• gases
  • An alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the quality of the feedstock (natural gas, rich gases, naphtha, etc.), one ton of hydrogen produced will also produce 9 to 12 tons of CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • gaseous
  • Air forces have long recognized the strategic importance of liquid oxygen, both as an Oxidizer and as a supply of gaseous oxygen for breathing in hospitals and high-altitude aircraft flights. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gaseous CO2 emissions from processes such as hydrocarbon reforming are transformed into carbonate or bicarbonate ions and hydrogen. (google.es)
  • Gaseous CO 2 emissions from processes such as hydrocarbon reforming are transformed into carbonate or bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions by the enzymatic system in order to prevent their contribution to the greenhouse effect. (google.es)
  • extracting gaseous hydrogen from the mixture and supplying the gaseous hydrogen to the hydrogen fuel cell. (google.es)
  • a transfer means for transferring the gaseous hydrogen from the combiner to the hydrogen fuel cell. (google.es)
  • Consequently, the catalytic reactions of gaseous species with oxygen sites on the surface induce charge transfer from the surface to the bulk, which changes the electrical resistance of the device. (mdpi.com)
  • atom
  • As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 In a second stage, additional hydrogen is generated through the lower-temperature, exothermic, water gas shift reaction, performed at about 360 °C: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 Essentially, the oxygen (O) atom is stripped from the additional water (steam) to oxidize CO to CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol
  • however, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel (for automotive uses), ethanol, and biodiesel, which are also categorized as a liquid fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative instability of the carbon-oxygen bonds in the molecule is revealed by the comparison in the table of the energy required to break two C-O bonds in the ethylene oxide or one C-O bond in ethanol and dimethyl ether: This instability correlates with its high reactivity, explaining the ease of its ring-opening reactions (see Chemical properties). (wikipedia.org)
  • Helium
  • After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • ammonium
  • The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F). Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. (wikipedia.org)
  • As salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (HCN, or hydrocyanic acid), cyanides are formed by replacing the hydrogen of hydrogen cyanide with a metal, such as sodium or potassium , or by replacing the hydrogen with a radical (such as ammonium). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • steam
  • This can deliver benefits for an oil refinery because it is more efficient than separate hydrogen, steam and power plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • The asymmetrical shape of the molecule arises from a tendency of the four electron pairs in the valence shell of oxygen to arrange themselves symmetrically at the vertices of a tetrahedron around the oxygen nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 10. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the combining step c) comprises the step of adding to the solution of bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions obtained in step b) an electron donor. (google.es)
  • inorganic
  • They take up simple substances such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, as well as inorganic nutrients and produce biological molecules needed for life from the inorganic substances. (scribd.com)
  • At the end of the MBR operation (day 726), the enriched biomass was incubated with 13C labeled methane, 13C labeled inorganic carbon was produced and the AOM rate based on 13C-inorganic carbon was 1.2 μmol.gdw−1.d−1. (feedage.com)
  • This invention is concerned with the use of porous inorganic membranes, particularly anodic aluminium oxide membranes as catalyst supports Porous alumina ceramics are very well known and widely used as catalyst supports. (google.com)
  • form
  • Scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere, though there are liquid-water-based microbes on Earth that thrive on methane or produce it as a waste product. (spacefellowship.com)
  • The new hydrogen findings are consistent with conditions that could produce an exotic, methane-based life form, but do not definitively prove its existence, said Darrell Strobel, a Cassini interdisciplinary scientist based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md., who authored the paper on hydrogen. (spacefellowship.com)
  • Hydrogen can react spontaneously and violently at room temperature with chlorine and fluorine to form the corresponding hydrogen halides, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, which are also potentially dangerous acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The long coiled polymeric molecules make the brownish substance elastic, and in bulk this form has the feel of crude rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically, water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen, having the formula H 2 O. It is chemically active, reacting with certain metals and metal oxides to form bases, and with certain oxides of nonmetals to form acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and serve the plant as defense against herbivores . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One form of the fuel known as RP-1 is burned with liquid oxygen as rocket fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarized form of the water molecule, H+ OH− , is also called hydron hydroxide by IUPAC nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • dimethyl sulfoxide is widely used as solvents and reagents, particularly as the processing reagent and spinning solvent at the reaction of acrylonitrile polymerization used for polyurethane synthesis and the spinning solvent. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Finally, water, a by-product of the oxidizing reaction of the hydrogen fuel cell, is recovered and recycled back into the aqueous enzymatic system. (google.es)
