mitochondrial membrane, causing cytochrome C to leak out. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • Glutathione is capable of preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides, and heavy metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxicity of peroxides is thought to be caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are involved in lipid peroxidation further oxidative cellular damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • compound
  • Sivaraja, M., Goodin, D. B., Smith, M. and Hoffman, B. M. (1989) Identification by ENDOR of Trp191 as the free-radical site in cytochrome c peroxidase compound ES. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bis(trifluoromethyl)peroxide is originally a gas, therefore this compound may be inhaled and distributed by the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive
  • Some metalloproteins are designed to protect a biological system from the potentially harmful effects of oxygen and other reactive oxygen-containing molecules such as hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Safrole contains several reactive groups: Ethers tend to form unstable peroxides when exposed to oxygen which can sometimes be observed as clear crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Gold nanoparticles' peroxidase mimicking activities were modulated via a supramolecular strategy for cascade reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dehydrogenase reactions come most commonly in two forms: the transfer of a hydride and release of a proton (often with water as a second reactant), and the transfer of two hydrogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • In the laboratory, singlet oxygen is usually generated in one of three ways: photochemically from dioxygen ( 3 O 2 ) using a photosensitizing dye ( Figure 18.2.1 ), chemically by thermal decomposition of a peroxide or dioxetane, or by microwave discharge through an oxygen stream. (thermofisher.com)
  • Acetals, ketals, hemiacetals and hemiketals react similarly to ethers, although members of this group would be less likely to form explosively unstable peroxides when exposed to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • Cytochrome c binds to cardiolipin in the inner mitochondrial membrane, thus anchoring its presence and keeping it from releasing out of the mitochondria and initiating apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process in which ATP is produced, called oxidative phosphorylation, involves the transport of protons (hydrogen ions) across the inner mitochondrial membrane by means of the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanoparticles
  • Researchers have designed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based integrative nanozymes with both SERS and peroxidase mimicking activities for measuring glucose and lactate in living tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • unlike
  • This property is the reason an economical synthesis is sought for BTP.This chemical is unusual in the fact that unlike many peroxides, bis(trifluoromethyl)peroxide is a gas, is nonexplosive and has good thermal stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • In 2012, recombinant human heavy-chain ferritin coated iron oxide nanoparticle with peroxidase-like activity was prepared and used for targeting and visualizing tumour tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • A molecular imprinting strategy was developed to improve the selectivity of Fe3O4 nanozymes with peroxidase-like activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent in vitro investigations into the ability of the DUOX1 domain to act as a peroxidase demonstrated that cell lysate from peroxidase expression in C. elegans and E. coli had tyrosine cross-linking activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediate
  • Cytochrome c also has an intermediate role in apoptosis, a controlled form of cell death used to kill cells in the process of development or in response to infection or DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • release of cytochrome
  • Once in the mitochondria, Bax may mediate its lethal effects through a channel-forming activity ( 16 ), resulting in disruption of mitochondrial function and release of cytochrome c ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • CP-31398 upregulated Bax and Bak mRNA and protein levels, altered mitochondrial membrane potential leading to the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases-9 and -3. (ubc.ca)
  • The mitochondrial/caspase-9 pathway was found to be activated in CP-31398 enhancement of ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis, via the upregulation of Bax, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9. (ubc.ca)
  • Upon release of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, the protein binds apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • porphyrins
  • Chlorins (2,3-dihydroporphyrin) are more reduced, contain more hydrogen than porphyrins, i.e. one pyrrole has been converted to a pyrroline. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Safety standards have long been established for high concentrations of hydrogen for inhalation largely because of the history of high-pressure H2 gas used in deep-water diving gas mixtures for preventing decompression sickness. (integratedhealthblog.com)