• gases
  • An alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the quality of the feedstock (natural gas, rich gases, naphtha, etc.), one ton of hydrogen produced will also produce 9 to 12 tons of CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • helium
  • After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol
  • What we call 'alcohol' actually has the proper chemical name ethanol and belongs to a group of organic molecules called alcohols? (docbrown.info)
  • The carbon dioxide is allowed to escape and air is prevented from entering the reaction vessel to stop oxygen oxidising ethanol to ethanoic acid ('acetic acid' or vinegar! (docbrown.info)
  • however, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel (for automotive uses), ethanol, and biodiesel, which are also categorized as a liquid fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative instability of the carbon-oxygen bonds in the molecule is revealed by the comparison in the table of the energy required to break two C-O bonds in the ethylene oxide or one C-O bond in ethanol and dimethyl ether: This instability correlates with its high reactivity, explaining the ease of its ring-opening reactions (see Chemical properties). (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 In a second stage, additional hydrogen is generated through the lower-temperature, exothermic, water gas shift reaction, performed at about 360 °C: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 Essentially, the oxygen (O) atom is stripped from the additional water (steam) to oxidize CO to CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • ammonium
  • The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F). Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. (wikipedia.org)
  • As salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (HCN, or hydrocyanic acid), cyanides are formed by replacing the hydrogen of hydrogen cyanide with a metal, such as sodium or potassium , or by replacing the hydrogen with a radical (such as ammonium). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • inorganic
  • They take up simple substances such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, as well as inorganic nutrients and produce biological molecules needed for life from the inorganic substances. (scribd.com)
  • At the end of the MBR operation (day 726), the enriched biomass was incubated with 13C labeled methane, 13C labeled inorganic carbon was produced and the AOM rate based on 13C-inorganic carbon was 1.2 μmol.gdw−1.d−1. (feedage.com)
  • methanol
  • 5 million tons of hydrogen were consumed on-site in oil refining, and in the production of ammonia (Haber process) and methanol (reduction of carbon monoxide). (wikipedia.org)
  • generates
  • 7. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the hydrogen fuel cell also generates, in step d), water that is recycled and used in the catalysing step b). (google.es)
  • IUPAC
  • The accepted IUPAC name of water is oxidane or simply water,or its equivalent in different languages, although there are other systematic names which can be used to describe the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarized form of the water molecule, H+ OH− , is also called hydron hydroxide by IUPAC nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • steam
  • This can deliver benefits for an oil refinery because it is more efficient than separate hydrogen, steam and power plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations have varied widely over the Earth's 4.54 billion year history. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The production of free oxygen by cyanobacterial photosynthesis eventually led to the oxygen catastrophe that ended Earth's second atmosphere and brought about the Earth's third atmosphere (the modern atmosphere) 2.4 billion years before the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • ammonia
  • Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C - the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere, though there are liquid-water-based microbes on Earth that thrive on methane or produce it as a waste product. (spacefellowship.com)
  • The new hydrogen findings are consistent with conditions that could produce an exotic, methane-based life form, but do not definitively prove its existence, said Darrell Strobel, a Cassini interdisciplinary scientist based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md., who authored the paper on hydrogen. (spacefellowship.com)
  • The long coiled polymeric molecules make the brownish substance elastic, and in bulk this form has the feel of crude rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and serve the plant as defense against herbivores . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One form of the fuel known as RP-1 is burned with liquid oxygen as rocket fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • petroleum
  • Dibenzothiophenes (see drawing), tricyclic heterocycles consisting of two benzene rings fused to a central thiophene ring, occurs widely in heavier fractions of petroleum. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • 10. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the combining step c) comprises the step of adding to the solution of bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions obtained in step b) an electron donor. (google.es)
  • substance
  • On Titan, where temperatures are around 90 Kelvin (minus 290 degrees Fahrenheit), a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes, but not water itself. (spacefellowship.com)
  • production and consumption
  • Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that current, global, economic growth and development can not be sustained with the current production and consumption patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Resource efficiency is the reduction of the environmental impact from the production and consumption of these goods, from final raw material extraction to last use and disposal. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4,5 Thus in an ideal scenario, there should be a balance between CO 2 production and consumption, but unfortunately this has been disrupted. (rsc.org)
  • yield
  • For example, bitter almonds (as opposed to sweet almonds) can yield dangerous amounts of prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide) when eaten raw, but the toxicity can be removed by heating. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • liquid
  • While liquid water is widely regarded as necessary for life, there has been extensive speculation published in the scientific literature that this is not a strict requirement. (spacefellowship.com)
  • Liquid oxygen has a pale blue color and is strongly paramagnetic: it can be suspended between the poles of a powerful horseshoe magnet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen has an expansion ratio of 1:861 under 1 standard atmosphere (100 kPa) and 20 °C (68 °F), and because of this, it is used in some commercial and military aircraft as transportable source of breathing oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its cryogenic nature, liquid oxygen can cause the materials it touches to become extremely brittle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen is also a very powerful oxidizing agent: organic materials will burn rapidly and energetically in liquid oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tetraoxygen molecule (O4) was first predicted in 1924 by Gilbert N. Lewis, who proposed it to explain why liquid oxygen defied Curie's law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern computer simulations indicate that although there are no stable O4 molecules in liquid oxygen, O2 molecules do tend to associate in pairs with antiparallel spins, forming transient O4 units. (wikipedia.org)
  • In commerce, liquid oxygen is classified as an industrial gas and is widely used for industrial and medical purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen is obtained from the oxygen found naturally in air by fractional distillation in a cryogenic air separation plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen is a common cryogenic liquid oxidizer propellant for spacecraft rocket applications, usually in combination with liquid hydrogen, kerosene or methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen is useful in this role because it creates a high specific impulse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen was also used in some early ICBMs, although more modern ICBMs do not use liquid oxygen because its cryogenic properties and need for regular replenishment to replace boiloff make it harder to maintain and launch quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many modern rockets use liquid oxygen, including the main engines on the now-retired Space Shuttle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first measurable quantity of liquid oxygen was produced by Polish professors Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski (Jagiellonian University in Kraków) on April 5, 1883. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noncollinear magnetism in liquid oxygen: A first-principles molecular dynamics study" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline is the most widely used liquid fuel. (wikipedia.org)