  • The resulting endothermic reaction breaks up the methane molecules and forms carbon monoxide CO and hydrogen H2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the previous process, the formation of hydrogen from oil is done with a water-gas shift reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • generates
  • 7. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the hydrogen fuel cell also generates, in step d), water that is recycled and used in the catalysing step b). (google.es)
  • IUPAC
  • The accepted IUPAC name of water is oxidane or simply water,or its equivalent in different languages, although there are other systematic names which can be used to describe the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations have varied widely over the Earth's 4.54 billion year history. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The production of free oxygen by cyanobacterial photosynthesis eventually led to the oxygen catastrophe that ended Earth's second atmosphere and brought about the Earth's third atmosphere (the modern atmosphere) 2.4 billion years before the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • ammonia
  • Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 million tons of hydrogen were consumed on-site in oil refining, and in the production of ammonia (Haber process) and methanol (reduction of carbon monoxide). (wikipedia.org)
  • Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C - the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereby
  • The various cyanides are salts or esters of HCN (hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid), whereby the hydrogen is replaced with a metal or radical, yielding such as potassium cyanide (KCN), calcium cyanide (CA(CN) 2 ), or ethyl cyanide (CH 3 CH 2 CN). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • substance
  • On Titan, where temperatures are around 90 Kelvin (minus 290 degrees Fahrenheit), a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes, but not water itself. (spacefellowship.com)
  • water
  • While liquid water is widely regarded as necessary for life, there has been extensive speculation published in the scientific literature that this is not a strict requirement. (spacefellowship.com)
  • Because of hydrogen bonding between water molecules, the latent heats latent heat, heat change associated with a change of state or phase (see states of matter). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other systematic names for water include hydroxic acid, hydroxylic acid, and hydrogen hydroxide, using acid and base names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other analogous hydrides of the oxygen family, water is primarily a liquid under standard conditions due to hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • For example, bitter almonds (as opposed to sweet almonds) can yield dangerous amounts of prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide) when eaten raw, but the toxicity can be removed by heating. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • liquid oxygen
  • Liquid oxygen has a pale blue color and is strongly paramagnetic: it can be suspended between the poles of a powerful horseshoe magnet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen has an expansion ratio of 1:861 under 1 standard atmosphere (100 kPa) and 20 °C (68 °F), and because of this, it is used in some commercial and military aircraft as transportable source of breathing oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its cryogenic nature, liquid oxygen can cause the materials it touches to become extremely brittle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen is also a very powerful oxidizing agent: organic materials will burn rapidly and energetically in liquid oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tetraoxygen molecule (O4) was first predicted in 1924 by Gilbert N. Lewis, who proposed it to explain why liquid oxygen defied Curie's law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern computer simulations indicate that although there are no stable O4 molecules in liquid oxygen, O2 molecules do tend to associate in pairs with antiparallel spins, forming transient O4 units. (wikipedia.org)
  • In commerce, liquid oxygen is classified as an industrial gas and is widely used for industrial and medical purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen is obtained from the oxygen found naturally in air by fractional distillation in a cryogenic air separation plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen is a common cryogenic liquid oxidizer propellant for spacecraft rocket applications, usually in combination with liquid hydrogen, kerosene or methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen is useful in this role because it creates a high specific impulse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid oxygen was also used in some early ICBMs, although more modern ICBMs do not use liquid oxygen because its cryogenic properties and need for regular replenishment to replace boiloff make it harder to maintain and launch quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many modern rockets use liquid oxygen, including the main engines on the now-retired Space Shuttle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first measurable quantity of liquid oxygen was produced by Polish professors Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski (Jagiellonian University in Kraków) on April 5, 1883. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • This lack of acetylene is important because that chemical would likely be the best energy source for a methane-based life on Titan, said Chris McKay, an astrobiologist at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., who proposed a set of conditions necessary for this kind of methane-based life on Titan in 2005. (spacefellowship.com)
  • Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prefix cyano is used in chemical nomenclature to indicate the presence of a nitrile group in a molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)